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Derived stem

Derived stems are a morphological feature of verbs common to the Semitic languages. These derived verb stems are sometimes called augmentations or forms of the verb, or are identified by their Hebrew name binyanim. Semitic languages make extensive use of nonconcatenative morphology, most words share a set of two, three or four consonants which comprise a root wherein each root may be the basis for a number of conceptually related words. Traditionally, words are thought of as being derived from these root consonants, but a view held by contemporary linguists sees stem words being the source of derivations rather than consonantal roots. Regardless, each language features a number of set patterns for deriving verb stems from a given root or underived stem. Stems sharing the same root consonants represent separate verbs, albeit semantically related, each is the basis for its own conjugational paradigm; as a result, these derived stems are part of the system of derivational morphology, not part of the inflectional system.

One stem is associated with the ordinary simple active verbs while others may be canonically associated with other grammatical functions such as the passive, the causative, the intensive, the reflexive, etc. or combinations thereof. These functions should not be taken as universal or absolute, but are better understood as relational, depending on the particular source of the derived stem; these grammatical functions are not present in all Semitic languages. Modern Aramaic, for example has only two stems, one for monosyllabic verbs and the other for disyllabic verbs, with hardly any cases of related verbs in each stem. For example, in Arabic and Hebrew, words containing the root √k-t-b have a meaning related to writing. Thus: In the basic stem, "he wrote" in Arabic is "kataba", in Hebrew is "katav". In a causative stem, "he dictated" in Arabic is "ʔaktaba" and in Hebrew is "hiḵtīv". In the passive stem, "it was written" in Arabic is "inkataba" and in Hebrew is "niḵtav". In a reflexive stem, "he corresponded" in Arabic is "kātaba" and in Hebrew is "hu hitkatːēv".

The following two tables show the full paradigm of templates for the nine most common Arabic stems and the seven most common Hebrew stems, illustrate some of the different meanings and functions that stems can have. The first column gives the traditional stem abbreviation used by Comparative Semiticists and the second column gives typical stem names used in Arabic and Hebrew grammars; the next columns give the canonical functions of each stem, their templates. The meaning and form of the stems with the √k-t-b root is given in the 3rd person masculine singular perfect, which lacks inflectional affixes; the tD Stem for Arabic is not given for the √k-t-b root because it does not occur, illustrating that not each root has an actual form for each stem. In each Semitic language, the number of derived stems is different. In Hebrew, both biblical and modern, there are seven common ones, in Arabic there are nine common forms and at least six rare ones. There are different ways of naming stems, most systems classify stems by their morphological patterns but others number them.

In Arabic, a system using Roman numerals is used, as well as a more traditional system where the forms with the root letters √f-ʕ-l are used as names of each stem. Hebrew uses this latter system, although the cognate root used is √p-ʕ-l. In Akkadian, forms with the √p-r-s root "to decide" are most used; the convention using Latin letter abbreviations is a morphological shorthand used most by comparative Semiticists, emphasizes the relationships between stems within and between languages. G-Stem is the base stem, from the German Grund D-Stem has a Doubled second root letter L-Stem Lengthens the first vowel N-Stem has a prefix with N C- or Š-Stem has a Causative meaning and has a prefix with Š, S, H, or ʔ. T Stems have an affix with t; the following table compares some of the important stems of six different Semitic languages: Akkadian, Biblical Hebrew, Standard Arabic, Geʿez, Shehri, representing different Semitic subfamilies. By examining these and a few other forms, using the comparative method and internal reconstruction, the Grammatical Function and Template for the Proto-Semitic derived stems have been reconstructed.

The asterisk in the Proto-Semitic Template column indicates that these forms are hypothetical and reconstructed. Because the L Stem is only attested in the geographically and genetically proximate Arabic and South Semitic languages, it is thought to be a innovation, not present in Proto-Semitic. By contrast, since separate but morphologically similar Št and ŠtG Stems are attested in the distantly related Akkadian and Shehri, these are posited to have been different stems in Proto-Semitic, but to have merged in most Semitic languages. Pattern-and-root inflectional morphology: the Arabic broken

The Amityville Horror (franchise)

The Amityville Horror is a media franchise of books and films based on and inspired by the real-life murders committed by Ronald DeFeo, Jr. and the paranormal experiences of the Lutz family, who lived in the house where the murders took place. The Amityville Horror, a 1977 book by American author Jay Anson Murder in Amityville, a 1979 book by Hans Holzer that serves as a prequel to The Amityville Horror The Amityville Horror Part II, a 1982 book by John G. Jones that serves as a sequel to The Amityville Horror Amityville: The Final Chapter Amityville: The Evil Escapes The Amityville Curse Amityville: The Horror Returns Amityville: The Nightmare Continues High Hopes: The Amityville Murders My Amityville Horror, a 2012 documentary focusing on Daniel Lutz's side of the story regarding the events. Bloodbath at the House of Death, a 1984 spoof on the 1979 film The Amityville Horror

Kyaikhtiyo Wildlife Sanctuary

Kyaikhtiyo Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area in Myanmar stretching over 156.21 km2. It covers mixed deciduous forests an elevation of 50 -- 1,090 m in Kyaikto Township, it was established in 2001 to conserve the biodiversity around the Kyaiktiyo Pagoda, a famous pilgrimage site in Mon State. It is managed by Wildlife Conservation Division; the Indo-Pacific gecko occurs in the sanctuary. In 2001, the bent-toed gecko Cyrtodactylus aequalis was discovered in the sanctuary and described as a new species in 2003. Key wildlife species are leopard, red goral. Sambar deer, Indian muntjac, wild boar are said to occur in the sanctuary. Kyaikhtiyo Wildlife Sanctuary is threatened by illegal logging, harvesting of fire wood and hunting of wildlife for subsistence

Frederick Ellsworth Sickels

Frederick Ellsworth Sickels or Sickles was an American inventor, best known for the invention of a cut-off valve for steam engines in 1841. Sickels grew up in New York City. After having worked for a year for the Harlem Railroad, he apprenticed at the age of 17 at the Allaire shops, where he developed a new type of steam cut-off valve for steam engines, he had perfected his invention by 1841. Sickels obtained a patent for this invention, which he called'Manner of constructing the apparatus for lifting and regulating the closing of valves of steam engines' on March 20, 1842. Thurston relates "It was introduced by the inventor in a form which adapted it to use with the beam-engine used on the Eastern waters of the United States, was adapted to stationary engines by Messrs. Thurston, Greene & Co. of Providence, R. I. who made use of it for some years before any other form of "drop cut-off" came into general use. The Sickels cut-off consisted of a set of steam-valves independent of the exhaust-valves, each raised by a catch, which could be thrown out, at the proper moment, by a wedge with which it came in contact as it rose with the opening valve.

This wedge, or other equivalent device, was so adjusted that the valve should be detached and fall to its seat when the piston reached that point in its movement, after taking steam, at which expansion was to commence. From this point, no steam entering the cylinder, the piston was impelled by the expanding vapor; the valve was the double-poppet.". As described by Somerscales it was'a quick-closing valve gear using poppet valves, a trip gear to control the cut-off... with gravity assisted closure... Sickels used a water-filled dashpot to decelerate the valve smoothly as it approached the end of its travel.'. The device was not applied to the slide valve, which became so ubiquitous in steam engines, but to poppet valves; these were first used by Watt for his beam engines in the 1780s. Watt had fitted two conical valves to the upper steam passage to the steam cylinder and two to the lower passage; this is well illustrated in the text by Lardner. This arrangement of two such valves per steam passage was described as the'double-beat','balanced' or'equilibrium' poppet valve by various authors.

A schematic of equilibrium poppet valves appears in Buchanan and Watkins reproduced with further discussion in connection with Sickels by Somerscales. However to reiterate, it is not the double poppet valve that can be attributed to Sickels, but a particular manner of its operation. In 1843 and 1845 he further improved his design. Sickel's new type of valve made high-pressure steam engines possible, it was copied extensively and appeared soon in the Corliss engine. Sickels sued Corliss and others for patent infringement, but although he won these court cases, they just consumed his own modest fortune: by the time the Corliss case was decided, the patents had expired, in at least one other case, the defendant company failed shortly before the judgment is Sickels's favor was entered. In the late 1840s, he began working on a steam-powered steering device for ships, on which he obtained U. S. patent 9713 on May 10, 1853. While the device worked, he did not succeed to find a buyer. Sickels went to England, where he obtained patents on his steering device, but having failed to sell his invention there either, he returned in 1867 to the U.

S. In 1891 he patented a cam-operated actuating mechanism for steam poppet valves, superseding the complex mechanism he patented in 1845 and had re-issued with further documentation in 1860. Subsequently, Sickels worked as a civil engineer in the American west, building bridges and railroads. In 1891, he became the head of the National Water Works in Kansas City. On January 7 of the same year, he became a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Sickels is one of the people shown on the famous painting Men of Progress. In 2007, he was inducted in the National Inventors Hall of Fame

De Leonism

De Leonism known as Marxism–De Leonism, is a libertarian Marxist current developed by the American activist Daniel De Leon. De Leon was an early leader of the first United States socialist political party, the Socialist Labor Party of America. De Leon combined the rising theories of revolutionary syndicalism in his time with orthodox Marxism. According to De Leonist theory, militant industrial unions are the vehicle of class struggle. Industrial unions serving the interests of the proletariat will bring about the change needed to establish a socialist system. While sharing some characteristics of anarcho-syndicalism and with the SLP being a member of the predominantly anarcho-syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World, De Leonism differs from it in that he and the modern SLP still believe in the necessity of a central government to coordinate production as well as in the use of a revolutionary political party, in addition to union action, to achieve its goals. According to the De Leonist theory, workers would form socialist industrial unions in the workplaces and a socialist political party which would organise in the political realm.

Upon achieving sufficient support for a victory at the polls, the political party would be voted into office, giving the De Leonist program a mandate from the people. It is assumed that at that point the socialist industrial unions will have attained sufficient strength in the workplaces for workers there to take control of the means of production; the De Leonist victory at the polls would be accompanied by a transfer of control of the factories, mines and other means of production to workers councils organised within the industrial unions. De Leonists distinguish this event from the general strike to take control of the workplaces advocated by anarcho-syndicalists and refer to it instead as a "general lockout of the ruling class"; the existing government would be replaced with a government elected from within the socialist industrial unions and the newly elected socialist government would enact whatever constitutional amendments or other changes in the structure of government needed to bring this about, adjourning sine die.

Workers on the shop floor would elect local shop floor committees needed to continue production and representatives to local and national councils representing their particular industry. Workers would elect representatives to a central congress, called an All-Industrial Congress, which would function as the national government; these representatives would be subject to a recall vote at any time. De Leonism would thus reorganise the national government along industrial lines with representatives elected by industry, not by geographic location. De Leonism lies outside the Leninist tradition of communism, it predates Leninism as De Leonism's principles developed in the early 1890s with De Leon's assuming leadership of the SLP. Leninism and its idea of a vanguard party took shape after the 1902 publication of Lenin's What Is to Be Done? De Leonism is opposed to the policies of the former Soviet Union and those of the People's Republic of China and other socialist states, do not consider them socialist but rather state capitalist or following "bureaucratic state despotism".

The decentralised nature of the proposed De Leonist government is in contrast to the democratic centralism of Marxism–Leninism and what they see as the dictatorial nature of the Soviet Union. The success of the De Leonist plan depends on achieving majority support among the people both in the workplaces and at the polls, in contrast to the Leninist notion that a small vanguard party should lead the working class to carry out the revolution. De Leonism's stance against reformism means that it is referred to by the label "impossibilist", along with the Socialist Party of Great Britain. De Leonist political parties have been criticised for being overly dogmatic and sectarian. Despite their rejection of Leninism and vanguardism, De Leonism lies outside the "democratic socialist" and "social democratic" tradition. De Leon and other De Leonist writers have issued frequent polemics against democratic socialist movements the Socialist Party of America. De Leonists have traditionally refrained from any activity or alliances viewed by them as trying to reform capitalism, though the Socialist Labor Party in De Leon's time was active during strikes and such, such as social justice movements, preferring instead to concentrate on the twin tasks of building support for a De Leonist political party and organising socialist industrial unions.

Daniel De Leon proved hugely influential to other socialists outside the US. For example, in the UK, a Socialist Labour Party was formed. De Leon's hopes for peaceful and bloodless revolution influenced Antonio Gramsci's concept of passive revolution. George Seldes quotes Lenin saying on the fifth anniversary of the revolution, "... What we have done in Russia is accept the De Leon interpretation of Marxism, what the Bolsheviks adopted in 1917." Impossibilism Industrial Workers of the World Libertarian Marxism