Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Sports Car Club of America
The Sports Car Club of America is an American automobile club and sanctioning body supporting road racing and autocross in the United States. Formed in 1944, it runs many programs for both amateur and professional racers; the SCCA traces its roots to the Automobile Racing Club of America. ARCA was founded in 1933 by brothers Miles and Sam Collier, dissolved in 1941 at the outbreak of World War II; the SCCA was formed in 1944 as an enthusiast group. The SCCA began sanctioning road racing in 1948 with the inaugural Watkins Glen Grand Prix. Cameron Argetsinger, an SCCA member and local enthusiast who would become Director of Pro Racing and Executive Director of the SCCA, helped organize the event for the SCCA. In 1951, the SCCA National Sports Car Championship was formed from existing marquee events around the nation, including Watkins Glen, Pebble Beach, Elkhart Lake. Many early SCCA events were held on disused air force bases, organized with the help of Air Force General Curtis LeMay, a renowned enthusiast of sports car racing.
LeMay loaned out facilities of Strategic Air Command bases for the SCCA's use. By 1962, the SCCA was tasked with managing the U. S. World Sportscar Championship rounds at Daytona, Sebring and Watkins Glen; the club was involved in the Formula 1 U. S. Grand Prix. SCCA Executive Director John Bishop helped to create the United States Road Racing Championship series for Group 7 sports cars to recover races, taken by rival USAC Road Racing Championship. Bishop was instrumental in founding the SCCA Trans-Am Series and the SCCA/CASC Can-Am series. In 1969, tension and infighting over Pro Racing's autonomy caused Bishop to resign and help form the International Motor Sports Association; the SCCA began sanctioning professional racing. In 1963, the United States Road Racing Championship was formed. In 1966 the Canadian-American Challenge Cup was created for Group 7 open-top sportscars; the Trans-Am Series for pony cars began in 1966. Today, Trans-Am uses GT-1 class regulations. A professional series for open-wheel racing cars was introduced in 1967 as the SCCA Grand Prix Championship.
This series was held under various names through to the 1976 SCCA/USAC Formula 5000 Championship. Current SCCA-sanctioned series include Trans Am, the Pirelli World Challenge for GT and touring cars, the Global MX-5 Cup, F2000 Championship Series, F1600 Championship Series and the Atlantic Championship Series. SCCA Pro Racing has sanctioned professional series for some amateur classes such as Spec Racer Ford Pro and Formula Enterprises Pro. SCCA Pro Racing sanctioned the Volkswagen Jetta TDI Cup during its time; the Club Racing program is a road racing division where drivers race on either dedicated race tracks or on temporary street circuits. Competitors require a national racing license. Both modified production cars and designed-from-scratch "formula" and "sports racer" cars can be used in Club Racing. Most of the participants in the Club Racing program are unpaid amateurs, but some go on to professional racing careers; the club is the source for race workers in all specialties. The annual national championship for Club Racing is called the SCCA National Championship Runoffs and has been held at Riverside International Raceway, Daytona International Speedway, Road Atlanta, Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course, Heartland Park Topeka, Road America, Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca, Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
In 2018, the Runoffs will go back west to Sonoma Raceway. In 2019, the race will be held at Virginia International Raceway a track where the race has never been held, it was announced on June 15, 2018 that the Runoffs would go back to Road America in the year 2020. The current SCCA record holder is Jerry Hansen, with twenty-seven national championships; the eight classes of the formula group are Formula Atlantic, Formula 1000, Formula SCCA, Formula Continental, Formula Mazda, Formula F, Formula 500 and Formula Vee The autocross program is branded as "Solo". Up to four cars at a time run on a course laid out with traffic cones on a large paved surface, such as a parking lot or airport runway, without interfering with one another. Competitions are held at the regional and national levels; each division crowns a divisional champion in each class, determined at a single event. A national champion in each class is determined at the national championship held in September. In 2009, Solo Nationals moved to the Lincoln Airpark in Nebraska.
Individual national-level events called "Championship Tours" and "Match Tours" are held throughout the racing season. The SCCA holds national-level events in an alternate format called "ProSolo". In ProSolo, two cars compete at the same time on mirror-image courses with drag racing-style starts, complete with reaction and 60-foot times. Class winners and other qualifiers compete in a handicapped elimination round called the "Challenge". Points are awarded in both class and Challenge competition, an annual champion is crowned each September at
Road America is a motorsport road course located near Elkhart Lake, Wisconsin on Wisconsin Highway 67. It has hosted races since the 1950s and hosts races in the NASCAR Xfinity Series, WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, SCCA Pirelli World Challenge, ASRA, AMA Superbike series, IndyCar Series, SCCA Pro Racing's Trans-Am Series. Open-wheel racing journalist Robin Miller says that Road America is "the best test of road racing in North America". Road America is a permanent road course, it is located midway between the cities of Green Bay. The track is situated on 640 acres in Wisconsin's Kettle Moraine and it is located near the Kettle Moraine Scenic Drive, it has hosted races since September 1955 and hosts over 400 events a year. Of its annual events, 9 major weekends are open to the public which include 3 motorcycle events including the MotoAmerica series, 3 vintage car events, Sports Car Club of America events, the United Sports Car Racing Series, the Pirelli World Challenge, the NASCAR XFINITY Series.
Road America is one of only a handful of road circuits in the world maintaining its original configuration being 4.048 miles in length and 14 turns. The track features many elevation changes, along with a long front stretch where speeds approaching 200 mph may be reached. One of the best known features of this course is a turn on the backside known as "the kink." Road America's open seating allows spectators to venture throughout the grounds. Grandstands are available in several locations, as well as permanent hillside seating where crowds of more than 150,000 can be accommodated. In addition to the main course, the facility includes a 0.8-mile karting track called the CTECH Manufacturing Motorplex inside the Carousel. The motorplex hosts two series of karting events, it hosts weekly events on Tuesdays in the summer. It hosts six Saturday events during the summer; the motorplex hosts events sanctioned by the North Woods GP series running Supermoto and street bike racing using small displacement motorcycles.
The Motorplex was built at the site of an earlier off road racing circuit used for several SODA events in the 1990s. In late 2006, Road America began a project to remove the old Billy Mitchell bridge and use a tunnel as the main entrance to the paddock; the tunnel project was completed in May 2007 with the grand opening celebration on May 31 for the AMA Suzuki Superbike Championship weekend. The tunnel is 16.5' high and 36' wide and has two lanes of traffic and two pedestrian walkways on either side. With the removal of the bridge, a new spectator viewing area was created. In the late 1940s, road racing was gaining popularity, owing to the post World War II economy, the influx of sporting automobiles; the Sports Car Club of America was the main organizer of these races, in 1950, the Chicago Region SCCA and the Village of Elkhart Lake organized the first road race at Elkhart Lake. The 1950 circuit start-finish line was on County Road P. Competitors went north to County Road J South into the Village of Elkhart Lake, West on what is now County JP, reconnected with County Road P for a total distance of 3.3 miles.
For the next two races, in 1951 and 1952, a different course was used. It was 6.5 miles long, on County Roads J, A, P. To date, one may still drive most of the original course; the original course was registered on the National Register of Historic Places on February 17, 2006. Signs have been installed marking key locations on the course. After the tragedy at Watkins Glen in 1952, where a child was killed, the U. S. ruled to discontinue motorized contests of speed on public highways. This brought the end of a long-standing tradition; this did not permanently stop road racing, however, it did shift it to private courses. In 1955, Clif Tufte started what is now known as Road America, in a configuration that has changed little over the past 60 years; the addition of Road America as a private track meant a transition from racing through the streets of tiny Elkhart Lake to racing on a big, dedicated race track. Many different racing series have had the occasion to race at Road America; the first was the Sports Car Club of America on September 10, 1955.
The Road America 500 is a sports car race, part of different championships, among them the SCCA National Sports Car Championship, the United States Road Racing Championship and the IMSA GT Championship. It is a points-paying race of the United SportsCar Championship; the Grand Prix of Road America was an open-wheel race held as part of the Champ Car World Series as well as the 24 Hours of Lemons Series' Chubba Cheddar Enduro. Other notable series have included NASCAR's Grand National in 1956 and Xfinity Series since 2010, CART from 1982 until 2007, Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Racing Series, CanAm, Trans-Am, AMA, the SCCA National Championship Runoffs from 2009 to 2013; the Speed Energy Formula Off-Road series will race at the track starting in 2018. Road America holds a variety of vintage racing events, including the Brian Redman International Challenge, now the HAWK with Brian Redman. At the 2008 Road America 500 an Audi R10 TDI set an LMP1 pole time of 1:46.935. At the 2009 Road Race Showcase, Dyson Racing Team set an LMP2 pole time of 1:51.010.
At the 2011 Road Race Showcase, BMW Team RLL set a GT pole time of 2:05.447, while at the same event a Porsche 997 GT3 set a GTC pole time of 2:14.126. One NASCAR Grand National race was held in 1956. On Dec
Kohler Co. founded in 1873 by John Michael Kohler, is an American manufacturing company based in Kohler, Wisconsin. Kohler is best known for its plumbing products, but the company manufactures furniture, tile and generators. Destination Kohler owns various hospitality establishments in the United States and Scotland. In February 2017 Kohler Co. acquired UK-based Clarke Energy from the management team and ECI Partners, a multinational specialist in the engineering, construction and maintenance of engine-based power plants and is an authorised distributor of GE’s reciprocating engines in 19 countries worldwide. In 2018, Kohler made international headlines for becoming the first sleeve sponsor for English Premier League football giants Manchester United. Kohler Co. was co-founded in 1873 by Austrian immigrant John Michael Kohler and Charles Silberzahn with the purchase of the Sheboygan Union Iron and Steel Foundry from Kohler's father-in-law, Jacob Vollrath, for $5000. Early products included cast iron and steel farm implements, castings for furniture factories, ornamental iron pieces including cemetery crosses and settees.
A breakthrough came in 1883 when John Michael applied enamel to a cast-iron horse trough to create the company's first bathtub. The company has been in the plumbing business since, is known for its plumbing fixtures. In the early 20th century, Kohler made drinking fountains with a "bubbling valve", from which water shot vertically; the entire fountain came to be known as a "bubbler" in the area in which Kohler products were sold. The term bubbler is still used in a few areas of Wisconsin and some other areas of the United States. In 1934 and 1954, Kohler Strikes took place. A third strike lasted only a few weeks. On November 15, 2015, workers voted for the 2015 Kohler Strike, making it the fourth strike in the company's history. Former Wisconsin Governor Walter J. Kohler, Sr. was president of Kohler Co. and his son former Wisconsin Governor Walter J. Kohler, Jr. served for many years in senior management. The presidency of Kohler was passed down from Herbert Kohler, Jr. to his son, David Kohler, on June 1, 2015.
In 1998, Kohler made a plan to buy back any outstanding shares not owned by the family. All family members had to exchange their common shares for shares with limited rights that could not be sold. Since Kohler is not a publicly traded company, the number of shares floating was minimal. Kohler offered $55,400 per share; the IRS challenged this valuation by prosecuting the estate of Frederick Kohler, who had died holding 975 shares, but Kohler won the lawsuit. In 1999, a court case was brought by the United States Department of Labor alleging that Kohler Co.'s hiring practices were discriminatory to women. The company had an informal height requirement of 5 ft 4 in for women, the average adult female height in the United States; because of its contracts with the federal government, the company was prohibited from enforcing this requirement and as part of a settlement agreed to hire 111 of the 2,000 women who had applied to work at Kohler from 1994 to 1995 and to undertake a study "to eliminate unnecessary barriers to women".
In 2005, China Labor Watch accused Kohler China Co. Ltd. of major worker rights violation at its Foshan factory. These included: excessive work hours, lack of overtime pay, low wage payment, unsafe working conditions, uncompensated work injuries, denying workers the ability to form their own union. Kohler's bath and kitchen fixtures are available in American hardware and home improvement stores and from Kohler Kitchen and Bath distributors. Kohler still makes traditional cast iron bathtubs, one of the few United States manufacturers to do so. Besides residential products, Kohler manufactures a commercial line of bathroom fixtures; the company does artistic custom work, such as hand-painted sinks and —toilets. Kohler was named by "The Builder Magazine" as the "most used" and "best quality" in the "Bath Accessories" category as well as the top spot for "brand familiarity", "most used" and "quality rating" in the "Bath Fixtures" and "Whirlpool Baths" categories; the Kohler Walk-In Bath Division designs and builds accessible bathtubs that are easier to enter than traditional bathtub models.
The division are disabled. Founded in 2015, this specialty division sells its bathtubs through independent dealers across the United States. Kohler makes a wide range of small industrial engines. Traditionally, the company manufactured gasoline engines. Kohler engines power a range of devices from water pumps to off-road vehicles; the Global Power group manufactures generators of varying sizes. Kohler was the first company to offer residential back-up generators, starting in 1920. In 1984 Kohler acquired Sterling Faucet Company; the company was renamed as Sterling Plumbing Group Inc. The Sterling brand was integrated into Kohler family of products. Kohler expanded the offering of Sterling products adding to the faucet line, shower doors, sinks and other bathroom accessories. In 2007, Kohler created a joint venture in China called Kohler-YinXiang Ltd. based in Chongqing, China, to manufacture small gasoline engines, intends to begin importing more of their engines, rather than building them in the US.
Kohler's UK subsidiary is the Cheltenham-based Kohler Mira Ltd, best known for manufacturing Mira Showers. Since the company has been expanding in the areas of furniture
Sportscar Vintage Racing Association
The Sportscar Vintage Racing Association is an American automobile club and sanctioning body that supports vintage racing in the United States. The organization was founded in 1981, is regarded as the premier vintage racing organization in the U. S. Along with conducting official race meets, SVRA events include car shows, auto auctions and other activities promoting the "car culture"; the organization encourages the restoration and racing of significant automobiles that are configured as as possible to their original design and construction. The SVRA conducts racing events at some of the most iconic and historic race tracks in the U. S. Roebling Road Raceway Sebring International Raceway Amelia Island Willow Springs International Raceway Auto Club Speedway Road America Sonoma Raceway Indianapolis Motor Speedway Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course Portland International Raceway Watkins Glen International Virginia International Raceway Tail of the Dragon Circuit of the AmericasPrevious venues include: New Jersey Motorsports Park Road Atlanta The SVRA recognizes 12 car groups, with criteria based on car type, engine displacement, original class placement, other various technical specifications.
The organization requires participants to keep the cars as true to their original form as possible, certain modern safety modifications are required. Recognized small displacement production sports cars and sedans Examples: Sprite Midget Mini Cooper Triumph Spitfire Alfa Romeo Giulietta MGA Fiat-Abarth Lotus 7 Select G and H-modifieds and D-Sports Racers, Formula Vee Pre-1973 Formula cars. Examples: Lotus Brabham Caldwell Titan Crosslé Merlyn Royale Elva Hawke Recognized series-produced sports cars and sedans in production prior to 1972. Examples: MGB Triumph TR3 and TR4 Austin-Healey 3000 Porsche 356 Elva Courier Morgan Daimler Sunbeam Alpine Volvo P1800 Limited produced sports cars, racing "specials" and GT cars built or in production prior to 1960. Examples: Scarab Devin Maserati Ferrari Lotus Jaguar XK120/140, C, D Lister Allard Elva Porsche RSK Spyder Cunningham World Sports Car Championship and World Manufacturer’s Championship GT’s and prototypes as raced between 1960 and 1972. USRRC sports cars and Can-Am cars as raced before 1969 with invited models.
Front engine "specials" as raced after 1959. Examples: Lotus 23, 30, 40 Porsche 904, 906, 907, 910 Elva Mk 6, 7, 8 Ford GT40 McLaren Lola T70, T160 McKee Chevron Selected big-bore production sports cars and sedans through 1972. Examples: Chevrolet Corvette Shelby GT-350 AC Cobra Ford Mustang Chevrolet Camaro Jaguar XKE Plymouth Barracuda Mercury Cougar Griffith Porsche 911 AMC Javelin AMC AMX World Championship for Makes sports cars as raced after 1970 on slicks. Under 2.0-liter sports cars as raced after 1972. Center-seat Can-Am cars. SCCA, ASR & BSR, Sports 2000. Examples: McLaren Porsche 908, 917, 956, 962 Lola Chevron Ferrari 312, 512 Alfa Romeo T33 Lancia Matra Recognized series-produced sports cars and sedans in production prior to 1979, cars by invitation. Examples: Lotus Super 7 Datsun 240Z BMW 2002 Sunbeam Tiger Porsche 911, 914, 924, 944 Datsun 510 Escort Alfa Romeo GTV Wings and slicks formula cars complying with SVRA post-1973 formula car regulations. Examples: Formula 1 and Indy Lights Formula 5000 Formula 2 Formula Atlantic & Formula B Formula Super Vee Formula Continental and Formula 3 Selected IMSA and FIA/GT sports cars and sedans as raced between 1973 and 1999.
NASCAR Cup/Busch series stock cars. Production-based contemporary cars. Examples: Porsche RSR, 934, 935, 964, 993 Chevrolet Corvette Chevrolet Monza Chevrolet Camaro Ford Mustang T/A Nissan Toyota Mazda RX-7 GTP/Group C, ALMS, PSCR, WSC and Grand Am prototype cars as raced from 1981 to specified cut-off date. Tube frame Trans Am and IMSA GTS, GTO and FIA-GT cars as raced from 1981 to specified cut-off date. Production-based contemporary cars based on performance history as raced from 1999 to 5 years prior to calendar year. Can-Am and A Sports Racing cars as raced after 1967 over 6.0 Liters. Center-seat Can-Am cars on slicks over 5.0 Liters. Examples: Aston Martin AMR1 Intrepid Audi R8 Ford Mustang Trans Am Oldsmobile Aurora Pontiac Grand Am Porsche GT2 and Cup Select GT sports cars and sedans raced between 1973 and 5 years prior to today’s date; these are Production-based cars such as any other stock / prepared racing series. Early IMSA GTO and GTU small bore cars will be accepted on an individual basis.
Examples: Chevrolet Corvette, Dodge Viper Ford Mustang Panoz, Datsun Z cars Nissan ZX various BMW, Porsche and Ferrari models Driver of the Year Rookie of the Year Most Improved Driver Professional Mechanic Amateur Mechanic Bob Prouty Award BUBBA Award Bucher/Decker Trophy Charlie Gibson Award Collier Cup Cornett Cup Glanville Cup Handy Cup Hugh Kleinpeter Award MGT Cup Sports Racer Challenge VIR Founders Cup On October 25–27, 2013, SVRA held the inaugural United States Vintage Racing National Championship at the Circuit of the Americas near Austin, Texas. 500 vintage race cars competed in twelve classes with a national champion crowned in each class. Official website SVRA Flickr Group Opinion article on historic racing Gallery of 2004 SVRA racing at Watkins Glen