Natalia Alianovna "Natasha" Romanova, colloquial: Black Widow is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by editor and plotter Stan Lee, scripter Don Rico, artist Don Heck, the character debuted in Tales of Suspense #52; the character was introduced as an antagonist of the superhero Iron Man. She defected to the United States, becoming an agent of the fictional spy agency S. H. I. E. L. D. and a member of the superhero team the Avengers. Scarlett Johansson portrays the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Iron Man 2, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel and Avengers: Endgame. Johansson will reprise the role in the prequel film Black Widow; the Black Widow's first appearances were as a recurring, non-costumed, Russian-spy antagonist in the feature "Iron Man", beginning in Tales of Suspense #52. Five issues she recruits the besotted costumed archer and superhero Hawkeye to her cause.
Her government supplies her with her first Black Widow costume and high-tech weaponry, but she defects to the United States after appearing, temporarily brainwashed against the U. S. in the superhero-team series The Avengers #29. The Widow becomes a recurring ally of the team before becoming its sixteenth member many years later; the Black Widow was visually updated in 1970: The Amazing Spider-Man #86 reintroduced her with shoulder-length red hair, a skintight black costume, wristbands which fired spider threads. This would become the appearance most associated with the character. In short order, The Black Widow starred in her own series in Amazing Adventures #1–8, sharing that split book with the feature Inhumans; the Black Widow feature was dropped after only eight issues. After her initial solo feature ended, the Black Widow co-starred in Daredevil #81–124, of which #92-107 were cover titled Daredevil and the Black Widow. Daredevil writer Gerry Conway recounted, "It was my idea to team up Daredevil and the Black Widow because I was a fan of Natasha, thought she and Daredevil would have interesting chemistry."
Succeeding writers, felt that Daredevil worked better as a solo hero, wrote the Black Widow out of the series. She was recast into the super-team series The Champions as the leader of the titular superhero group, which ran for 17 issues. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the Black Widow appeared as both an Avengers member and a freelance agent of S. H. I. E. L. D, she starred in a serialized feature within the omnibus comic-book series Marvel Fanfare #10–13, written by George Pérez and Ralph Macchio, with art by penciller Perez. These stories were collected in the oversized one-shot Black Widow: Web of Intrigue #1; the Widow guest-starred in issues of Solo Avengers, Force Works, Iron Man, Marvel Team-Up, other comics. She had made frequent guest appearances in Daredevil since the late 1970s, she starred in a three-issue arc, "The Fire Next Time", by writer Scott Lobdell and penciller Randy Green, in Journey into Mystery #517–519. A new ongoing Black Widow comic title debuted in April 2010; the first story arc was written by Marjorie Liu with art by Daniel Acuña.
Beginning with issue #6, the title was written by Duane Swierczynski, with artwork by Manuel Garcia and Lorenzo Ruggiero. Black Widow appeared as a regular character throughout the 2010–2013 Secret Avengers series, from issue #1 through its final issue #37. Black Widow appears in the 2013 Secret Avengers series by Luke Ross. Black Widow appears in a relaunched ongoing series by artist Phil Noto; the first issue debuted in January 2014. In October 2015, it was announced that Mark Waid and Chris Samnee would be launching a new Black Widow series for 2016 as part of Marvel's post-Secret Wars relaunch; the first issue was released in March 2016. Aside from the arcs in Marvel Fanfare and Journey into Mystery, the Black Widow has starred in four limited series and four graphic novels; the three-issue Black Widow, under the Marvel Knights imprint, starred Romanova and introduced her appointed successor, Captain Yelena Belova, who had appeared in an issue of the 1999 series Inhumans. The writer for the story arc, "The Itsy-Bitsy Spider" was Devin K. Grayson while J. G. Jones was the artist.
The next three-issue, Marvel Knights mini-series titled Black Widow featured both Black Widows in the story arc "Breakdown", by writers Devin Grayson and Greg Rucka with painted art by Scott Hampton. Romanova next starred in another solo miniseries titled Black Widow: Homecoming under the Marvel Knights imprint and written by science fiction novelist Richard K. Morgan, with art by Bill Sienkiewicz and by Sienkiewicz over Goran Parlov layouts. A six-issue sequel, Black Widow: The Things They Say About Her, by writer Morgan, penciller Sean Phillips, inker Sienkiewicz, picks up where the previous miniseries left off, continuing the story using many of the same characters. Sh
The Polish War Memorial is a war memorial in West London, England in memory of airmen from Poland who served in the Royal Air Force as part of the Polish contribution to World War II. It is in South Ruislip in the London Borough of Hillingdon beside the A40 road at the roundabout junction with the A4180 road, it is located near RAF Northolt, where seven Polish-manned fighter squadrons were based at different times in the war. The monument is a prominent local landmark; the term "Polish War Memorial" is used as the name of the junction between A40 and A4180 roads, as well as for the monument itself. The monument is a Grade II listed building. Officers from the Polish Air Forces in France and Great Britain who settled in Britain after the war formed the Polish Air Force Association, they decided to erect a monument and a committee, led by Air Vice Marshal M Izycki, raised the necessary funds from the British public. It was unveiled on 2 November 1948 by Lord Tedder, Chief of the Air Staff, after a speech by Viscount Portal of Hungerford in which he said that it was a sad blow that many Polish veterans were unable to return home, as their country had been occupied by the Soviet Union.
He added that it would be to the mutual advantage of Britons and Poles that the latter were to make their home in Britain. The Polish sculptor Mieczysław Lubelski, who had served in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising and been interned in a German concentration camp, designed the monument, it is made from Portland stone and polished granite with bronze lettering. It is surmounted by a bronze Polish eagle, the symbol of the Polish Air Force; the names of 1,243 Polish airmen who died during the war were inscribed on the monument. Subsequently, another 659 Poles were identified. By the 1990s the monument needed refurbishment, so in 1994 an appeal was launched to fund the work. At the same time the opportunity was taken to extend the monument to add the 659 missing names. In 1996 the work was completed and the Duke of Gloucester rededicated the enlarged, refurbished monument. Two Presidents of Poland have laid a wreath the monument: Lech Wałęsa in 1991 and Aleksander Kwaśniewski in 2004; the monument was refurbished in 2010 in time for the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Britain.
In September 2012 a replica of the Polish wartime standard, the Wilno Standard, was paraded at the monument as part of a memorial ceremony. On 5 September 2015, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Britain, a Polish War Memorial Garden was opened behind the monument by the leader of Hillingdon Borough Council, Ray Puddifoot, the Polish Ambassador to the United Kingdom, Witold Sobków, it includes a separate monument in both Polish. There are numerous other Polish war memorials in the United Kingdom. In England they are in St Clement Danes Church in London and at Audley End, North Yorkshire, Brookwood Military Cemetery, Buckden Pike, the former RAF Chailey, between Terminals 2 and 3 at Manchester International Airport, the National Memorial Arboretum, Newark-on-Trent and Plymouth. Wales has Polish monuments in Wrexham. Scotland has Polish monuments at Douglas, South Lanarkshire, Invergordon and Prestwick. List of public art in Hillingdon Polish Air Forces in France and Great Britain "The Polish War Memorial, Northolt".
Places of Interest. Battle of Britain London Monument. "The Polish War Memorial". Ruislip Online. – photographs of the monument
Miguel de Carvalho. Known as Michael Carvalho, was a Roman Catholic missionary from Portugal, he was beatified in July 1867 by Pope Pius IX. Miguel was born in 1579, to a noble and wealthy family. In 1597, he joined the Society of Jesus in Coimbra. In 1602, he studied in Portuguese India. After completing his studies of philosophy and theology at St. Paul's College in Goa, he was ordained to the priesthood. For several years, his vocation was a professor of theology at the Academy On 21 August 1621, he arrived in Japan, after traveling from Portuguese India through Manila and Portuguese Macau; the situation in Japan was resulting in measures aimed at reducing the impact of the growing number of Catholics in social life. After a period of intense missionary activity by the Catholic Church, Hidetada Tokugawa, the second shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty, issued a decree which banned the practice and teaching of the Christian faith, under the threat of loss of life, all the missionaries had to leave Japan.
This decree started the bloody persecution of Christians. On Amakusa, Carvalho hid in plain view, disguised as a soldier for two years, where he assimilated the Japanese language and principles of inculturation; when the local governor confessed that Carvalho was a missionary, the actual purpose of his stay was to preach and convert the locals to Christianity, he was expelled from the island. With the help of fellow believers, he went to Nagasaki, where the Jesuit Provincial, Francisco Pacheco advised him to remain prudent in the implementation of the apostolate and directed him to care for a small group living in a suburban area. On 22 July 1623, as he returned from the pastoral ministry in Ōmura, Carvalho was arrested due to an accusation from an informant. In the local prison, he joined Pedro Vásquez, Luis Sotelo, two Japanese Franciscans, Ludovicus Sasada and tertiary Ludovicus Baba. Miguel spent his time in captivity with the celebration of daily prayer. On 24 August, a death sentence was ordered, performed the next day in Ōmura.
On 25 August 1624, his companions were burned at the stake. The steadfastness and joy that he showed convicts in the face of martyrdom for the faith, aroused the admiration of his contemporaries. Carvalho was beatified by Pope Pius IX on 7 July 1867; the death of the martyrs is commemorated by an obelisk in Ōmura. In the Roman Catholic Church, Carvalho's feast day is celebrated on 25 August, as well as 10 September, the anniversary of the massacre of 205 Japanese martyrs in Ōmura, the Jesuits mention it 4 February. Carvalho is the patron saint of the department of philosophy at the Catholic University of Portugal, Braga Campus