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Black Square (painting)

Black Square is an iconic painting by Kazimir Malevich. The first version was done in 1915. Malevich made four variants of which the last is thought to have been painted during the late 1920s or early 1930s. Black Square was first shown in The Last Futurist Exhibition 0,10 in 1915; the work is invoked by critics, historians and artists as the "zero point of painting", referring to the painting's historical significance and paraphrasing Malevich. Malevich painted his first Black Square in 1915, he made four variants, of which the last is thought to have been painted during the late 1920s or early 1930s, despite the author's "1913" inscription on the reverse. The painting is known as Black Square, The Black Square or as Malevich's Black Square, it was first shown in The Last Futurist Exhibition 0,10 in 1915. Forensic detail reveals how Black Square was painted over a more colorful composition. A plurality of art historians and critics refer to Black Square as one of the seminal works of modern art, of abstract art in the Western painterly tradition generally.

Malevich declared the square a work of Suprematism, a movement which he proclaimed but, associated exclusively with the work of Malevich and his apprentice Lissitzky today. The movement did have a handful of supporters amongst the Russian avant garde but it was dwarfed by its sibling constructivism whose manifesto harmonized better with the ideological sentiments of the revolutionary communist government during the early days of Soviet Union. Suprematism may be understood as a transitional phase in the evolution of Russian art, bridging the evolutionary gap between futurism and constructivism; the larger and more universal leap forward represented by the painting, however, is the break between representational painting and abstract painting—a complex transition with which Black Square has become identified and for which it has become one of the key shorthands, touchstones or symbols. The work is invoked by critics, historians and artists as the "zero point of painting", referring to the painting's historical significance as a paraphrase of a number of comments Malevich made about The Black Square in letters to his colleagues and dealers.

Malevich had made some remarks about his painting: "It is from zero, in zero, that the true movement of being begins." "I transformed myself in the zero of form and emerged from nothing to creation, that is, to Suprematism, to the new realism in painting – to non-objective creation." " the experience of pure non-objectivity in the white emptiness of a liberated nothing." Peter Schjeldahl wrote: The brushwork is juicy and brusque: filling in the shapes, fussing with the edges. But the forms are weightless, more like thoughts than like images. You don't look at the picture. Beyond its obvious design flair, the work looks easy. Malevich is monumental not for what he put into pictorial space but for what he took out: bodily experience, the fundamental theme of Western art since the Renaissance, his appeal to Americans isn’t surprising. Apart from a peculiarly Russian mystical tradition, which he exploited—evoking the compact spell of the icon, as a conduit of the divine—his work amounts to a cosmic “Song of the Open Road.”

It conveys sheer, untrammelled possibility. This quality seemed in synch with the Revolution of 1917, it wasn’t—which Malevich was painfully made aware of, first by his rivals in the Russian avant-garde and conclusively, by the regime of Joseph Stalin. The painting's quality has degraded since it was drawn. Peter Schjeldahl writes: The painting looks terrible: crackled and discolored, as if it had spent the past eighty-eight years patching a broken window. In fact, it passed most of that time deep in the Soviet archives, classed among the lowliest of the state's treasures. Malevich, like other members of the Revolutionary-era Russian avant-garde, was thrown into oblivion under Stalin; the axe fell on him in 1930. Accused of "formalism", he was jailed for two months. In 2015, while viewing the Black Square with a microscope, art historians at the Tretyakov Gallery discovered a message underneath its black paint, it was believed to read as "Battle of negroes in a dark cave." The reference was linked to an 1897 comic by French writer Alphonse Allais with the caption: “Combat de Nègres dans une cave pendant la nuit” or “Negroes Fighting in a Cellar at Night.”

The researchers at the State Tretyakov Gallery speculated that Malevich was responding to the joke within Allais' popular work. Red Square painting

Brunswick Heads Nature Reserve

The Brunswick Heads Nature Reserve is a protected nature reserve located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The 221-hectare reserve is situated near Brunswick Heads and contains an intact segment of littoral rainforest. Much of the Australian littoral rainforests have been destroyed for mining or housing. Species of tree include Tuckeroo, Three-veined Laurel, Myrtle Ebony, Wild Quince, Moreton Bay Fig, Broad-leaf Lilly Pilly and Riberry; the rare Stinking Cryptocarya and Scented Acronychia are known from this area. The reserve is a sanctuary for many endangered species of plants and animals which are found in and around the park; these include humpback whales which can be seen during the migration time and common blossom, the smallest fruit bat in the world. Other threatened species found here are the grey-headed flying fox, loggerhead turtles, wallum froglet, pied oystercatchers, beach stone-curlews, etc; the list of endangered rainforest plants includes the Queensland xylosma, scented acronychia and white lace flower.

Protected areas of New South Wales "The Byron Coast Group of Nature Reserves: Plan of management". NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Government of New South Wales. February 1998. ISBN 0-7310-0804-9

Bisk Farm

Bisk Farm is a brand, owned by SAJ Food Products Ltd, a part of the Aparna Group of Companies. It is a fast-moving consumer goods company, headquartered in the city of Kolkata in the Indian State of West Bengal. Since it was formed in the year 2000, Bisk Farm products have been available throughout Eastern and North Eastern India, parts of South and North India; the company aims to market its products across the country. The company produces a total of 97 products from Biscuits, Cakes, Extruded Snacks, Filled Wafers and controls 15% of market share in East India, Britannia being the major competitor in the region; some popular brands are The Top, Spicy, Just Ginger, Cheese Cream. It sells freshly made snacks and sandwiches through its brand-owned "Just Baked" stores, along with desserts like pastries and muffins. Official website