St. George, New Brunswick
St. George is a Canadian town in Charlotte County, New Brunswick. St. George is nicknamed the "Granite Town" and is located on the Magaguadavic River between Passamaquoddy Bay and Lake Utopia, it is 70 km west of Saint John. The Magaguadavic River flows through the town and into a large gorge and the St. George Dam at St. George, with cliffs on either side, there are 5 or 6 caves; the town was founded by Peter Clinch, a United Empire Loyalist who emigrated from the United States in 1784. From the late 1800s to the early 1900s, the town was the center for the regional granite industry. Famous for its red granite, a number quarries operated in the area from the 1870s to the 1950s when the last quarry company closed; the town of St. George was incorporated on October 17, 1904. During the Second World War, two military bases were opened near the town: A Canadian Army training base known as "Camp Utopia" and a RCAF/RAF Air base at Pennfield Ridge. By the late 1950s, both bases were closed. From 1983 to 1985, a tungsten/molybdenum mine operated 40 km north of the town, at Mount Pleasant, provided a brief economic boost to the community.
The mine is operated by Adex Mining Inc. but remains in an idle state. In December 2010, the town received national attention with the Magaguadavic River flooded causing damage to structures in and around the town. Today, primary employers are aquaculture companies such as Cooke's/True North Salmon and a lumber mill, Lake Utopia Paper, owner/operated by JD Irving. Mayors of the Town of St. George: 1. Frederick “Fred” Dewar 2. C. Hazen McGee 3. Emery A. Grearson 4. James Bogue 5. Thomas R. Kent 6. Hugh Lawrence 7. Edward F. McGrattan 8. Emery A. Grearson 9. Edward F. McGrattan 10. Arthur W. Stewart 11. Lawrence W. Murray 12. Louis Rubin 13. Allan C. Grant 14. William Campbell 15. Riley D. Smith 16. Arthur V. Callaghan 17. Delbert J. Thorne 18. G. W. H. Dinsmore 19. Cecil S. Leland 20. Nathan "Nate" J. Rubin 21. Vernon C. Southard 22. Nathan "Nate" J. Rubin 23. Vance E. Craig 24. Stanley J. “Stan” Smith 25. Sharon Tucker 26. Daniel “Danny” J. Henry 27. Sharon Tucker 28. Crystal D. Cook The Town of St. George is within the Provincial electoral district of Fundy-The Isles-Saint John West and the Federal riding of New Brunswick Southwest.
The town is centered between Route 1 to the North, Route 172 to the south-east along the most southern portion of Route 770. St. George Power Dam
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Bathurst, New Brunswick
Bathurst is the county seat for Gloucester County, New Brunswick, is at the estuary of the Nepisiguit River. Bathurst had been the location of the annual Mi'kmaq summer coastal community of Nepisiguit prior to European settlement. Europeans first reached the shores of the Baie des Chaleurs when in 1534 it was named by Jacques Cartier. Early settlers from France came to the area in the 17th century in what became part of the colony of Acadia. In 1607 Samuel de Champlain sailed into the Miramichi, in 1636, Nicolas Denys was granted a seignory by the French crown the third grant in the colony of Acadie. Jean Jacques Enaud, who hailed from the French Basque Country, was granted in 1638 the seignory at the southeastern gap of the harbor named Alston Point. Remark is made on William Francis Ganong's map of Bathurst Harbour, depicted here at left, of the residence of Nicolas Denys and the seignory of Gobin. Little is known about the region between the death of Nicholas Denys in 1688 and the Treaty of Utrecht, whereby Louis XIV ceded the territory of Acadia to Anne, Queen of Great Britain.
Although it was marked as an inlet, the Nepisiguit river was not noted in a British map dated 1744, although by 1755 Thomas Jefferys illustrates the "Nipisiki River" and "Nipisighit Bay". Historians remark the Battle of the Restigouche in June 1760 in the Baie des Chaleurs, various other incidents as the colony of Nouvelle France expired. According to Gamaliel Smethurst, a trader, permitted there by Governor Murray, the British attempted to remove the remaining scattered Acadians from the Nepisiguit basin and Caraquet in late October 1761. Following the formal fall of this part of Acadia to British control in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, the region saw the arrival of numerous English and Scottish settlers, eager to exploit the region's natural resources; some grants were rewards for good and loyal service with the King's arms: for example, Captain Arthur Goold of the Royal Marines was granted 2,000 acres on both sides of the Nepisiguit River mouth on 9 September 1784 in what is now known as East Bathurst.
One of the Scotsmen was Hugh Munro, who arrived in 1794 and who around 1800 was the founder of "the first and most ancient establishment" in the timber trade of Nepisiguit Bay. In 1807 Munro was appointed a justice of the peace and judge of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas for Northumberland County, He was first elected as one of the members of the Legislative Assembly for Northumberland County at the general election of 1820, maintained that office until the dissolution of that body in 1827. In 1828 he was elected to sit in the 9th New Brunswick Legislature when the county of Gloucester was given its first representative, it seems that the great 1825 Miramichi Fire had a significant impact on the fortunes of Bathurst, for the devastation of 6,000 acres forced northwards many displaced people. This incident was the reason for the subdivision of two new counties and Gloucester, out of what had been Northumberland County, in 1826, St. Peter's harbour was renamed in honour of the Colonial Secretary, Lord Bathurst.
The first St. George's Anglican Church was built in 1825 and consecrated as a place of worship in 1836; the Anglican burial ground near the old post office dates to 1823. The more recent St. George's church, built in 1864, on King avenue below St. Andrew Street is a nice example of Carpenter Gothic architecture; the community, which up to 1828 had been named St. Peters, was renamed by the Governor, Sir Howard Douglas, in honor of Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, Secretary of State for the Colonies of the British government. A man named Cooney wrote in May 1832 that in 1828, Bathurst only contained a few houses, but that four years' hence it had sprouted a brick Court House roofed with slate, a Gaol, a Post Office, a few mercantile establishments, more than 30 homes. What we now know as Riverside Drive was populated by several Francophone families and their "neat little Chapel... and two or three rustic wind mills" for grinding grain. He estimated its harbour area to be more than 600 souls.
Economic activities included farming and fishing. Joseph Cunard, attracted by the county's timber resources, set up a branch of his family's shipbuilding firm here at some time after the great fire in Miramichi of 1825. By 1828, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick as representative for Northumberland County, was variously a justice of the peace and served on the board of health. Joseph's brother Samuel Cunard was a landowner in Bathurst. Cunard purchased the Gould grant in 1837 and his production of ships in Bathurst harbor began in earnest; the age of timber ships began its decline in 1848 with the 1848 launch of Brunel's SS Great Britain, the revolutionary iron-hulled steamship. This event caused Joseph's shipbuilding firm to founder, with it went New Brunswick's economy. Samuel went on to manage the Cunard Line. A shipbuilder who followed in Cunard's wake by the name of John O'Brien built more than 60 ships from 1858 to 1877. Ship's carpenters and mast makers and other tradesmen were paid up to five dollars per day.
It was not unusual during the heyday of Bathurst shipbuilding to see anywhere from five to fifteen ships in various stages of construction along the waterfront. A stagecoach service between Bathurst and Chatham was launched by James Foran in 1832. Others, like James Waitt, James MacBeath, William Branch and John Rennie soon opened competition."Delirium tremens occasioned by the abuse of ardent spirits" caused at least one u
Campbellton, New Brunswick
Campbellton is a city with a population of 6,883 in Restigouche County, New Brunswick, Canada. Situated on the south bank of the Restigouche River opposite Pointe-à-la-Croix, Campbellton was incorporated in 1889 and achieved city status in 1958. Forestry and tourism are major industries in the regional economy, while a pulp mill in nearby Atholville is the largest single employer in the area; as part of the tourism "industry", wealthy sportfishermen seeking Atlantic salmon flock to the scenic Restigouche Valley every summer. The region sees extensive annual snowfall. Alpine and Nordic ski facilities at Sugarloaf Provincial Park provide winter recreation opportunities for both visitors and local residents. Campbellton is a retail and service centre for Restigouche County; the area around the site of the present city was settled by French people circa 1700 with a trading post based upon fishing and fur trading with the Mi'gmaq. More settlers arrived here when Ile St. Jean was lost to the French as the result of the capitulation of Louisbourg in 1758.
The area has had numerous names over the centuries: called Wisiamkik by the Mi'kmaq who inhabited the region, it was named Pointe-des-Sauvages by the French in 1700 and subsequently Pointe-Rochelle, Cavenik's Point, Kavanagh's Point, Quiton's Point and Martin's Point, before settling in 1833 with its current name in honour of Lieutenant-Governor Sir Archibald Campbell. It was here that the Battle of the Restigouche, the final naval battle between the English and French for the possession of North America during the Seven Years' War, was waged in 1760, it marked a turning point for the settlement. Robert Ferguson and the development of Campbellton and Atholville owed their development to the enterprising immigrants from Scotland. In 1769, only nine years after the Battle of Restigouche, Scotsman Hugh Baillie and a partner set up a fur and salted salmon business on the site that would become Campbellton; the business was sold to London merchant John Shoolbred, who in 1773 established the first British settlement on the Restigouche.
His agent, William Smith, brought over eight Scottish fishermen from Aberdeen, Scotland, to work for him. Two of these fishermen were John Duncan and Robert Adams, who brought their families with them as well; these two fishermen devoted themselves to the salmon fishing industry at Old Church Point, today Atholville. In 1794, a Scotsman from Perth named Alexander Ferguson settled in Martin's Point, where his brother Robert joined him two years later. Considered the founder of Restigouche County, Robert Ferguson established his control over the development of northern New Brunswick during the first half of the 19th century. In 1803, Ferguson inherited his brother's business and became the largest merchant and exporter of fish in Restigouche; until the 1840s, he shipped between 1,400 barrels of salted salmon per year. He became the most important landowner in the region, he operated a flour mill and a sawmill and exported hewn wood. He constructed his own boats in the village that now bears the name of Atholville.
In 1812, he built an impressive residence there that he named Athol House in memory of his native region of Scotland. In 1875, the advent of the intercolonial railway, permanent railway station in 1876, had a strong impact on Campbellton, its population increased reaching 1,800 in 1891, development of the settlement shifted westward. In 1889, Campbellton was incorporated as a town, in the late 1880s, an Hôtel Dieu was founded by the Religious Hospitallers of St. Joseph, an order that established hospitals and schools in many towns in Canada. On 11 July 1910, a disastrous fire sparked by a sawmill on the waterfront destroyed a large portion of the town; the fire was spread throughout the town by flaming shingles. Prior to the fire its population was approaching 4,000 citizens and help came from near and far to provide food and supplies in order to come to their aid. Most of the people had to live in tents. Campbellton was subsequently rebuilt. In the months and years following the fire, many of the new buildings were constructed of brick as Water Street had been designated a "Fire District" where all new buildings had to be built with fireproof exterior walls.
Following the fire the railway station was moved to Roseberry St. and helped to define Campbellton in its early years. The town was bidding to become the leading commercial center in the North Shore and had three banks, five churches, two schools, 6 hotels and a hospital by the 1920s. At this time Campbellton was seeing upwards of 16 trains a day at the Central Station. In 1928, a pulp mill was built in nearby Atholville which continued to propel the population growth being experienced. Campbellton was experiencing strong growth as the population grew at a steady rate: 3,817 in 1911, 5,570 in 1921, 6,505 in 1931, 6,714 in 1941, 9,257 in 1949. In 1951, Campbellton opened its new arena, the Memorial Gardens, with an exhibition game featuring the Montreal Canadiens. In 1958, Campbellton was incorporated as a City and its population was approaching 13,000. At this time the construction of the J. C. Van Horne Interprovincial bridge commenced, designed to facilitate travel between Quebec and Northern New Brunswick.
The bridge was completed in 1961 and allowed the cross-river town of Pointe-à-la-Croix to integrate itself commercially with the City of Campbellton. The Salmon Festival was inaugurated in 1967 and has been a popular annual week-long event, enjoyed by tourists and residents alike. Campbellton's city limits were expanded in 1979. In 2009, Mayor Bruce MacIntosh and Council made significant p
History of New Brunswick
New Brunswick, is one of the three Maritime provinces in Canada, the only bilingual province in the country. The history of New Brunswick can be viewed according to four periods: pre-European contact, French colonization, British colonization and New Brunswick since Confederation; the aboriginal nations of New Brunswick include the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet/Wəlastəkwiyik and Passamaquoddy. The Mi'kmaw territories are in the east of the province; the Maliseets are located along the length of the St. John River, the Passamaquoddy are situated in the southwest, around Passamaquoddy Bay. Amerindians have occupied New Brunswick for at least 13,000 years; the "Maliseet" are a First Nations people who inhabit the St. John River valley and its tributaries, extending to the St. Lawrence in Quebec, their territory included the entire watershed of the St. John River on both sides of the International Boundary between New Brunswick and Quebec in Canada, Maine in the United States. Wəlastəkwiyik is the name for the people of the St. John River, Wəlastəkwey is their language.
Maliseet is the name by which the Mi'kmaq described the Wəlastəkwiyik to early Europeans since the Wəlastəkwey language seemed to the Mi'kmaq to be a slower version of the Mi'kmaw language. The Wəlastəkwiyik so named themselves because their territory and existence centered on the St. John River which they called the Wəlastəkw, it meant "good river" for its gentle waves. Wəlastəkwiyik therefore means People of the Good River, in their own language. Before contact with the Europeans, the traditional culture of both the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy involved travelling downriver in the spring to fish and plant crops of corn, squash, to hold annual gatherings, they travelled to the saltwater for the summer, where they harvested seafoods and berries. In the early autumn they prepare for the winter. After the harvest, they dispersed in small family groups to their hunting grounds at the headwaters of the various tributaries to hunt and trap during the winter; the Passamaquoddy are a First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, in Maine and New Brunswick.
Like the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy maintained a migratory existence, but in the woods and mountains of the coastal regions along the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine and along the St. Croix River and its tributaries, they hunted inland in the winter. The name Passamaquoddy is an anglicization of the Passamaquoddy word Peskotomuhkatiyik, the name they applied to themselves. Peskotomuhkat means "pollock-spearer", reflecting the importance of this fish. Like the Maliseet, their method of fishing was spear-fishing rather than angling; the Passamaquoddy were moved off land by European settlers since the 16th century and were confined in the United States to two reservations, one at Indian Township near Princeton and the other at Sipayik, between Perry and Eastport in eastern Washington County, Maine. The Passamaquoddy live in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, have acquired legal status in Canada as a First Nation, they are pursuing the return of lands in the county, including Qonasqamkuk, their name for St. Andrews, New Brunswick, the ancestral capital of the Passamaquoddy.
The Mi'kmaq are a First Nations people, indigenous to Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, the Gaspe peninsula in Quebec and the eastern half of New Brunswick in the Maritime Provinces. Míkmaw is the adjective form of Míkmaq. In 1616 Father Biard believed the Mi'kmaw population to be in excess of 3,000. However, he remarked that, because of European diseases, including smallpox, there had been large population losses in the previous century. During the colonial wars the Mi'kmaq were allies with the four Abenaki nations, forming the Wabanaki Confederacy, pronounced. At the time of contact with the French they were expanding from their Maritime base westward along the Gaspé Peninsula /St. Lawrence River at the expense of Iroquioian peoples, hence the Mi'kmaq name for this peninsula, Gespedeg, they were amenable to limited French settlement in their midst, but as France lost control of Acadia in the 18th century, they soon found themselves overwhelmed by British who seized much of the land without payment and deported the French.
On the Mi'kmaq settled Newfoundland as the unrelated Beothuk tribe became extinct. It is accepted by Norse scholars that Vikings explored the coasts of Atlantic Canada, including New Brunswick, during their stay in Vinland where their base was at L'Anse aux Meadows, around the year 1000. Wild walnut shells found at l'Anse aux Meadows suggest that the Vikings did indeed explore further along the Atlantic Coast. Butternut trees do not now grow in Newfoundland, but recent studies suggest that due to environmental changes butternuts may have grown in Newfoundland around the year 1000-1001 AD; the first reco
Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an high tidal range. Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, are classified as a Hemispheric site, it is administered by the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the Canadian Wildlife Service, is managed in conjunction with Ducks Unlimited Canada and the Nature Conservancy of Canada. Some sources believe the name "Fundy" is a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split", while others believe it comes from the Portuguese funda, meaning "deep"; the bay was named Baie Française by Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition to St. Croix Island; the Bay of Fundy has a high tidal range. Oceanographers attribute it to tidal resonance resulting from a coincidence of timing: the time it takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the inner shore and back is the same as the time from one high tide to the next.
During the 12.4-hour tidal period, 115 billion tonnes of water flow out of the bay. According to the Canadian Hydrographic Service, there is a 16.8-metre tidal range in Leaf Basin for Ungava Bay and 17 metres at Burntcoat Head for the Bay of Fundy. The range at Leaf Basin is higher on average than at Minas Basin; the highest water level recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the "Saxby Gale". The water level of 21.6 metres resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, a spring tide. The tides in the Bay of Fundy are semidiurnal, which means that they have two highs and two lows each day; the height that the water rises and falls to each day during these tides are equal. There are six hours and thirteen minutes between each high and low tide. Alternative forms of energy are being explored in depth in a number of unique areas. Tidal energy harnesses the movement of ocean water to generate electricity through a number of mechanisms.
A process of gathering tidal energy called "In-stream turbine technology" is being tested in the Minas Passage, Nova Scotia. This project is being spearheaded by the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy or FORCE. In-stream tidal turbine technology is a simple design. An elevated turbine is submerged under water in a location that enables its movement with tidal cycles; as the blades of the turbine move, they create energy. From here the power travels to a cable attached to the seafloor and back to an offsite facility, where it can be added to the power grid. While this technology has shown to be successful in its early stages of testing, FORCE has not begun the process for energy collection. However, the installation of the undersea cable in December 2013 indicates that the project is moving along swiftly. A megawatt-scale turbine was installed at Cape Sharp near Partridge Island in November 2016, its owner, Open Hydro, went into insolvency in August 2018. The Bay of Fundy lies in a rift valley called the Fundy Basin.
These flood basalts poured out over the landscape. Sections of the flood basalts have been eroded away, but still form a basaltic mountain range known as North Mountain; as a result, much of the basin floor is made of tholeiitic basalts giving its brown colour. The rift valley failed as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continued to separate North America and Africa; the upper part of the bay splits into Chignecto Bay in the northeast and the Minas Basin in the east. Chignecto Bay is further subdivided into Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay and the extreme eastern portion of Minas Basin is called Cobequid Bay; some of these upper reaches exhibit exposed red bay muds. Cape Chignecto defines Chignecto Bay whereas Cape Split defines the Minas Channel, leading to the Minas Basin; the Minas Channel connects the Minas Basin with the main body of the bay. The channel is 5.6 kilometres across and 106.7 metres deep. The tides that flow through the channel are powerful, they are as powerful as 25 million horses. Facing Cape Split at the entrance to the Minas Channel are the basalt cliffs of Cape d'Or.
The lower part of the bay is home to four important sub-basins: Passamaquoddy Bay and Back Bay on the New Brunswick shore, Cobscook Bay on the Maine shore, the Annapolis Basin on the Nova Scotia shore. The bay is home to several islands, the largest of, Grand Manan at the boundary with the Gulf of Maine. Other important islands on the north side of the bay include Campobello Island, Moose Island, Deer Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay area. Brier Island and Long Island can be found on the south side of the bay while Isle Haute is in the upper bay off Cape Chignecto. Smaller islands and islets exist in Passamaquoddy Bay, Back Bay, Annapolis Basin; the Five Islands, in the Minas Basin, are scenic. The Bay of Fundy is home to another interesting geologic feature, the Hopewell Rocks formation; this formation is where the "famous flower-pot rocks" are l
Dieppe, New Brunswick
Dieppe is a city in the Canadian maritime province of New Brunswick. Statistics Canada counted the population at 25,384 in 2016, making it the fourth largest city in the province. Dieppe's history and identity goes back to the eighteenth century. Known as Leger's Corner, it was incorporated as a town in 1952 under the Dieppe name, designated as a city in 2003; the Dieppe name was adopted by the citizens of the area in 1946 to commemorate the Second World War's Operation Jubilee, the Dieppe Raid of 1942. It is a francophone city. A majority of the population reports speaking both French and English. Residents speak French with a regional accent, unique to southeastern New Brunswick. A large majority of Dieppe’s population were in favour of the by-law regulating the use of external commercial signs in both official languages, a first for the province of New Brunswick. Dieppe is the largest predominantly francophone city in Canada outside Québec. Dieppe was one of the co-hosts of the first Congrès Mondial Acadien, held in the Moncton region in 1994.
Dieppe is part of the census metropolitan area of Moncton, New Brunswick's most populous city at 144,810 according to Statistics Canada in 2016. Federal and provincial representatives Provincial electoral districts Members of the 58th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly, the governing house of the province of New Brunswick. Dieppe - Roger Melanson Shediac Bay-Dieppe - Brian GallantFederal electoral districts Members of the 42nd Parliament of Canada. A section of southeast Dieppe is in the Beauséjour riding. Moncton—Riverview—Dieppe - Ginette Petitpas Taylor Beauséjour - Dominic LeBlanc Dieppe is located on the Petitcodiac River, it forms the southeastern part of the Greater Moncton Area, which includes the city of Moncton, the town of Riverview, Moncton Parish, Memramcook and Salisbury. Dieppe's city population increased from 1971 to 1981 with the 1973 unification of the surrounding communities, i.e. Saint Anselme, Fox Creek/Dover and Chartersville. Being part of Moncton census metropolitan area, Statistics Canada counted the population at 144,810 – making it the largest urban area in New Brunswick and the third largest in Atlantic Canada.
Detailed mother tongue Acadians from the Petitcoudiac and Shepody regions were the first pioneers to settle in the area and founded Sylvabreau in 1730, followed by the Melanson family at Ruisseau-des-Renards in 1746 and the LeBlanc and Boudreau families at Chartersville in 1776. Preceding the arrival of Acadian settlers, the southern part of the province was inhabited by the Algonquin people; the Battle of the Petitcodiac was fought on September 2, 1755 during the British expulsion of the Acadians, after the capture of Fort Beauséjour. The Massachusetts-British force was soundly defeated by troops from Boishébert, Acadian militia, First Nations' warriors. At the mouth of the Nacadie Creek settlements such as le Coude and the surrounding hamlets were destroyed. After these raids, Acadians returned to these villages and the numbers grew as the deportation from peninsular Nova Scotia continued, followed by the deportation from present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton. Victory for the British occurred three years during the Petitcodiac River Campaign which resulted in the deportation of the Acadians that lived along the Petitcodiac River or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations.
Dieppe was known as Upper Village after the Expulsion and was settled by the Surette and Thibodeau families, while Chartersville was called Leblanc's Village and included members of the Boudreau's clan. Prior to 1800, Pierre Bourgeois had established himself on the Fox Creek salt marsh. Agriculture and some fishing sustained these Acadian families up until the mid-1800s, when shipbuilding and railways created employment opportunities for Acadians around the Moncton area. After a bridge was completed in 1867 at the mouth of Hall's Creek, a road was constructed that link the incorporated Town of Moncton's Westmorland Road to the Dieppe area; this road went through farmland that had belong to the Leger family and intersected the old road that had taken travellers up and around Hall's Creek to the community of Lewisville to get to Moncton. By 1900, the little area around the intersection became known as Léger's Corner, with the increasing traffic from the bridge, merchants became attracted to the corner and soon set up shops and services around the intersection.
Prior to the First World War, a small residential development was erected, the community continue to grow until the Second World War. A population explosion occurred. Léger's Corner received the largest influx of military personnel in southeastern New Brunswick. Ten thousand airmen and their support staff arrived overnight in 1940, soon temporary warehouses and housing were erected; when Léger's Corner became incorporated as a municipal village in 1946, the community was renamed Dieppe, after a port in France on the English Channel, to honour the 913 Canadian servicemen who took part in the Dieppe Raid, the bloody landing by Allied soldiers, on August 19, 1942, during the Second World War. Part of Lakeburn was annexed in 1946 and Dieppe-East in 1948. A refere