click links in text for more info


Blacklisting is the action of a group or authority, compiling a blacklist of people, countries or other entities to be avoided or distrusted as not being acceptable to those making the list. A blacklist can list people to be refused employment, or censored; as a verb, blacklist can mean to put an entity on such a list. The English dramatist Philip Massinger used the phrase "black list" in his 1639 tragedy The Unnatural Combat. After the Restoration of the English monarchy brought Charles II of England to the throne in 1660, a list of regicides named those to be punished for the execution of his father; the state papers of Charles II say "If any innocent soul be found in this black list, let him not be offended at me, but consider whether some mistaken principle or interest may not have misled him to vote". In a 1676 history of the events leading up to the Restoration, James Heath alleged that Parliament had passed an Act requiring the sale of estates, "And into this black list the Earl of Derby was now put, other unfortunate Royalists".

Edward Gibbon wrote in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire of Andronicus that "His memory was stored with a black list of the enemies and rivals, who had traduced his merit, opposed his greatness, or insulted his misfortunes". The first published reference to blacklisting of an employee dates from 1774; this became a significant employment issue in American mining towns and company towns, where blacklisting could mean a complete loss of livelihood for workers who went on strike. The 1901 Report of the Industrial Commission stated "There was no doubt in the minds of workingmen of the existence of the blacklisting system, though it was impossible to obtain evidence of it." It cited a news report that in 1895 a former conductor on the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad committed suicide, having been out of work since a strike: "Wherever he went, the blacklist was ahead of him". Though the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 outlawed punitive blacklists against employees who supported trade unions or criticised their employers, the practice continued in common use.

The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 made amendments which sustained blacklisting by affirming the right of employers to be anti-union, by requiring trade union leaders to make loyalty oaths which had the same effect as the Hollywood blacklist. Since lawsuits for unfair dismissal have led to blacklisting being covert or informal, but it remains common. At least one volunteer in the International Brigades who went to Spain to fight Franco's fascists and, well known in the British Communist Party in the 1930s was informed by the police Special Branch that his failure to progress in military or career was due to his volunteering in this cause and his beliefs. During World War I, the British government adopted a "blacklist" based on an Order in Council of 23 December 1915, prohibiting British subjects from trade with specified firms and individuals in neutral countries. In the summer of 1940, the SS printed a secret list called Sonderfahndungsliste G. B. as part of Nazi Germany's preparations for invasion codenamed Operation Sea Lion – when this booklet was found after the war, it was called the Black Book and described as a blacklist.

The Hollywood blacklist was instituted by the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1947 to block screenwriters and other Hollywood professionals who were purported to have Communist sympathies from obtaining employment. It started by listing 151 entertainment industry professionals and lasted until 1960 when it was broken by the acknowledgement that blacklisted professionals had been working under assumed names for many years. Blacklisting by multiple providers is a systematic act by doctors to deny care to a certain patient or patients, it is done in various ways for various reasons. In 1907 the Transvaal Medical Union in South Africa blacklisted patients if they could not pay cash in advance. In this case, there was a physical list kept by the community of physicians. A physical list is not necessary to blacklist patients but the effect is the same; the United States Department of Health & Human Services found that reviewed hospitals did not generate incident reports for 93% of adverse events.

The 7% of the time when they did generate reports, the information was inaccurate 63% of the time. Problems causing harm to patients were reported only 2% of the time. If blacklisting is multiple providers systematically denying care to a certain patient or patients, in this case patients with iatrogenic injuries, it is reasonable to define it as blacklisting when 98% of the time the first group, treatment providers, singles out members of the second group, injured patients, to prevent them from having an accurate record made of what injured them; those patients are further injured by not having the accurate record necessary for getting care for the injuries. Companies which have a payment card merchant account terminated, their directors, are added to a list referred to when companies apply for an account. In the US the list is called TMF/MATCH. In computing, a blacklist is an access control system that denies entry to a specific list of users, programs, or network addresses. Lorence, James J..

The Suppression of Salt of the Earth: How Hollywood, Big Labor, Politicians Blacklisted a Movie in Cold War America. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-2027-9

Aulne, Kansas

Aulne is an unincorporated community in Marion County, United States. The Aulne name was suggested by officials of the railroad when it was built through Aulne during the 19th century. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1855, Marion County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Aulne. In 1872, a railroad contractor, named Col. W. Sherburn, decided the location would be good location for a town and named it after himself, but it was too early and never used.

In 1887, the Chicago and Nebraska Railway built a branch line north-south from Herington through Aulne to Caldwell. It foreclosed in 1891 and was taken over by Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway, which shut down in 1980, reorganized as Oklahoma and Texas Railroad which merged in 1988 with Missouri Pacific Railroad, merged in 1997 with Union Pacific Railroad. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Rock Island". A post office existed in Aulne from August 19, 1887 to February 28, 1954. Aulne was one of the finalist communities considered for Tabor College before it was established in Hillsboro in 1908. During World War I, the local telephone company decreed that "No German could be spoken over the telephones", because of anti-German sentiment towards German-Americans. Aulne is located halfway between Marion and Peabody next to the Union Pacific Railroad. Aulne United Methodist Church, north-east corner of 140th St and Pawnee Rd. 1890 Marion County Poor Farm, 1 mi west, 2.1 mi north.

Large 3-story limestone house, now owned house, occasional tours by appointment. Darren E. Burrows lived here as a child. Indigent, somewhat "incompetent" people would live here with adult supervision, work the land, raise their own food, earn their keep. Unwed pregnant girls could stay there until they delivered their babies, which were put up of adoption; the asylum was self-sustaining for a number of years paying taxes to the county. Marion Reservoir seven miles north of Aulne; the community is served by Marion USD 408 public school district. All students attend schools in Marion; the high school is a member of T. E. E. N. A shared video teaching network between five area high schools. Marion High School, located in Marion. Marion Middle School, located in Marion. Marion Elementary School, located in Marion. Marion County Record, local newspaper from Marion. Hillsboro Free Press, free newspaper for greater Marion County area; the Newton Kansan, regional newspaper from Newton. The Salina Journal, regional newspaper from Salina.

U. S. Route 56 is 5.75 miles to the north, U. S. Route 50 is 7 miles to the south, U. S. Route 77 is 4.5 miles east of the community. The Oklahoma Kansas Texas line of the Union Pacific Railroad runs through the community, but it no longer has a side-spur at Aulne. Internet Satellite is provided by StarBand, WildBlue. TV Satellite is provided by Dish Network. Terrestrial is provided by regional digital TV stations. Electricity Community and Rural areas provided by Flint Hills RECA. Water Community and Rural areas provided by Marion County RWD #4. Floyd B. Danskin, American politician, Washington State House of Representatives from 1921 to 1933, Speaker of the House from 1925 to 1927. Wilson Township, Marion County, Kansas Historical Maps of Marion County, Kansas Centennial Anniversary, United Methodist Church, Kansas, 1875-1975. 125th Anniversary Celebration, United Methodist Church, Kansas, 1875-2000. Aulne United Methodist ChurchHistorical Model railroad layout of 1915 Aulne on YouTube Aulne church celebrates 125th anniversary Historic Images of Aulne, Special Photo Collections at Wichita State University Library.

1905 photo of Aulne Rock Island Depot Aulne - Dead towns of Kansas Marion County cemetery list, archive of KsGenWeb Marion County history bibliography, Marion County school bibliography, Kansas Historical SocietyMaps Marion County maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Topo Map of Marion / Aulne / Canada area, USGS

Swan Creek AVA

The Swan Creek AVA is an American Viticultural Area located in the northwestern portion of North Carolina, in the Piedmont region. The appellation is distinguished by its loamy soil with mica. Established 27 May 2008, it is the second AVA to be established in North Carolina, it is a sub-appellation of the Yadkin Valley AVA. The area is near the Brushy Mountains and includes parts of Wilkes and Iredell counties; the AVA shares its name with the unincorporated community of Swan Creek in Yadkin County. The Swan Creek AVA has a cooler climate than the rest of the Yadkin Valley AVA—average annual maximum temperatures are 0.6 °F lower than in Yadkin, average annual minimums are a full 2 °F lower. Rainfall ranges from 44.4 inches to 57 inches, with an additional average of 6.3 inches of snow per year, much less than surrounding areas. Geography of North Carolina

CommuniGate Pro

CommuniGate Pro is a scalable carrier grade unified communications server, as well as a development platform all integrated into one package. The system is Internet Protocol based; the server is a single process, multi-threaded application written in C++. CommuniGate Pro provides web interface for configuration of its services. Since version 5 custom procedural CG/PL scripting language is provided for performing advanced configuration tasks, including modification of or integration with software's modules. Perl and command line interface-based application programming interfaces are available. CommuniGate Pro integrates with Microsoft Outlook via bundled Messaging Application Programming Interface and ActiveSync connectors. Support for other personal information managers, including Apple Inc.'s iCal, is available. Communications between connectors and server may be encrypted using Secure Sockets Layer or Transport Layer Security cryptographic protocols. CommuniGate Pro includes mail transfer agent protocols that support POP3, IMAP4 and SMTP, as well as webmail interface.

Apart from standard genre-defined functionality, it is capable of subscribing users to several mailboxes and advanced mail filtering. Anti-virus protection is available via extra modules, sold separately. Since version 5 CommuniGate Pro includes Session Initiation Protocol server, which provides instant messaging and voice and video conferencing along with custom Windows Messenger-compatible collaboration-oriented extensions for presence sharing and screen and file sharing. Starting with version 5.1 CommuniGate Pro includes its own XML Interface to Messaging and Signaling protocol together with the webmail "Pronto!" Client for this protocol. XIMSS offers HTTP- and XML-based client interface to a complex of communications services provided by one server. Although the protocol is not bound to CommuniGate Pro, its scope is derived from the parent project's functionality. Since version 5.1 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol is supported. CommuniGate Pro is available as a free download, although after adding more than five users, it adds a one-line banner to the outbound messages.

The list of supported platforms include Debian Linux / RaspBerryPI, FreeBSD, Linux, OS X, Microsoft Windows. Connecters may be installed onto clients directly from deployed server and support automatic update feature. In their positive reviews, Wendy M. Grossman of ZDNet, Aaron Weiss of ServerWatch and Michael Caton of eWeek praised CommuniGate Pro for its scalability, set of features and high configurability, while criticising it for high price and complexity. Aaron Weiss notes: "CommuniGate Pro is configurable, it wants to be configured. It begs for it; this is a hard-core enterprise server product to intimidate point-and-click administrators but curl every tech monkey's tail." Comparison of mail servers Comparison of VoIP software § Server software List of mail server software


Shewa romanized as Shua, is a historical region of Ethiopia an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire. The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center; the nucleus of Shewa is part of the mountainous plateau in what is the central area of Ethiopia, but prior to the Zemene Mesafint and after the loss of Bale with the invasion of Ahmed Al-Ghazi, Shewa was part of Ethiopia's southeasternmost frontier. Shewa was as defensible as any highland, its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven; the towns of Debre Berhan, Ankober, Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times. Most of northern Shewa, made up of the districts of Menz, Yifat and Bulga, is populated by Christian Amharas, while southern is inhabited by the Gurages and eastern Shewa have large Oromo and Argobba Muslim populations.

The monastery of Debre Libanos, founded by Saint Tekle Haymanot, is located in the district of Selale known in Amharic as Grarya, a former province of Abyssinia. Eastern Shewa first appears in the historical record as a Muslim state, which G. W. B. Huntingford believed was founded in 896, had its capital at Walalah, it is believed to have been part of the Kingdom of Aksum for over a millennium that became the site of Muslim kingdoms. This state was absorbed by the Sultanate of Ifat around 1285. Three urban centers thought to be part of the Muslim kingdom of Eastern Shewa were discovered by a group of French archaeologists. Yekuno Amlak based his uprising against the Zagwe dynasty from an enclave in Shewa, settled by Amhara Christians, he claimed Solomonic forebears, direct descendants of the pre-Zagwe Axumite emperors, who had used Shewa as their safe haven when their survival was threatened by Gudit and other enemies. This is the reason why the region got the name "Shewa" which means'rescue' or'save'.

This claim is supported by the Kebra Nagast, a book written under one of the descendants of Yekuno Amlak, which mentions Shewa as part of the realm of Menelik I. Aksum and its predecessor Dʿmt were limited to Northern Ethiopia and Eritrea during the 1st millennium BCE. However, Shewa became a part of the Amhara-Abyssinian empire upon the rise of the Amhara Solomonic dynasty as well as the Adal empire. In the 16th century, still an Islamic moiety, the rest of Christian Abyssinia were conquered by the forces of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of the Adal Sultanate, Shewa came under Muslim Adal rule; the region came under pressure from the Oromo expansion, who succeeded during the first decades of the next century in settling the areas around Shewa. Presently, the Oromos of Wollo and Arsi in particular are predominantly Muslim. Little is known about the details of the history of Shewa until 1800; the Amhara Shewan ruling family was founded in the late 17th century by Negasi Krestos, who consolidated his control around Yifat.

Traditions recorded about his ancestry vary: one tradition, recorded in 1840, claims his mother was the daughter of Ras Faris, a follower of Emperor Susenyos I who had escaped into Menz. Thus the ruling family of Shewa were considered the junior branch of the Solomonic dynasty after the senior Gondar branch. Negassie's son, Sebestyanos assumed the title of Meridazmach, unique to Shewa, his descendants continued to bear this title until Sahle Selassie of Shewa was declared king of Shewa in the 1830s. His grandson, Sahle Maryam would succeed as Emperor of all Ethiopia at the end of the century under name Menelik II; the title of "King of Shewa" was subsumed into the imperial title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" when Menelik became Emperor. Shewan kings spread their control towards the south and east, through lowland and desert, succeeded in invading and subjecting some regions under their rule; the emperors of Ethiopia had long claimed these southern regions, various direct and tributary relations had existed prior to the invasion of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi though these regions such as the Hadiya kingdom and Bale kingdom were independent entities.

The Oromo migrations following the Imam's defeat had cut off these old relationships and had drastically changed the demographics of the area by rolling back the Amhara expansion and migration, creating new relationships. The kingdom of Shewa that Menelik II brought into the Ethiopian realm had been somewhat expanded, thus added to the total area of the empire; the northern migration of Oromos into Shewa since the 1500s changed its demography and strengthened Shewa's position against its rival Gondar in the empire. Having influenced Gondar in the 1700s, Oromos in Shewa gained power in the 1800s the Tulama. Ras Gobana was notable for forming alliances and militarily extending Shoan domain to the south. Ethiopia reached further frontiers through expansion to the east and south, resulting in the Shewan region as the physical center of the modern country. In recent times, Shewa was a Governorate-General under the monarchy, was an Administrative Region of Ethiopia under

John Harley (footballer)

John Harley was a Uruguay international footballer of Scottish background. Harley was born in Glasgow, Scotland in 1886. By 1906 he had become a railway engineer working in Springburn, near Glasgow. In that year he moved to South America to work on railways along the Río de la Plata, he worked in Argentina where he worked for the Bahía Blanca and North Western Railway and the Buenos Aires Western Railway. On arriving in Uruguay in 1909 Harley worked for the Central Uruguay Railway, he worked for the railway for 37 years until his retirement. In Argentina Harley played for Ferro Carril Oeste before being recruited by Uruguayan club Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club. Harley was spotted by C. U. R. C. C; when they played a friendly match against Ferro Carril Oeste in 1908. Harley played with C. U. R. C. C./Peñarol from 1909 until his retirement from football in 1920. He captained C. U. R. C. C./Peñarol for ten seasons. Harley played his first match for Uruguay in September 1909, he played the last of his 17 matches for the national team in October 1916.

Harley acted as a player/manager of the Uruguay national team from 1909 until at least 1910. After retiring as a player Harley managed Peñarol. Harley's time with Peñarol as a player and manager is considered significant for the fact that he changed the Uruguayan style of football from a focus on long ball to a game that featured short passing; this style of play is considered to have contributed to Peñarol and Uruguay achieving significant success up to the 1920s. In 1951 Harley was honoured with a match between Peñarol and Rampla Juniors at the Estadio Centenario. Over 40,000 spectators, including many former colleagues and members of successful Uruguayan teams, turned out to honour Harley's contribution to Uruguayan football. Harley died in 1960 in Uruguay, was buried in The British Cemetery in Montevideo