Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, is called a "star engine" in some languages; the radial configuration was used for aircraft engines before gas turbine engines became predominant. Since the axes of the cylinders are coplanar, the connecting rods cannot all be directly attached to the crankshaft unless mechanically complex forked connecting rods are used, none of which have been successful. Instead, the pistons are connected to the crankshaft with a master-and-articulating-rod assembly. One piston, the uppermost one in the animation, has a master rod with a direct attachment to the crankshaft; the remaining pistons pin their connecting rods' attachments to rings around the edge of the master rod. Extra "rows" of radial cylinders can be added in order to increase the capacity of the engine without adding to its diameter.
Four-stroke radials have an odd number of cylinders per row, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order can be maintained, providing smooth operation. For example, on a five-cylinder engine the firing order is 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, back to cylinder 1. Moreover, this always leaves a one-piston gap between the piston on its combustion stroke and the piston on compression; the active stroke directly helps compress the next cylinder to fire. If an number of cylinders were used, an timed firing cycle would not be feasible; the prototype radial Zoche aero-diesels have an number of cylinders, either four or eight. The radial engine uses fewer cam lobes than other types; as with most four-strokes, the crankshaft takes two revolutions to complete the four strokes of each piston. The camshaft ring is geared to spin slower and in the opposite direction to the crankshaft; the cam lobes exhaust. For example, four cam lobes serve all five cylinders, whereas 10 would be required for a typical inline engine with the same number of cylinders and valves.
Most radial engines use overhead poppet valves driven by pushrods and lifters on a cam plate, concentric with the crankshaft, with a few smaller radials, like the Kinner B-5 and Russian Shvetsov M-11, using individual camshafts within the crankcase for each cylinder. A few engines use sleeve valves such as the 14-cylinder Bristol Hercules and the 18-cylinder Bristol Centaurus, which are quieter and smoother running but require much tighter manufacturing tolerances. C. M. Manly constructed a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine in 1901, a conversion of one of Stephen Balzer's rotary engines, for Langley's Aerodrome aircraft. Manly's engine produced 52 hp at 950 rpm. In 1903–1904 Jacob Ellehammer used his experience constructing motorcycles to build the world's first air-cooled radial engine, a three-cylinder engine which he used as the basis for a more powerful five-cylinder model in 1907; this was made a number of short free-flight hops. Another early radial engine was the three-cylinder Anzani built as a W3 "fan" configuration, one of which powered Louis Blériot's Blériot XI across the English Channel.
Before 1914, Alessandro Anzani had developed radial engines ranging from 3 cylinders — early enough to have been used on a few French-built examples of the famous Blériot XI from the original Blériot factory — to a massive 20-cylinder engine of 200 hp, with its cylinders arranged in four rows of five cylinders apiece. Most radial engines are air-cooled, but one of the most successful of the early radial engines was the Salmson 9Z series of nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engines that were produced in large numbers during the First World War. Georges Canton and Pierre Unné patented the original engine design in 1909, offering it to the Salmson company. From 1909 to 1919 the radial engine was overshadowed by its close relative, the rotary engine, which differed from the so-called "stationary" radial in that the crankcase and cylinders revolved with the propeller, it was similar in concept to the radial, the main difference being that the propeller was bolted to the engine, the crankshaft to the airframe.
The problem of the cooling of the cylinders, a major factor with the early "stationary" radials, was alleviated by the engine generating its own cooling airflow. In World War I many French and other Allied aircraft flew with Gnome, Le Rhône, Bentley rotary engines, the ultimate examples of which reached 250 hp although none of those over 160 hp were successful. By 1917 rotary engine development was lagging behind new inline and V-type engines, which by 1918 were producing as much as 400 hp, were powering all of the new French and British combat aircraft. Most German aircraft of the time used water-cooled inline 6-cylinder engines. Motorenfabrik Oberursel made licensed copies of the Gnome and Le Rhône rotary powerplants, Siemens-Halske built their own designs, including the Siemens-Halske Sh. III eleven-cylinder rotary engine, unusual for the period in being geared through a bevel geartrain in the rear end of the crankcase without the crankshaft being mounted to the aircraft's airframe, so that the engine's internal working components (fully in
The Rolls-Royce Condor aircraft piston engine was a larger version of the Rolls-Royce Eagle developing up to 675 horsepower. The engine first ran in 1918 and a total of 327 engines were recorded as being built. Note: Condor I 600 hp, 72 built at Derby. Condor IA Alternative designation for Condor II. Condor II 650 hp, revised propeller reduction gear ratio, increased compression ratio. 34 built at Derby. Condor III 650/670 hp, compression ratio 6.5:1, Re-designed connecting rods. 196 built at Derby. Condor IIIA 650/665 hp. Improved main bearing design and material. Condor IIIB 650 0.477:1 reduction gear, re-designed crankcase and crankshaft. Condor IV 750 hp. Direct-drive, modified engine mounting. 13 built at Derby. Condor IVA 750 hp. Nine built at Derby. Condor V As Condor IIIA with two-stage turbocharger. Run but not flown, one built at Derby. Condor VII Direct-drive Condor IIIA, two built at Derby. Condor C. I. 480 hp, compression ignition, two engines tested and flown. In 1932 the Air Ministry initiated a conversion of the Condor petrol engine to the compression ignition system.
The conversion was developed at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, with the co-operation of Rolls-Royce Ltd. Engine layout and stroke remained the same as for the petrol version; the more robust construction required to withstand the increased stresses increased the engine weight to 1,504 lbs. At its maximum 2,000 rpm the engine developed 500 hp; the engine passed the 50-hour civil type test for compression ignition engines, being only the second British engine to do so. The only previous engine to pass this test was the much larger Beardmore Tornado fitted to the R101 airship; the diesel Condor was experimentally flown in a Hawker Horsley to explore the practical operation of a diesel engine in flight. The Condor was used in the following aircraft: Avro Aldershot Avro Andover Avro Ava Beardmore Inflexible Blackburn Iris Bristol Berkeley de Havilland DH.27 Derby de Havilland DH.54 Highclere de Havilland DH.14 Okapi Fairey Fremantle Fairey N.4 Handley Page Handcross Hawker Hornbill Hawker Horsley R100 Rohrbach Ro V Rocco Saunders Valkyrie Short Singapore Vickers Valentia Vickers Vanguard Vickers Vixen Vickers Virginia Westland Yeovil Data from Lumsden Type: 12-cylinder liquid-cooled 60 deg.
Vee aircraft piston engine Bore: 5.5 in Stroke: 7.5 in Displacement: 2,137.5 in³ Length: 69.3 in Width: 41.1 in Height: 43.2 in Dry weight: 1,380 lb Valvetrain: Overhead camshaft Fuel system: 2 x Claudel-Hobson carburettors Fuel type: Petrol Cooling system: Liquid-cooled Power output: 670 bhp at 1,900 rpm Compression ratio: 5.1:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.48 hp/lb Rolls-Royce aircraft piston enginesRelated development Rolls-Royce Eagle Comparable engines Siddeley TigerRelated lists List of aircraft engines Photo of a Diesel version of the Condor at oldengine.org
Plywood is a material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees to one another. It is an engineered wood from the family of manufactured boards which includes medium-density fibreboard and particle board. All plywoods bind wood fibre sheets to form a composite material; this alternation of the grain is called cross-graining and has several important benefits: it reduces the tendency of wood to split when nailed in at the edges. There is an odd number of plies, so that the sheet is balanced—this reduces warping; because plywood is bonded with grains running against one another and with an odd number of composite parts, it has high stiffness perpendicular to the grain direction of the surface ply. Smaller and lower-quality plywoods may only have their plies arranged at right angles to each other; some better-quality plywood products will by design have five plies in steps of 45 degrees, giving strength in multiple axes.
The word ply derives from the French verb plier, "to fold", from the Latin verb plico, from the ancient Greek verb πλέκω. In 1797 Samuel Bentham applied for patents covering several machines to produce veneers. In his patent applications, he described the concept of laminating several layers of veneer with glue to form a thicker piece – the first description of what we now call plywood. Bentham was a British naval engineer with many shipbuilding inventions to his credit. Veneers at the time of Bentham were rift sawn or quarter sawn. About fifty years Immanuel Nobel, father of Alfred Nobel, realized that several thinner layers of wood bonded together would be stronger than a single thick layer of wood. Understanding the industrial potential of laminated wood, he invented the rotary lathe. There is little record of the early implementation of the rotary lathe and the subsequent commercialization of plywood as we know it today, but in its 1870 edition, the French dictionary Robert describes the process of rotary lathe veneer manufacturing in its entry Déroulage.
One can thus presume that rotary lathe plywood manufacturer was an established process in France in the 1860s. Plywood was introduced into the United States in 1865 and industrial production started shortly after. In 1928, the first standard-sized 4 ft by 8 ft plywood sheets were introduced in the United States for use as a general building material. Artists use plywood as a support for easel paintings to replace traditional cardboard. Ready-made artist boards for oil painting in three-layered plywood were produced and sold in New York as early as 1880. In India Plywood is known as "Kitply" after the brand which pioneered the concept of "Branded Plyboards" in the early 70's. A typical plywood panel has face veneers of a higher grade than the core veneers; the principal function of the core layers is to increase the separation between the outer layers where the bending stresses are highest, thus increasing the panel's resistance to bending. As a result, thicker panels can span greater distances under the same loads.
In bending, the maximum stress occurs in the outermost layers, one in tension, the other in compression. Bending stress decreases from the maximum at the face layers to nearly zero at the central layer. Shear stress, by contrast, is higher in the center of the panel, at the outer fibres. Different varieties of plywood exist for different applications: Softwood plywood is made either of cedar, Douglas fir or spruce and fir or redwood and is used for construction and industrial purposes; the most common dimension is 1.2 by 2.4 metres or the larger imperial dimension of 4 feet × 8 feet. Plies vary in thickness from 1.4 mm to 4.3 mm. The number of plies --, always odd -- depends on the grade of the sheet. Roofing can use the thinner 5⁄8-inch plywood. Subfloors are at least 3⁄4 inch thick, the thickness depending on the distance between floor joists. Plywood for flooring applications is tongue and groove. T&G plywood is found in the 1⁄2-to-1-inch range. Hardwood plywood is used for demanding end uses.
Hardwood plywood is characterized by its excellent strength and resistance to creep. It has a high planar shear strength and impact resistance, which make it suitable for heavy-duty floor and wall structures. Oriented plywood construction has a high wheel-carrying capacity. Hardwood plywood has excellent surface hardness, damage- and wear-resistance. Tropical plywood is made of mixed species of tropical timber. From the Asian region, it is now manufactured in African and South American countries. Tropical plywood is superior to softwood plywood due to its density, evenness of layers, high quality, it is sold at a premium in many markets if manufactured with high standards. Tropical plywood is used in the UK, United States, Korea and other countries worldwide, it is used for construction purposes in many regions due to its low cost. However, many countries’ forests have been over-harvested, including th
No. 209 Squadron RAF
No. 209 Squadron of the British Royal Air Force was formed from a nucleus of "Naval Eight" on 1 February 1917 at Saint-Pol-sur-Mer, France, as No. 9 Squadron Royal Naval Air Service and saw active service in both World Wars, the Korean War and in Malaya. The use of the squadron number has not been reused since by an RAF squadron; however the number and motto is in current service within the RAF Air Cadets at 209 Squadron ATC in Nottinghamshire. The Squadron was formed as a Royal Air Force Squadron on 1 April 1918, from No. 9 Squadron, Royal Naval Air Service at Clairmarais aerodrome. During the remainder of World War I, 209 Squadron flew Sopwith Camels over the Western Front on fighter and ground support missions; the Squadron badge, the falling red eagle, symbolizes the destruction of Baron Manfred von Richthofen who, in the 1914–1918 War, was credited to the guns of a pilot, Roy Brown from No. 209 Squadron. On 21 January 1919, the squadron was reduced to a skeleton organization and disbanded in the UK on 24 June 1919 at RAF Scopwick, Lincolnshire.
No. 209 reformed at the flying boat base at RAF Mount Batten, Plymouth on 15 January 1930. It was first equipped with Blackburn Iris flying boats and from January 1934 by Blackburn Perth but neither of these types were built in sufficient quantities to equip the squadron fully. In July 1936, the squadron was equipped with Short Singapore Mk. IIIs and it was transferred to Malta in September 1937 for three months. In December 1938, No 209 began to convert to yet another flying boat type, the Supermarine Stranraer; when the Second World War broke out, No.209 moved to Invergordon to patrol the North Sea between Scotland and Norway. From October 1939 it patrolled the Atlantic from Oban. Two further re-equipments occurred, in December 1939 and in April 1941. Familiarisation with the U. S. supplied Catalinas was aided by the secondment of U. S. military personnel who flew on active service patrols, despite the U. S. being a neutral power at the time. Anti-submarine patrols were flown over the Atlantic from RAF Castle Archdale on Lough Erne, in Northern Ireland, using the Donegal Corridor over neutral Eire.
During this time, in May 1941, a patrol by No.209 located the German battleship Bismarck. In August 1941, the squadron moved to Iceland for two months. From March 1942 until July 1945, No.209 was stationed in East Africa. It flew patrols over the Indian Ocean with detached bases in South Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles to extend its cover. In July 1945 the squadron moved to Ceylon, with acquired Short Sunderland MkVs, with a detachment at Rangoon, to harass Japanese shipping along the coast from Burma to Malaya. After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, a detachment was sent to Hong Kong in September, followed by the rest of the squadron in October. In April 1946 the squadron moved to Singapore. A detachment remained at RAF Kai Tak and became No.1430 flight and No.88 Squadron. The squadron headquarters was established at RAF Seletar, on Singapore Island on 18 May 1946 and No.209 and was named "City of Hong Kong" Squadron on 23 January 1947. Operation Firedog missions during the Malayan Emergency began on 7 July 1948.
In September 1950, during the Korean War, the aircraft were moved to Iwakuni, Japan to patrol off the Korean coast from 15 September. On 1 January 1955 the squadron merged with No. 205 Squadron. On 1 November 1958 No. 267 Squadron at RAF Kuala Lumpur was renumbered 209 Squadron and flew Scottish Aviation Pioneers and Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneers on liaison and transport duties in Malaysia. No.209 Squadron was disbanded on 31 December 1968 at RAF Seletar. 209 is still in use today with the Air Cadet Organisation. 209 Squadron Air Training Corps in Nottinghamshire have taken over the old Squadron Number and Crest. The Squadron itself has a great history and is a strong and active unit. Fred Everest Banbury - 1917-1918 with No. 9 Naval Squadron Arthur Roy Brown Stearne Tighe Edwards Chief Air Marshal Robert Foster - 1918 John Hales Oliver Colin LeBoutillier Wilfrid May Air Vice Marshal Francis Mellersh John Paynter - 1917 with No. 9 Oliver Redgate - 1917-1918 Merrill Samuel Taylor - 1917-1918 with No. 9 and No. 209 List of Royal Air Force aircraft squadrons Notes Bibliography McNeill, Ross.
"No.209 Squadron RAF". Www.rafcommands.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. No. 209 Squadron Coastal Command deployments
The Rolls-Royce Buzzard was a British piston aero engine of 36.7 litres capacity that produced about 800 horsepower. Designed and built by Rolls-Royce Limited it featured 12 cylinders in a'V' configuration of 6 in bore and 6.6 in stroke. It was manufactured in the late 1920s. A further development was the Rolls-Royce R Schneider Trophy engine; the Buzzard was developed by scaling-up the Kestrel engine in the ratio of 5:6. List from Lumsden. Buzzard IMS, Maximum power 955 hp, nine engines produced at Derby. Buzzard IIMS, Maximum power 955 hp, reduced 69 engines produced at Derby. Buzzard IIIMS, Maximum power 937 hp, further reduced propeller drive ratio, 22 engines produced at Derby. Blackburn Iris Blackburn M.1/30 Blackburn Perth Handley Page H. P.46 Hawker Horsley Kawanishi H3K Short Singapore I Short Sarafand Vickers Type 207 Data from Lumsden Type: 12-cylinder liquid-cooled Vee aircraft piston engine Bore: 6 in Stroke: 6.6 in Displacement: 2,239.3 in³ Length: 75.7 in Width: 30.6 in Height: 44.4 in Dry weight: 1,140 lb Valvetrain: Overhead camshaft Supercharger: Single-stage supercharger Fuel type: 73-77 octane petrol Cooling system: Liquid-cooled Power output: 800 hp Specific power: 0.36 hp/in³ Compression ratio: 5.5:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 0.7 hp/lb Rolls-Royce aircraft piston enginesRelated development Rolls-Royce Kestrel Rolls-Royce R Comparable engines Daimler-Benz DB 600 Fiat AS.3 Rolls-Royce GriffonRelated lists List of aircraft engines Flight magazine - Period Rolls-Royce Buzzard advertisement, August 1933
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb. The unit is descended from the Roman libra; the English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, Swedish pund. All derive from a borrowing into Proto-Germanic of the Latin expression lībra pondō, in which the word pondō is the ablative case of the Latin noun pondus. Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of weight; this accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-force. The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound has been defined as 0.45359237 kg. In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963; the yard or the metre shall be the unit of measurement of length and the pound or the kilogram shall be the unit of measurement of mass by reference to which any measurement involving a measurement of length or mass shall be made in the United Kingdom.
An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, an grain is thus equal to 64.79891 milligrams. In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely; when used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. "11 stone 4 pounds", rather than "158 pounds", or "72 kilograms" as used elsewhere. The US has not adopted the metric system despite many efforts to do so, the pound remains used as one of the key United States customary units. In different parts of the world, at different points in time, for different applications, the pound has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or force.
The libra is an ancient Roman unit of mass, equivalent to 328.9 grams. It was divided into ounces; the libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, "lb". A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in Britain. Amongst these were the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete Tower, merchant's and London pounds. Troy pounds and ounces remain in use only for the weight of certain precious metals in the trade; the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver. In 1528, the standard was changed to the Troy pound; the avoirdupois pound known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. It was equal to 6992 troy grains; the pound avoirdupois was divided into 16 ounces. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since the grain has been an integral part of the avoirdupois system. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.
In the United Kingdom and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of, to regulate the sale of commodities. Materials traded in the marketplace are quantified according to accepted units and standards in order to avoid fraud; the standards themselves are defined so as to facilitate the resolution of disputes brought to the courts. Quantifying devices used by traders are subject to official inspection, penalties apply if they are fraudulent; the Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. The pound was defined thus "The... platinum weight... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade... shall continue to be the imperial standard of... weight... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom". Paragraph 13 states that the weight in vacuo of this standard shall be called the Imperial Standard Pound, that all other weights mentioned in the act and permissible for commerce shall be ascertained from it alone.
The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound: it is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches high, 1.15 inches diameter, the edges are rounded off. It has a groove about 0.34 inches from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted