The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Robert White Creeley was an American poet and author of more than sixty books. He is associated with the Black Mountain poets, though his verse aesthetic diverged from that school's, he was close with Robert Duncan, Allen Ginsberg, John Wieners and Ed Dorn. He served as the Samuel P. Capen Professor of Poetry and the Humanities at State University of New York at Buffalo. In 1991, he joined colleagues Susan Howe, Charles Bernstein, Raymond Federman, Robert Bertholf, Dennis Tedlock in founding the Poetics Program at Buffalo. Creeley lived in Waldoboro, Buffalo, New York, Providence, Rhode Island, where he taught at Brown University, he was a recipient of the Lannan Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award. Creeley was born in Arlington and grew up in Acton, he and his sister, were raised by their mother. At the age of two, he lost his left eye, he attended the Holderness School in New Hampshire. In 1943, he entered Harvard University, but left to serve in the American Field Service in Burma and India in 1944–1945.
He returned to Harvard in 1946, but earned his BA from Black Mountain College in 1955, teaching some courses there as well. After teaching in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Creeley visited San Francisco for two months in the spring of 1956, having heard from Kenneth Rexroth about a local poetic "renaissance" underway. There he met Allen Ginsberg, who had completed Howl, befriended Jack Kerouac. Creeley met and befriended Jackson Pollock at the Cedar Tavern in New York City, he was a chicken farmer in Littleton, New Hampshire before becoming a teacher in 1949. The story goes that he wrote to Cid Corman, whose radio show he heard on the farm, Corman had him read on the show, how Charles Olson first heard of Creeley. From 1951 to 1955, Creeley and his wife, lived with their three children on the Spanish island of Mallorca, they went there at the encouragement of their friends, British writer Martin Seymour-Smith and his wife, Janet. There they started Divers Press and published works by Paul Blackburn, Robert Duncan, Charles Olson, others.
Creeley wrote about half of his published prose while living on the island, including a short-story collection, The Gold Diggers, a novel, The Island. He said that Janet Seymour-Smith are represented by Artie and Marge in the novel. During 1954 and 1955, Creeley traveled back and forth between Mallorca and his teaching position at Black Mountain College, he saw to the printing of some issues of Origin and Black Mountain Review on Mallorca, because the printing costs were lower there. In 1960, Creeley earned an MA from the University of New Mexico, he began his academic career by teaching at the prestigious Albuquerque Academy starting in 1958 until about 1960 or 1961. In 1957, he met Bobbie Louise Hawkins, he dedicated his book For Love to Bobbie. Creeley read at the 1965 Berkeley Poetry Conference. Afterward, he wandered about a bit before settling into the English faculty of "Black Mountain II" at the University at Buffalo in 1967, he would stay at this post until 2003. From 1990 to 2003, he lived with his family in Black Rock, in a converted firehouse at the corner of Amherst and East Streets.
At the time of his death, he was in residence with the Lannan Foundation in Texas. Creeley first received fame in 1962 from his poetry collection For Love, he would go on to win the Bollingen Prize, among others, to hold the position of New York State Poet laureate from 1989 until 1991. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2003. In 1968, he signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. In his years he was an advocate of, a mentor to, many younger poets, as well as to others outside of the poetry world, he went to great lengths to be supportive to many people regardless of any poetic affiliation. Being responsive appeared to be essential to his personal ethics, he seemed to take this responsibility seriously, in both his life and his craft. In his years, when he became well-known, he would go to lengths to make strangers, who approached him as a well-known author, feel comfortable. In his last years, he used the Internet to keep in touch with friends.
Robert Creeley died in the morning of March 30, 2005, in Odessa, Texas of complications from pneumonia. He is buried in Massachusetts. In 2016, a short documentary was made about Robert Creeley's son, Will Creeley, in which Will shared stories of his father's legacy and their relationship; the film was entitled, "For Will". Arthur L. Ford in his book Robert Creeley describes the poet, Creeley has long been aware that he is part of a definable tradition in the American poetry of this century, so long as'tradition' is thought of in general terms and so long as it recognizes crucial distinctions among its members; the tradition most visible to the general public has been the Eliot-Stevens tradition supported by the intellectual probings of the New Critics in the 1940s and early 1950s. Parallel to that tradition has been the tradition Creeley identifies with, the Pound-Olson-Zukofsky-Black Mountain tradition, what M. L. Rosenthal calls'The Projectivist Movement.' This "movement" Rosenthal derives from Olson's essay on "Projective Verse."
Le Fou, Creeley's first book, was published in 1952, since according to his publisher a year passed without a new collection of
Marsden Hartley was an American Modernist painter and essayist. Hartley was born in Lewiston, where his English parents had settled, he was the youngest of nine children. His mother died when he was eight, his father remarried four years to Martha Marsden, his birth name was Edmund Hartley. A few years after his mother's death when Hartley was 14, his family moved to Ohio, leaving him behind in Maine to work in a shoe factory for a year; these bleak occurrences led Hartley to recall his New England childhood as a time of painful loneliness, so much so that in a letter to Alfred Stieglitz, he once described the New England accent as "a sad recollection rushed into my flesh like sharpened knives."After he joined his family in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1892, Hartley began his art training at the Cleveland School of Art, where he held a scholarship. In 1898, at age 22, Hartley moved to New York City to study painting at the New York School of Art under William Merritt Chase, attended the National Academy of Design.
Hartley was a great admirer of Albert Pinkham Ryder and visited his studio in Greenwich Village as as possible. His friendship with Ryder, in addition to the writings of Walt Whitman and American transcendentalists Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson, inspired Hartley to view art as a spiritual quest. Hartley moved to an abandoned farm near Lovell, Maine, in 1908, he considered the paintings he produced there his first mature works, they impressed New York photographer and art promoter Alfred Stieglitz. Hartley had his first solo exhibition at Stieglitz's 291 in 1909, exhibited his work there again in 1912. Stieglitz provided Hartley's introduction to European modernist painters, of whom Cézanne and Matisse would prove the most influential upon him. Hartley first traveled to Europe in April 1912, he became acquainted with Gertrude Stein's circle of avante-garde writers and artists in Paris. Stein, along with Sherwood Anderson, encouraged Hartley to write as well as paint. In 1913, Hartley moved to Berlin, where he continued to paint and befriended the painters Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc.
He collected Bavarian folk art. His work during this period was a combination of abstraction and German Expressionism, fueled by his personal brand of mysticism. Many of Hartley's Berlin paintings were further inspired by the German military pageantry on display, though his view of this subject changed after the outbreak of World War I, once war was no longer "a romantic but a real reality." The earliest of his Berlin paintings were shown in the landmark 1913 Armory Show in New York. In Berlin, Hartley developed a close relationship with a Prussian lieutenant, Karl von Freyburg, the cousin of Hartley's friend Arnold Ronnebeck. References to Freyburg were a recurring motif in Hartley's work, most notably in Portrait of a German Officer. Freyburg's subsequent death during the war hit Hartley hard, he afterward idealized their relationship. Many scholars interpreted his work regarding Freyburg as embodying his homosexual feelings for him. Hartley returned to the U. S. in early 1916. He lived in Europe again from 1921 to 1930, when he moved back to the U.
S. for good. He painted throughout the country, in Massachusetts, New Mexico and New York, he returned to Maine in 1937, after declaring that he wanted to become "the painter of Maine" and depict American life at a local level. This aligned Hartley with the Regionalism movement, a group of artists active from the early- to mid-20th century that attempted to represent a distinctly "American art." He continued to paint in Maine scenes around Lovell and the Corea coast, until his death in Ellsworth in 1943. His ashes were scattered on the Androscoggin River. In addition to being considered one of the foremost American painters of the first half of the 20th century, Hartley wrote poems and stories, his book Twenty-five Poems was published by Robert McAlmon in Paris in 1923. Cleophas and His Own: A North Atlantic Tragedy is a story based on two periods he spent in 1935 and 1936 with the Mason family in the Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, fishing community of East Point Island. Hartley in his late 50s, found there both an innocent, unrestrained love and the sense of family he had been seeking since his unhappy childhood in Maine.
The impact of this experience lasted until his death in 1943 and helped widen the scope of his mature works, which included numerous portrayals of the Masons. He wrote of the Masons, "Five magnificent chapters out of an amazing, human book, these beautiful human beings, tender, courageous, kind, so like the salt of the sea, the grit of the earth, the sheer face of the cliff." In Cleophas and His Own, written in Nova Scotia in the fall of 1936 and re-printed in Marsden Hartley and Nova Scotia, Hartley expresses his immense grief at the tragic drowning of the Mason sons. The independent filmmaker Michael Maglaras has created a feature film Cleophas and His Own, released in 2005, which uses a personal testament by Hartley as its screenplay. A catalogue raisonné of Hartley's work is underway by art historian Gail Levin, Distinguished Professor at Baruch College, The Graduate Center of The City University of New York. Quotations related to Marsden Hartley at Wikiquote Media related to Marsden Hartley at Wikimedia Commons Marsden Hartley discussed in Conversations from Penn State interview Works by Marsden Hartley at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Marsden Hartley at Internet Archive Scans of Hartley's Adventures in the arts: informal chapters on painters and poets The Importance o
Percy Wyndham Lewis was an English writer and critic. He was a co-founder of the Vorticist movement in art, edited the literary magazine of the Vorticists, BLAST, his novels include his pre-World War I-era novel Tarr, The Human Age, a trilogy comprising The Childermass, Monstre Gai and Malign Fiesta, set in the afterworld. A fourth volume of The Human Age, The Trial of Man, was begun by Lewis but left in a fragmentary state at the time of his death, he wrote two autobiographical volumes and Bombardiering and Rude Assignment: A Narrative of my Career Up-to-Date. Lewis was reputedly born on his father's yacht off the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, his British mother and American father separated about 1893. His mother subsequently returned to England, where Lewis was educated, first at Rugby School, at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College, before spending most of the 1900s travelling around Europe and studying art in Paris. Residing in London from 1908, Lewis published his first work in Ford Madox Ford's The English Review in 1909.
He was a founder-member of the Camden Town Group in 1911. In 1912 he exhibited his Cubo-Futurist illustrations to Timon of Athens and three major oil paintings at the second Post-Impressionist exhibition; this brought him into close contact with the Bloomsbury Group Roger Fry and Clive Bell, with whom he soon fell out. In 1912 he was commissioned to produce a decorative mural, a drop curtain, more designs for The Cave of the Golden Calf, an avant-garde cabaret and nightclub on London's Heddon Street, it was in the years 1913–15 that he developed the style of geometric abstraction for which he is best known today, a style which his friend Ezra Pound dubbed "Vorticism." Lewis found the strong structure of Cubist painting appealing, but said it did not seem "alive" compared to Futurist art, conversely, lacked structure. Vorticism combined the two movements in a strikingly dramatic critique of modernity. In his early visual works versions of village life in Brittany showing dancers, Lewis may have been influenced by the process philosophy of Henri Bergson, whose lectures he attended in Paris.
Though he was savagely critical of Bergson, he admitted in a letter to Theodore Weiss that he "began by embracing his evolutionary system." Nietzsche was an important influence. After a brief tenure at the Omega Workshops, Lewis quarrelled with the founder, Roger Fry, over a commission to provide wall decorations for the Daily Mail Ideal Home Exhibition, which Lewis believed Fry had misappropriated, he walked out with several Omega artists to start a competing workshop called the Rebel Art Centre. The Centre operated for only four months, but it gave birth to the Vorticist group and the publication, BLAST. In BLAST Lewis wrote the group's manifesto, several essays expounding his Vorticist aesthetic, a modernist drama, "Enemy of the Stars"; the magazine included reproductions of now lost Vorticist works by Lewis and others. After the Vorticists' only U. K. exhibition in 1915, the movement broke up as a result of World War I, though Lewis's patron, John Quinn, organised a Vorticist exhibition at the Penguin Club in New York in 1917.
Lewis was posted to the western front, served as a second lieutenant in the Royal Artillery. Much of his time was spent in Forward Observation Posts looking down at deserted German lines, registering targets and calling down fire from batteries massed around the rim of the Ypres Salient, it was dangerous work and he made vivid accounts of narrow misses and deadly artillery duels. After the Third Battle of Ypres in 1917, he was appointed as an official war artist for both the Canadian and British governments, beginning work in December 1917. For the Canadians he painted A Canadian Gun-Pit from sketches made on Vimy Ridge. For the British he painted one of his best known works, A Battery Shelled, drawing on his own experience in charge of a 6-inch howitzer at Ypres. Lewis exhibited his war drawings and some other paintings of the war in an exhibition, "Guns," in 1918, his first novel Tarr was published in book-form in 1918, having been serialised in The Egoist during 1916–17. It is regarded as one of the key modernist texts.
Lewis documented his experiences and opinions of this period of his life in the autobiographical Blasting and Bombardiering, which covered his life up to 1926. After the war, Lewis resumed his career as a painter, with a major exhibition and Portraits, at the Leicester Galleries in 1921. "Tyros" were satirical caricatural figures intended by Lewis to comment on the culture of the "new epoch" that succeeded the First World War. A Reading of Ovid and Mr Wyndham Lewis as a Tyro are the only surviving oil paintings from this series; as part of the same project, Lewis launched his second magazine, The Tyro, of which there were only two issues. The second contained an important statement of Lewis's visual aesthetic: "Essay on the Objective of Plastic Art in our Time", it was during the early 1920s. By the late 1920s, he was not painting so much, but instead concentrating on writing, he launched yet another magazine, The Enemy written by himself and declaring its belligerent critical stance in its title.
The magazine, the theoretical and critical work
John Fante was an American novelist, short story writer and screenwriter. He is best known for his semi-autobiographical novel Ask the Dust about the life of a struggling writer, Arturo Bandini, in Depression-era Los Angeles, it is considered the great Los Angeles novel and is one in a series of four novels, published between 1938 and 1985, that are now collectively called "The Bandini Quartet". Ask the Dust was adapted into a film made in 2006, starring Colin Farrell. In his lifetime, Fante published five novels, one novella, a short story collection. Additional works, including two novels, two novellas, two short story collections, were published posthumously, his screenwriting credits include, most notably, Full of Life, based on his 1952 novel by that name, Jeanne Eagels, the 1962 films Walk on the Wild Side and The Reluctant Saint. Fante was born in Denver, Colorado, on April 8, 1909, to Nicola Fante from Torricella Peligna, Mary Capolungo of Lucanian descent, he attended various Catholic schools in Boulder, before enrolling at the University of Colorado.
He moved to Southern California to focus on his writing. Fante and Joyce Smart met on January 30, 1937, were married on July 31 of that same year in Reno, Nevada. After many unsuccessful attempts at publishing stories in the regarded literary magazine The American Mercury, his short story "Altar Boy" was accepted conditionally by the magazine's editor, H. L. Mencken. With Mencken's help, Fante published his first novel, Wait Until Spring, Bandini in 1938; the following year, the semi-autobiographical Ask the Dust, appeared. Bandini served as his alter ego in a total of four novels known as "The Bandini Quartet": Wait Until Spring, The Road to Los Angeles, Ask the Dust and Dreams from Bunker Hill, dictated to his wife, towards the end of his life, his short story collection, Dago Red, was published in 1940, republished with a few additional stories in 1985 under the title The Wine of Youth. Starting in the 1950s, Fante made a living as a screenwriter, building a lucrative career writing unproduced screenplays.
Fante's screenwriting credits include the comedy-drama Full of Life, based on his 1952 novel of the same name, which starred Judy Holliday and Richard Conte, was nominated for Best Written American Comedy at the 1957 WGA Awards. He co-wrote Walk on the Wild Side, which stars Jane Fonda in her second credited film role, based on the novel by Nelson Algren, his other screenplay credits include Dinky, Jeanne Eagels, My Man and I, The Reluctant Saint, Something for a Lonely Man and Six Loves. As Fante himself admitted, most of what he wrote for the screen was hackwork intended to bring in a paycheck. In the late 1970s, at the suggestion of novelist and poet Charles Bukowski, who had accidentally discovered Fante's work in the Los Angeles Public Library, Black Sparrow Press began to republish the works of Fante, creating a resurgence in his popularity. Fante was diagnosed with diabetes in 1955, which cost him his eyesight and led to the 1977 amputation of his toes and feet, legs, he died on May 8, 1983.
Fante and Joyce raised four children in Malibu, including Dan Fante, an author and playwright who died in 2015. He is known to be one of the first writers to portray the tough times faced by many writers in Los Angeles referred to as "the quintessential L. A. novelist." He has been cited as a precursor to Beat writers. Robert Towne has called Ask the Dust the greatest novel written about Los Angeles. Michael Tolkin said. More than 60 years after it was published, Ask the Dust appeared for several weeks on the New York Times' Best Sellers List. Fante's work and style have influenced similar authors such as Charles Bukowski, who stated in his introduction to Ask the Dust that "Fante was my god". Bukowski dedicated poems to Fante, in the early part of his career was said to go around shouting, "I am Arturo Bandini!" in reference to Fante's alter ego. In his 1978 novel Women, Bukowski's alter ego Henry Chinaski is asked to name his favorite author and he replies, "Fante."Fante wrote about writing and the people and places where he lived and worked, which included Wilmington, Long Beach, Manhattan Beach, the Bunker Hill district of downtown Los Angeles, as well as various homes in Hollywood, Echo Park and Malibu.
Recurring themes in Fante's work are poverty, family life, Italian-American identity and the writing life. Fante's clear voice, vivid characters, shoot-from-the-hip style, painful, emotional honesty blended with humor and scrupulous self-criticism lends his books to wide appreciation. Most of his novels and stories take place either in California. Many of his novels and short stories feature or focus on fictional incarnations of Fante's father, Nick Fante, as a cantankerous wine tippling, cigar stub-smoking bricklayer. In 1987, Fante was posthumously awarded the PEN USA President's Award. On October 13, 2009, Los Angeles City Council member Jan Perry put forward a motion, seconded by Jose Huizar, that the intersection of Fifth Street and Grand Avenue be designated John Fante Square; the site is outside the Los Angeles Central Library frequented by the young Fante, where Charles Bukowski discovered Ask The Dust. On April 8, 2010, the author's 101st birthday, the Fante Square sign was unveiled in a noon ceremony attended by Fante's family
Andrei Codrescu is a Romanian-American poet, essayist and commentator for National Public Radio. He was the Mac Curdy Distinguished Professor of English at Louisiana State University from 1984 until his retirement in 2009. Born Andrei Perlmutter, he published his first poems in Romanian under the pen name Andrei Steiu. In 1965 he and his mother, a photographer and printer, were able to leave Romania after Israel paid US$2,000 for each to the Romanian communist regime. After some time in Italy, they moved to the United States in 1966, settled in Detroit, where he became a regular at John Sinclair’s Artists and Writers’ Workshop. A year he moved to New York, where he became part of the literary scene on the Lower East Side. There he met Allen Ginsberg, Ted Berrigan, Anne Waldman, published his first poems in English. In 1970, his poetry book, License to Carry a Gun, won the "Big Table Award", he moved to San Francisco in 1970, lived on the West Coast for seven years, four of those in Monte Rio, a Sonoma County town on the Russian River.
He lived in Baltimore, New Orleans and Baton Rouge, publishing a book every year. During this time he wrote poetry, stories and reviews for many publications, including The New York Times, the Chicago Tribune, the Los Angeles Times, Harper's, the Paris Review, he had regular columns in The Baltimore Sun, the City Paper, Funny Times, Gambit Weekly, Neon. Codrescu has been a regular commentator on National Public Radio's news program, All Things Considered, since 1983, he won the 1995 Peabody Award for the film Road Scholar, an American road saga that he wrote and starred in, is a two-time winner of the Pushcart Prize, once in 1983. In 1989, Codrescu covered the Romanian Revolution of 1989 for National Public Radio and ABC News's Nightline, his renewed interest in the Romanian language and literature led to new work written in Romanian, including “Miracle and Catastrophe”, a book-length interview conducted by the theologian Robert Lazu, “The Forgiven Submarine”, an epic poem written in collaboration with poet Ruxandra Cesereanu, which won the 2008 Romania Radio Cultural award.
His books were translated into Romanian by Ioana Avadani, Ioana Ieronim, Carmen Firan, Rodica Grigore, Lacrimioara Stoie. In 2002 he returned to Romania with a PBS Frontline World video crew to "take the temperature" of his homeland and produced the story, "My Old Haunts." In 2005 he was awarded the prestigious international Ovidius Prize, previous winners of which include Mario Vargas Llosa, Amos Oz, Orhan Pamuk. In 1981, Codrescu became a naturalized citizen of the United States, he is the editor and founder of the online journal Exquisite Corpse, a journal of “books and ideas”. He reigned as King of the Krewe du Vieux for the 2002 New Orleans Mardi Gras season, he has two children and Tristan, from his marriage to Alice Henderson. He is married to Laura Cole. Codrescu's archive and much of his personal library are now part of the Louisiana State University Libraries Special Collections, his first wife was Aurelia Munteanu, his second wife was Alice Henderson. He has two sons and Tristan Codrescu.
MacCurdy Distinguished Professor of English, Louisiana State University Peabody Award for Road Scholar Lowell Thomas Gold Award for Excellence in Travel Journalism National Endowment for the Arts Fellowships for poetry. 2007: Femeia neagră a unui culcuş de hoţi, Bucharest: Editura Vinea. 2006: New Orleans, Mon Amour: Twenty Years of Writing from the City, New York and Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books. 2006: Miracol şi catastrofă: Dialogues in Cyberspace with Robert Lazu, Timişoara, Romania: Editura Hartman. 2004: Wakefield: a novel, New York and Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books. 2003: It Was Today: New Poems Minneapolis: Coffee House Press 2002: Casanova in Bohemia, a novel New York: The Free Press 2001: An Involuntary Genius in America’s Shoes, Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press, Re-issue of The Life & Times of an Involuntary Genius, 1976, In America's Shoes, 1983, with new forward and coda-essay. 2000: The Devil Never Sleeps & Other Essays. New York: St. Martin's Press. Essays. 2000: Poezii alese/Selected Poetry, bi-lingual edition and Romanian Bucharest: Editura Paralela 45.
1999: A Bar in Brooklyn: Novellas & Stories, 1970-1978 Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press. 1999: Messiah, a novel. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1999: Hail Babylon! Looking for the American City at the End of the Millennium. New York: St. Martin's Press 1999, New York and London: Picador, 1999. Essays. 1999: Ay, Cuba! A Socio-Erotic Journey. With photographs by David Graham. New York: St. Martin's Press, New York and London: Picador. Travel/Essay. 1997: The Dog With the C
D. H. Lawrence
David Herbert Lawrence was an English writer and poet. His collected works represent, among other things, an extended reflection upon the dehumanising effects of modernity and industrialisation; some of the issues Lawrence explores are sexuality, emotional health, vitality and instinct. Lawrence's opinions earned him many enemies and he endured official persecution and misrepresentation of his creative work throughout the second half of his life, much of which he spent in a voluntary exile he called his "savage pilgrimage". At the time of his death, his public reputation was that of a pornographer who had wasted his considerable talents. E. M. Forster, in an obituary notice, challenged this held view, describing him as "the greatest imaginative novelist of our generation." The literary critic F. R. Leavis championed both his artistic integrity and his moral seriousness; the fourth child of Arthur John Lawrence, a literate miner at Brinsley Colliery, Lydia Beardsall, a former pupil teacher, forced to perform manual work in a lace factory due to her family's financial difficulties, Lawrence spent his formative years in the coal mining town of Eastwood, Nottinghamshire.
The house in which he was born, 8a Victoria Street, is now the D. H. Lawrence Birthplace Museum, his working-class background and the tensions between his parents provided the raw material for a number of his early works. Lawrence roamed out from an early age in the patches of open, hilly country and remaining fragments of Sherwood Forest in Felley woods to the north of Eastwood, beginning a lifelong appreciation of the natural world, he wrote about "the country of my heart" as a setting for much of his fiction; the young Lawrence attended Beauvale Board School from 1891 until 1898, becoming the first local pupil to win a county council scholarship to Nottingham High School in nearby Nottingham. He left in 1901, working for three months as a junior clerk at Haywood's surgical appliances factory, but a severe bout of pneumonia ended this career. During his convalescence he visited Hagg's Farm, the home of the Chambers family, began a friendship with Jessie Chambers. An important aspect of this relationship with Chambers and other adolescent acquaintances was a shared love of books, an interest that lasted throughout Lawrence's life.
In the years 1902 to 1906 Lawrence served as a pupil teacher at the British Eastwood. He went on to become a full-time student and received a teaching certificate from University College, Nottingham, in 1908. During these early years he was working on his first poems, some short stories, a draft of a novel, to become The White Peacock. At the end of 1907 he won a short story competition in the Nottinghamshire Guardian, the first time that he had gained any wider recognition for his literary talents. In the autumn of 1908, the newly qualified Lawrence left his childhood home for London. While teaching in Davidson Road School, Croydon, he continued writing. Jessie Chambers submitted some of Lawrence's early poetry to Ford Madox Ford, editor of the influential The English Review. Hueffer commissioned the story Odour of Chrysanthemums which, when published in that magazine, encouraged Heinemann, a London publisher, to ask Lawrence for more work, his career as a professional author now began in earnest.
Shortly after the final proofs of his first published novel, The White Peacock, appeared in 1910, Lawrence's mother died of cancer. The young man was devastated, he was to describe the next few months as his "sick year", it is clear that Lawrence had an close relationship with his mother, his grief became a major turning point in his life, just as the death of Mrs. Morel is a major turning point in his autobiographical novel Sons and Lovers, a work that draws upon much of the writer's provincial upbringing. Concerned with the emotional battle for Lawrence's love between his mother and "Miriam", the novel documents Paul's brief intimate relationship with Miriam that Lawrence had initiated in the Christmas of 1909, ending it in August 1910; the hurt caused to Jessie by this and by her portrayal in the novel caused the end of their friendship and after it was published they never spoke to each other again. In 1911, Lawrence was introduced to Edward Garnett, a publisher's reader, who acted as a mentor, provided further encouragement, became a valued friend, as did his son David.
Throughout these months, the young author revised Paul Morel, the first draft of what became Sons and Lovers. In addition, a teaching colleague, Helen Corke, gave him access to her intimate diaries about an unhappy love affair, which formed the basis of The Trespasser, his second novel. In November 1911, he came down with a pneumonia again. In February 1912, he broke off an engagement to Louie Burrows, an old friend from his days in Nottingham and Eastwood. In March 1912 Lawrence met Frieda Weekley. Six years older than her new lover, she was married to Ernest Weekley, his former modern languages professor at University College and had three young children, she eloped with Lawrence to her parents' home in Metz, a garrison town in Germany near the disputed border with France. Their stay there included Lawrence's first encounter with tensions between Germany and France, when he was arrested a