South East England
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, East Sussex, the Isle of Wight, Oxfordshire and West Sussex; as with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the south east has no elected government. It is the third largest region of England, with an area of 19,096 km2, is the most populous with a total population of over eight and a half million; the headquarters of the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford, the region contains seven cities: Brighton and Hove, Chichester, Portsmouth and Winchester, though other major settlements include Reading and Milton Keynes. Its proximity to London and connections to several national motorways have led to South East England becoming an economic hub, with the largest economy in the country outside the capital, it is the location of Gatwick Airport, the UK's second-busiest airport, its coastline along the English Channel provides numerous ferry crossings to mainland Europe.
The region is known for its countryside, which includes the North Downs and the Chiltern Hills as well as two national parks: the New Forest and the South Downs. The River Thames flows through the region and its basin is known as the Thames Valley, it is the location of a number of internationally known places of interest, such as HMS Victory in Portsmouth, Cliveden in Buckinghamshire, Thorpe Park and RHS Wisley in Surrey, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, Windsor Castle in Berkshire, Leeds Castle, the White Cliffs of Dover and Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, Brighton Pier and Hammerwood Park in East Sussex, Wakehurst Place in West Sussex. The region has many universities. South East England is host to various sporting events, including the annual Henley Royal Regatta, Royal Ascot and The Derby, sporting venues include Wentworth Golf Club and Brands Hatch; some of the events of the 2012 Summer Olympics were held in the south east, including the rowing at Eton Dorney and part of the cycling road race in the Surrey Hills.
At Eartham Pit, Boxgrove near Halnaker in West Sussex in December 1993, the oldest human remains in the UK – a tibia bone and a pair of lower incisor teeth – were found. An Acheulean hand axe was found. Bones of a Megalosaurus were found at a slate quarry at Stonesfield in Oxfordshire and named in 1824: it is now at Oxford University Museum of Natural History. In 1822 an Iguanodon was found at Whitemans Green near West Sussex; the Meonhill Vineyard, near Old Winchester Hill in east Hampshire on the South Downs south of West Meon on the A32, was the site of where the Romano-British grew Roman grapes. The Ridgeway runs through Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire and is Britain's oldest road; the post office at Shipton-under-Wychwood in Oxfordshire, in the Cotswolds, is the oldest still in use in England, built in 1845. The first British Grand Prix was held in 1926 at Brooklands, the world's first purpose-built motor circuit built in 1907 by Sir Hugh F. Locke-King, the land owner. Much of the Battle of Britain was fought in this region in Kent.
RAF Bomber Command was based at High Wycombe. RAF Medmenham at Danesfield House, west of Marlow in Buckinghamshire, was important for aerial reconnaissance. Operation Corona, based at RAF Kingsdown, was implemented to confuse German night fighters with native German-speakers, coordinated by the RAF Y Service. Bletchley Park in north Buckinghamshire was the principal Allied centre for codebreaking; the Colossus computer, arguably the world's first, began working on Lorentz codes on 5 February 1944, with Colossus 2 working from June 1944. The site was chosen, among other reasons, because it is at the junction of the Varsity Line and the West Coast Main Line; the Harwell computer, now at the National Museum of Computing at Bletchley, was built in 1949 and is believed to be the oldest working digital computer in the world. John Wallis of Kent, introduced the symbol for infinity, the standard notation for powers of numbers in 1656. Thomas Bayes was an important statistician from Tunbridge Wells. Sir David N. Payne at the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre invented the erbium-doped fibre amplifier, a type of optical amplifier, in the mid-1980s, which became essential for the internet.
Henry Moseley at Oxford in 1913 discovered his Moseley's law of X-ray spectra of chemical elements that enabled him to be the first to assign the correct atomic number to elements in periodic table. Carbon fibre was invented in 1963 at the RAE in Farnborough by a team led by William Watt; the Apollo LCG space-suit cooling system originated from work done at RAE Farnborough in the early 1960s. Donald Watts Davies, who went to grammar school in Portsmouth, took over from Alan Turing in developing Britain's early computers, invented packet switching in the late 1960s at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington. Packet-switching was taken up by the Americans to form the ARPANET. The
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Ventnor is a seaside resort and civil parish established in the Victorian era on the south-east coast of the Isle of Wight, eleven miles from Newport. It is situated south of St Boniface Down, built on steep slopes leading down to the sea; the higher part is referred to as Upper Ventnor. Ventnor is sometimes taken to include the nearby and older settlements of St Lawrence and Bonchurch, which are covered by its town council; the population of the parish in 2016 was about 5,800. Ventnor became fashionable as both a health and holiday resort in the late 19th century, described as the'English Mediterranean' and'Mayfair by the Sea'. Medical advances during the early twentieth century reduced its role as a health resort and, like other British seaside resorts, its summer holiday trade suffered the changing nature of travel during the latter part of that century, its sheltered location beneath the hilly chalk downland produces a microclimate with more sunny days and fewer frosts than the rest of the island.
This allows many species of subtropical plant to flourish. Ventnor retains a Victorian character, has an active arts scene, is regaining popularity as a place to visit. While Bonchurch and St Lawrence both have churches dating back to the Norman era, the area in-between that became Ventnor was unremarkable until the 19th century. In Anglo-Saxon times it was known as Holeweia, which by the 12th century had become Holeweye, or hollow way. By 1617 its name appears as Ventnor named after the family name le Vyntener. There are indications of Bronze Age settlement, with burial mounds on the nearby downs, excavations have evidenced small scale settlement in the area during both the Iron Age and the early Roman period; these include middens and palaeoenvironmental deposits at Binnel Bay, Woody Bay, St Catherine's Point and Rocken End. The Isle of Wight was the last part of England to be converted to Christianity, Saint Boniface is believed to have preached locally in the 8th century. During the 13th century, the area was covered by the manors of Holloway and Steephill, both belonging to the Lisle family.
A 1992 archaeological survey found evidence of a medieval settlement at Flowers Brook, referred to in a 1327 subsidy roll as Villata de steple. This area was subsequently incorporated into two farms, with some cottages on the site demolished in 1834. Ventnor watermill, on a site just north of the current cascade, is first mentioned in 1327, was destroyed by fire in 1848, rebuilt by 1853, demolished in 1875. In the early nineteenth century, in addition to the mill, Ventnor consisted of a few fishermen's huts by the cove, a couple of inns, a farm. In 1804, it was described by John Britton as a "hamlet...formed by a range of neat cottages chiefly inhabited by fishermen, open to the sea in front, backed by woods and the high downs". The area was divided between the parishes of Newchurch. In 1820 both of the manors were sold to other building speculators; the spur for expansion was the publication in 1830 of the second edition of physician James Clark's book: The influence of climate on disease. This identified the microclimate of Ventnor and the Undercliff as ideal for people with chest complaints, at a time when consumption was a common cause of death.
Thereafter Ventnor developed rapidly into a town, with numerous hotels and boarding houses targeting sick visitors during the winter, a wider range of shops than would be expected for a town of its size. In 1844 Parliament passed an Act "for better paving, lighting and otherwise improving part of the parish of Newchurch, called Ventnor, for establishing a market therein". However, not everyone was enamoured with the fast-growing town: in 1845, after recounting the positive reviews of others, writer John Gwilliam complained of the "intolerable" summer heat and the chalk dust about the town, concluding that to live there would "be one of the greatest punishments that could be inflicted upon me in the Isle of Wight". In 1853 the first newspaper on the island, the Ventnor Mercury, was launched. In 1869 Dr Arthur Hill Hassall opened the Royal National Hospital for Diseases of the Chest in St Lawrence, many local buildings date from the 1860s, by when the current commercial centre of the town was substantially developed.
The nineteenth century saw development aimed at wealthier holidaymakers from Britain and Europe, as British seaside resorts became popular. The first pier from 1860 was washed away. Breakwaters were built in 1863, by the following year, a steamer service to Littlehampton connected with trains to London. In 1866 the Isle of Wight Railway reached Ventnor, in 1870 the iron Royal Victoria Pier was constructed. Subsequent storm damage delayed the full establishment of steamer services until 1888 when they were carrying 10,000 passengers from Bournemouth, Southsea and Shanklin; the railway ran a non-stop train from Ryde to Ventnor, named'The Invalid Express' for the consumptive patients. Ventnor became known as ` Mayfair by the sea' for the number of wealthy Londoners. In 1887, Bartholomew's Gazetteer described Ventnor as "one of the most popular of English health resorts", with the parish
Hampshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the counties of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight in South East England. The force area includes Southampton, the largest city in South East England, the naval city of Portsmouth, it covers the New Forest National Park, sections of the South Downs National Park, large towns such as Basingstoke, Andover and Aldershot, the historic city of Winchester. The constabulary, as it is constituted, dates from 1967, but modern policing in Hampshire can be traced back to 1832. In late 2015, the force moved its strategic headquarters to Eastleigh, into a building shared with Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service. At the same time, the force moved its Operational Headquarters to Mottisfont Court in Winchester; the Support & Training Headquarters and control room are located in Netley, near Southampton, in buildings of the former Netley Hospital. The first constituted police force formed in Hampshire was the Winchester City Police, founded in 1832.
The Hampshire County Constabulary was established seven years in December 1839 as a result of the passing of the County Police Act that year. The force had a chief constable and two superintendents: one was based in Winchester, the second based on the Isle of Wight; the first separate police force on the island was formed in 1837 when the Newport Borough Police was established. A separate Isle of Wight Constabulary was not formed until 1890 when the island was the granted administrative county status. During the 19th century, Hampshire County Constabulary absorbed various borough forces including Basingstoke Borough Police, Romsey Borough Police, Lymington Borough Police and Andover Borough Police; the Isle of Wight Constabulary absorbed the borough forces of Newport and Ryde. Winchester and Portsmouth continued to have independent police forces. In 1914 the Special Constabulary started to perform regular duties'for the continuous preservation of order during the war'. Prior to this Special Constables were only called up to assist at major riots.
In 1943, as part of the Defence Regulations 1942, Hampshire County Constabulary was amalgamated with the Isle of Wight and Winchester City Police forces to form the Hampshire Joint Police Force. The two city forces, Southampton City Police and Portsmouth City Police, remained independent. Although this arrangement was intended only as a wartime measure, it continued after hostilities ended. In 1948, the merger was made permanent, with Hampshire Joint Police Force being renamed Hampshire Constabulary; the name was changed once again to Hampshire and Isle of Wight Constabulary. The Police Act 1964 led to the amalgamation of the city forces into the Hampshire force; this created the present-day Hampshire Constabulary. The last major changes to the police area were in 1974, when the Local Government Act changed a number of local government areas, the responsibility for policing Christchurch was transferred to Dorset Police; the names of forces that have policed the counties of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight since the nineteenth century are illustrated below: In 1965, the force had an establishment of 1,346 and an actual strength of 1,137.
The headquarters moved to their current locations in Eastleigh and Winchester in 2015. The previous facility in Winchester, close to Winchester Prison sat on the site of the first county headquarters, built in 1847. Between 2013 and 2017, a number of police stations were closed and sold, while others had their public facilities closed; the need to reduce costs led to the formation of a Joint Operations Unit with Thames Valley Police which, during the course of 2012, saw the amalgamation of Roads Policing Units, Training and Dog Units of the two forces. The IT departments of the forces merged in early 2011. In April 2015, Hampshire Constabulary announced a "new-look policing model", beginning a major reorganisation. 1840 - 14 Superintendents appointed, each to head a'Division'. 1893 - Chief Constable Peregrine Fellowes, a former Assistant Adjutant General of Australia, in office for less than two years, is fatally injured in Romsey Road, Winchester - outside police headquarters - when, together with other officers, he attempts to stop a runaway horse and trap.
Crushed against a wall he dies several days from his injuries and is buried in the Fellowes family plot at Westhill Cemetery, Winchester. 1914 - In Andover, the imprisonment of a mother and daughter sparks rioting involving crowds of up to two thousand people. Local officers seek the assistance of the fire brigade who are pelted with stones and retreat to their station; the arrival of mounted officers from Basingstoke fails to quell the disturbances and only after three days do extra officers drafted in from other stations bring the disorder to an end. 1915 - Southampton Police appoint two women police - they were not served in uniform. Miss Annette Tate was one of them 1929 - Hampshire Constabulary acquires its first motorised patrol vehicle - a BSA motorcycle combination. 1943 - Winchester City Police and Isle of Wight Constabulary forced to amalgamate with Hampshire as a war time measure. The amalgamation became permanent in 1947. 1944 - Women Inspector appointed: Miss P Yates. 1957 - On 1 April the name of the force changed from Hampshire Constabulary to Hampshire and Isle of Wight Constabulary 1967 - Southampton Police and Portsmouth Police amalgamated with the Hampshire County Force 1970 - The Isle of Wight Festival takes place at Afton Down attracting huge crowds, estimates varying from five to six hu
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
Isle of Wight (UK Parliament constituency)
Isle of Wight is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Bob Seely of the Conservative Party. Created by the Great Reform Act for the 1832 general election it covers the whole of the Isle of Wight, it has the largest electorate of a constituency, since 1983. The Isle of Wight has since 1832 been a single seat of the House of Commons, it covers the same land as the ceremonial county of the Isle of Wight and the area administered by the unitary authority, Isle of Wight Council: a diamond-shaped island with rounded oblique corners, measuring 22.5 miles by 13 miles, the Needles and similar small uninhabitable rocks of small square surface area. The island is linked by ferry crossings from four points to three points in Hampshire: Lymington and Portsmouth, its electorate of 110,924 is, by more than 30,000 electors, the largest in the UK, more than 50% above the English average: 71,537, five times the size of the smallest seat: Na h-Eileanan an Iar known as the Western Isles.
The five national Boundary Commission Periodic Reports which have taken place since 1955 consulted locally on splitting the island into two seats but met an overall distaste by the independent commissioners and most consultees and consultation respondents who were not apathetic which accounted for the bulk. The consensus of varying panels of Boundary Commissioners, party-interested and neutral commentators was at the time of these five consultations, that the island would be best represented by one MP; the Commissioners did make mention perfunctorily of their duty by law to avoid such an extent of malapportionment but deemed that electoral scientific detail outweighed by the "human" socio-economic factors of the convenience of having one universally acknowledged representative of the island at the national legislature. One problem the independent body cited in 2008 was a difficulty of dividing the island in two in a way that would be acceptable to all major interests; the arbitrary division line problem is encountered in those city council areas which have no rural elements or natural divides and in peninsulars and resolves itself in dividing in alterate ways at different times to avoid any onset or perception of any bias.
In the 2018 review underway, dividing the island into two separate seats is a requirement by law to match the other island seats. The Commission's draft proposals divide the island into West seats. Newport would be in the West seat. Before the Reform Act 1832 the island had three Parliamentary boroughs: Newport and Yarmouth each electing two MPs. In 1654 a whole island constituency existed for the First Protectorate Parliament but the island reverted to the three constituencies. Otherwise, the island was part-represented by the two MPs for Hampshire; the Reform Act abolished Newtown and Yarmouth parliamentary boroughs, resurrected a county constituency for the whole island. The county electorate included freeholders, qualified by property, in the remaining parliamentary borough; the separate and overlapping Newport representation was abolished in 1885. The constituency has traditionally been a battleground between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats and their predecessors; the seat was held by a Liberal from 1974 until 1987, a Conservative until 1997, a Liberal Democrat until 2001, a Conservative since then.
At the 2015 election, the incumbent Conservative scored one of his party's largest reductions in vote in that year's election to the Liberal Democrat who finished in fifth place. In the 2017 general election, Nick Belfitt, the Liberal Democrat candidate, became the youngest candidate to stand for the seat at the age of 23. 1654: Lord Lisle. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. Caused by Simeon's death. Caused by Simeon's resignation after he converted from Anglicanism to Catholicism. Politics of the Isle of Wight List of Parliamentary constituencies in the South East List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies Politics Resources Electoral Calculus 2017 Election House Of Commons Library 2017 Election report A Vision Of Britain Through Time Notes References