Aboriginal Australian is a collective term for all the indigenous peoples from the Australian mainland and Tasmania. This group contains many separate cultures that have developed in the various environments of Australia for more than 50,000 years; these peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self identify as a single group. The exact definition of the term Aboriginal Australian has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. In the past Aboriginal Australians lived over large sections of the continental shelf and were isolated on many of the smaller offshore islands, once the land was inundated at the start of the inter-glacial. However, they are distinct from the Torres Strait Islander people, despite extensive cultural exchange. Today Aboriginal Australians comprise 3.1% of Australia's population.
They live throughout the world as part of the Australia diaspora. Before extensive European settlement, there were over 200 Aboriginal languages. However, today most Aboriginal people speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, they have a number of health and economic deprivations in comparison with the wider Australian community. A new definition was proposed in the Constitutional Section of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs' Report on a Review of the Administration of the Working Definition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: An Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he lives. Justice Gerard Brennan in his leading judgment in Mabo v Queensland stated: Membership of the Indigenous people depends on biological descent from the Indigenous people and on mutual recognition of a particular person's membership by that person and by the elders or other persons enjoying traditional authority among those people.
The category "Aboriginal Australia" was coined by the British after they began colonising Australia in 1788, to refer collectively to all people they found inhabiting the continent, to the descendants of any of those people. Until the 1980s, the sole legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race, classified according to visible physical characteristics or known ancestors; as in the British slave colonies of North America and the Caribbean, where the principle of partus sequitur ventrem was adopted from 1662, children's status was determined by that of their mothers: if born to Aboriginal mothers, children were considered Aboriginal, regardless of their paternity. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to basic human rights depended upon your race. If you were a "full-blooded Aboriginal native... any person having an admixture of Aboriginal blood", a half-caste being the "offspring of an Aboriginal mother and other than Aboriginal father", a "quadroon", or had a "strain" of Aboriginal blood you were forced to live on Reserves or Missions, work for rations, given minimal education, needed governmental approval to marry, visit relatives or use electrical appliances.
The Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament a power to legislate with respect to "the people of any race" throughout the Commonwealth, except for people of "the aboriginal race"; the purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, who would follow work opportunities interstate. The only other reference, Section 127, provided that "aboriginal natives shall not be counted" in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it; the purpose of Section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in Section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories. After these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals. Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to mention Indigenous Australians.
The change to Section 51 enabled the Commonwealth parliament to enact laws with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a "race". In the Tasmanian Dam Case of 1983, the High Court of Australia was asked to determine whether Commonwealth legislation, whose application could relate to Aboriginal people—parts of the World Heritage Properties Conservation Act 1983 as well as related legislation—was supported by Section 51 in its new form; the case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve the cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians. It was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, any part of either, could be regarded as a "race" for this purpose; as to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a "race", the definition by Justice Deane has become accepted as current law. Deane said: It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase "people of any race" in s. 51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning....
The phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in that regard, is removed
Narrogin, Western Australia
Narrogin is a large town in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia, 192 kilometres southeast of Perth on the Great Southern Highway between Pingelly and Wagin. In the age of steam engines, Narrogin was one of the largest railway operation hubs in the southern part of Western Australia. Narrogin is an Aboriginal name, having been first recorded as "Narroging" for a pool in this area in 1869; the meaning of the name is uncertain, various sources recording it as "bat camp", "plenty of everything" or derived from "gnargagin" which means "place of water". The first Europeans into the Narrogin area were Alfred Hillman and his party who surveyed the track between Perth and Albany in 1835, they passed only 10 km west of the present site of Narrogin. In time they were followed by the occasional shepherd who drove his sheep into the area seeking good pastures; the area was first settled in the 1860s and 1870s when pastoralists moved and settled in isolated outposts. The population was so scattered. Narrogin was declared a town in June 1897 and it was gazetted as a municipality on 13 April 1906.
The early years of settlement were hard with farmers relying on sandalwood cutting and the bark from mallee trees to compensate for poor returns from wheat and sheep. By early 1898 the population of the town was 35 males and 25 females; the local Agricultural Hall was opened the same year by Frederick Piesse. The arrival of the Great Southern Railway in July 1889 initiated the first hint of a town; the railway company was in search of good reliable watering points along the route from Perth to Albany. The company that had won the railway contract, the WA Land Company, duly purchased Narrogin pool and it was around this pool that the town developed. Narrogin was connected to six separate railway destinations – York, Collie, Wickepin and Boddington. Narrogin remained a major rail centre until the late 1970s when competition from road transport saw a reduction in the railways workforce. By 1987, Narrogin was much in decline as the result of altered working of engines through from Avon Yard; the station ceased to be served by scheduled passenger trains from 1978.
The number of employees dropped from about 280 people to fewer than a dozen in 1995. Narrogin's previous role as a major railway junction has acted as an attractor for agricultural service industries as well as government departments and agencies; the town has accumulated significant public infrastructure – in the health and education areas. This infrastructure serves as the base for the modern regional centre that Narrogin has become today. According to the Town of Narrogin, Narrogin is unlike many other rural regional centres throughout Australia and is enjoying a strong and constant growth rate of 2% per year, at the expense of surrounding areas. However, statistics from ABS show a steady decline in population from 1981 through to today – 4969, 4638, 4419 and 4219, it is worth noting that in 2006, the population in Narrogin was 4238, so between 2006 and 2011 the town lost only 19 people. Therefore, the population decline in the town has slowed down significantly; the Old Court House Museum is a major attraction for tourists.
The building was designed by the architect George Temple-Poole and constructed in 1894. The building served as a Government school until 1905. A local branch of the Agricultural Bank was housed in the building between 1924 and 1945, but in 1970 it was converted again into the local courthouse. Since 1976, the building has been used as a museum; the surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops. The town is a receival site for Cooperative Bulk Handling. Narrogin has a Mediterranean climate characterised by cool, wet winters; the highest temperature recorded in Narrogin was 44.7 °C on 3 February 2007 while the lowest temperature recorded was −3.1 °C on 6 September 1956. Narrogin's highest daily rainfall occurred on 29 January 1990 when 150.0 millimetres of rain was recorded. In 1951 the Australian Grand Prix was held on a large seven kilometre circuit laid out the town's streets; the event attracted a crowd estimated at 35,000 and was won by Warwick Pratley driving an Australian developed car.
The town acts as a hub for sporting competitions in the surrounding regions. Facilities were improved in recent years with the development of the Narrogin Leisure Complex, which houses a 50m outdoor pool, 25m indoor heated pool with leisure pool, café, squash courts, basketball stadiums as well as a world class wet synthetic hockey turf. During World War 2, Narrogin was the location of RAAF No.25 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot, built in 1942 and closed on 14 June 1944. It was situated on Granite Road. Consisting of 4 tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and supply of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000. Barry Cable, the star Perth and North Melbourne Australian Rules Football player came from Narrogin. Bevan George, field hockey player who won the gold medal with the Australian Men's Team at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Brian Glencross, a retired Australian field hockey player and coach of the Australian Women's Team.
Brad Hogg, retired Australian cricketer, current player of the Melbourne Renegades and former player for the Perth Scorchers Shaun Marsh, Australian cricketer and the elder son of retired cricketer Geoff Marsh. Stephen Smith, an Australian Labor Party politician. Albert Facey, author of A Fortunate Life, lived a period of his life in Narrogin. Town o
HMS Warspite (1807)
HMS Warspite was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched in 1807. She served in the Napoleonic Wars and was decommissioned in 1815. After conversion to a 76-gun ship in 1817 she circumnavigated the world, she was cut down to a single decker 50-gun frigate in 1840 and was decommissioned in 1846. She was lent as a boys' training ship to The Marine Society and was lost to fire in 1876. After a long delay due to shortage of timber, Warspite was launched on 16 November 1807 at Chatham and commissioned by Sir Henry Blackwood, Admiral Lord Nelson's ‘favourite frigate captain’, she was designed by Sir John Henslow as one of the large class 74s, was the second, last, ship of a class of two. As a large'74', she carried 24-pdrs on her upper gun deck instead of the 18-pdrs found on the middling and common class 74s. Warspite spent three years between 1810 playing a supporting role in the Peninsular War, she took part in the long blockade of Toulon in 1810. She joined the Channel Fleet, protecting British trade while intercepting French and American ships.
During early 1813 Warspite took a couple of lucrative ‘prizes’ including a US schooner bound for Philadelphia ‘with brandy, silks, etc.’ from France. In June 1814 her name appears for the first time on the North American and West Indies Station, when she carried reinforcements to Quebec, she was paid off in 1815 only to be recommissioned in 1817. At the same time her stern was altered and she was given diagonal bracing on the framing introduced by Sir Robert Seppings. In 1825 she sailed from Portsmouth with Rear Admiral Philip Woodehouse as the new commanding officer of the West Indies station. During 1826-27 she circumnavigated the World under Captain William Parker, but bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Gage, departing from Spithead for India. At Trincomalee Rear-Admiral Gage was replaced by Commodore Sir James Brisbane as the new South Atlantic Station commander-in-chief. However, following Commodore Brisbane's death from a contracted tropical disease, Captain Richard Saunders Dundas of the accompanying 6th rate Survey ship HMS Volage took command for the rest of the voyage which saw Warspite as the first ship of the line to visit Port Jackson in the colony of New South Wales in Australia.
Returning to the station with the Malta squadron late in 1828 she was detached to transport Count Capo d'Istria, President of the Greek republic, to various locations around the Eastern Mediterranean while blockading Navarino and Coron in coordination with the French and Russian allied squadrons. In this capacity it helped to interdict two Egyptian corvettes at Navarino, one suffering substantial damage when it ignored warning shots and was engaged with the main battery. Captain Parker participated in several conferences with Ibrahim Pasha to negotiate the withdrawal of Egyptian troops from Greece. In 1831 she was at the South American station as the flagship of Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Baker, Captain Charles Talbot, at one time contribution towards salvage of HMS Thetis cargo off Cape Frio in 1830. Warspite was reduced to a one-decker 50-gun frigate in 1840, for service on the Home station under Lord John Hay, is recorded to have visited the United States in 1842, exchanging salutes with USS North Carolina and the frigate Columbia in the New York harbor.
She was used for anti-piracy patrols in the Mediterranean, including the blockade of the mouth of the river Xanthus in 1844. Her last senior officer was Captain Wallis, serving at the Gibraltar station before she was paid off in 1846. In 1862 she was loaned to The Marine Society as a boys' training ship, for which she was permanently moored on the Thames between Woolwich and Charlton. Training for about 150 boys at a time was conducted over about 10 months to provide basic seaman knowledge, including of ship lore and discipline, sufficient to be employed as Boy Seaman in either the Royal Navy or the merchant marine. On 6 August 1863 she was struck by the Russian ironclad Pervenets while the latter was undergoing sea trials, she was destroyed by fire in January 1876 on loan. The wreck was sold to McArthur and Co on 2 February 1876. Media related to HMS Warspite at Wikimedia Commons Warspite at Ships of the Old Navy website
Toolibin Lake is a seasonal fresh to brackish water perched lake or wooded swamp, in south-western Australia. The lake is contained with a 493-hectare nature reserve and it is located about 200 kilometres south-east of Perth, in the Shire of Narrogin, 40 kilometres east of the town of Narrogin, in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia; the lake is listed by the Australian Government as a threatened ecological community under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The lake lies in the catchment of the upper Blackwood River at an altitude of 300 metres above mean sea level, it is about 300 hectares in area and 2 kilometres in diameter, has a maximum depth of 2 metres, is one of the last remaining inland freshwater lakes found in south-western Australia. It is one of a chain of wetlands occupying a palaeodrainage valley forming part of the northern Arthur River system. Most of it is covered with a woodland of water tolerant tree species, with a large open area on the eastern side.
Many other Wheatbelt wetlands supported a vegetation community and ecosystem similar to that of Toolibin, but clearing for agriculture has resulted in most such sites becoming saline with a concomitant loss of emergent vegetation. Toolibin is the only major lake in the catchment that has not become saline. Toolibin Lake lies in a low rainfall area of the Wheatbelt with an average annual rainfall of 400 mm falling in May–August, with annual evaporation of 1800 mm, it only holds water at certain times of year. Toolibin Lake is recognised as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, under which it was designated Ramsar Site 483 on 7 June 1990; the Ramsar site includes the entire area of the lake with some adjacent land on the northern and southern sides of the lake added in 2001 since the original site nomination, ensuring a buffer zone of at least 100 m width around most of the lake. Toolibin is the only remaining example in Southwest Australia of a wetland with extensive living thickets of swamp sheoak and the paperbark Melaleuca strobophylla on the lake fringes and bed - one of the main wetland types in the region prior to agricultural development there.
Flooded gum, acorn banksia and rock sheoak woodland occur on the higher ground and deep sands surrounding the lake. The vegetation includes submerged aquatic sedges around the lake; the vegetation community provides habitat, now rare in the central wheatbelt, for woodland birds and other animals. Toolibin and its environs support more breeding waterbird species — up to 25, including the rare freckled duck, egrets, night herons and spoonbills — than any other inland wetland in south-western Australia, it supports a population of the threatened red-tailed phascogale. The main threats to Toolibin’s ecological community are salinisation and waterlogging due to clearing of the catchment for dry-land agriculture wool and cereal grain production. Actions to recover the environmental values of the lake and its catchment include the reduction of recharge – including revegetation and the protection of remnant vegetation.
Hardy Inlet is an inlet, located in the South West region of Western Australia. The town of Augusta is situated on the South Western shore of the inlet, the inlet opens to the Southern Ocean via Flinders Bay. Both the Blackwood River and the Scott River discharge into the north eastern end of the inlet; the inlet is a wave dominated estuary with a high sediment trapping efficiency, it is always open to the ocean and the water is turbid. The total surface area of the inlet is 20 square kilometres. Hardy Inlet is the wide, lower basin of the Blackwood Estuary with a long narrow and shifting entrance channel; the majority of the inlet is made up of shallow banks with a depth of less than 1 metre found between channels between 2 metres to 8 metres in depth. Algal blooms have been recorded in the inlet around Molloy Island and West Bay as a result of elevated nutrient levels Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels. Warnings have been issued so that people do not consume shellfish such as mussels and oysters which can filter out the toxic algae.
Commercial fishing was once conducted within the inlet but all licences have now been cancelled and only recreational fishing is permitted
Bridgetown, Western Australia
Bridgetown is a town in the South West region of Western Australia 270 kilometres south of Perth on the Blackwood River at the intersection of South Western Highway with Brockman Highway to Nannup and Augusta. The area was known as Geegelup, believed to mean "place of gilgies" in the Noongar Aboriginal language, referring to the fresh water crustaceans that inhabit the area; however discovered research made available through the Bridgetown Tourist Centre suggests the actual meaning of Geegelup may be "place of spears". In 1857, Edward Godfrey Hester and John Blechynden settled in the area. In 1861, convicts built the road from Donnybrook into the area. Bridgetown's name was first proposed by surveyor Thomas Carey in 1868, for two reasons - "as it is at a bridge and the Bridgetown was the first ship to put in at Bunbury for the wool from these districts", was approved and gazetted on 9 June 1868. From until about 1885, many buildings including the primary school, post office and two hotels were constructed, many of which are still standing today.
In 1885, the Bridgetown Agricultural Society was formed and local farmers produced sheep, dairy products, timber and nuts. The gold rush from 1892 onwards brought prosperity to the town and saw a considerable increase in settlement. In 1907, a number of significant buildings including the police station were erected; until the 1980s, the land surrounding Bridgetown was exclusively used for broadacre agriculture and improved pasture. From the late 1970s, the area became attractive to tourists as a tranquil and picturesque country town an accessible distance from Perth; some people, attracted by the aesthetic qualities and rural lifestyle on offer, sought to move to the town permanently, this resulted in a strong demand for residential and hobby farm allotments, at a time when there was, coincidentally, a global downturn in agricultural markets. Many farmers sold up, much of the most aesthetically pleasing land was subdivided and sold to urban refugees; the demographic change had a profound impact on the town's industry, replacing demand for farm services with demand for services in the tourism and recreation sectors.
However the dramatic increase in infrastructure such as housing and power lines, has detracted from the rural aesthetic that attracted the urban refugees in the first place, therefore has the potential to lead to the rejection of the locality by the next wave of urban refugees. In 2009 a bushfire destroyed at least three properties in the area. Bridgetown is the seat of the Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes and the centre of a productive agricultural district. Many buildings in the town centre are over a century old; the town has a Jigsaw Gallery and Museum, which claims to host the only jigsaw collection of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, a primary school and high school, district hospital, shire offices, agricultural showground, shopping facilities, accommodation for travellers and numerous picnic spots along the Blackwood River. The rural residential area of Kangaroo Gully to the town's east has grown since the 1990s; each year, Bridgetown hosts many events including these: May: Festival of Country Gardens June to August: Bridgetown in the winter festival.
Shops are adorned with many events and workshops. October: Blackwood Marathon October: Blackwood Valley Wine Show November: Bridgetown Garden Festival November: Blues at Bridgetown music festival November: agricultural show November: Festival of Country Gardens Bridgetown experiences a cool Mediterranean climate Emily Barker, singer-songwriter Jon Doust and comedian Robyn McSweeney, politician Tom O'Dwyer, cricketer David Reid, politician Deborah Robertson and poet Fred Riebeling, politician Len Pascoe, cricketer Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes Bridgetown-Greenbushes Visitor Centre Blues at Bridgetown Blackwood Marathon Festival of Country Gardens Blackwood River Valley Bridgetown's climate statistics Bridgetown's daily weather statistics https://web.archive.org/web/20080718194116/http://www.btownfilms.com/ Bridgetown Film Festival January
Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Blackwood, 1st Baronet, GCH, KCB, whose memorial is in Killyleagh Parish Church, was a British sailor. Blackwood was the fourth son of Sir John Blackwood, 2nd Baronet, of Ballyleidy, County Down, of Dorcas Blackwood, 1st Baroness Dufferin and Claneboye. In April 1781 he entered the Royal Navy as a volunteer on board the frigate HMS Artois, with Captain John MacBride, in her was present at the Battle on the Dogger Bank, he was promoted lieutenant, to the rank of post captain. From August 1795 to April 1796 he was captain of the floating battery HMS Nonsuch in the Humber, he was appointed to the frigate HMS Brilliant, of 28 guns. Early in 1798 Brilliant was sent out to join Admiral Waldegrave on the Newfoundland Station. At 6, the French frigates started firing on Brilliant. Vertu gave chase, but returned to Tenerife. There, Régénérée replaced her rigging, both frigates arrived in Rochefort on 5 September. Early in 1799 the Brilliant returned to England, Blackwood was appointed to the frigate HMS Penelope, of 36 guns, in which, after a few months of Channel service, he was sent out to the Mediterranean, employed during the winter and following spring in the close blockade of Malta.
On the night of 30 March 1800 Guillaume Tell, of 80 guns, taking advantage of a southerly gale and intense darkness and ran out of the harbour. Although this ship of the line vastly outclassed Penelope, Blackwood followed, having the advantage of sailing came up with her. From this hour till daylight, finding that we could place ourselves on either quarter, the action continued in the foregoing manner, with such success on our side that, when day broke, the Guillaume Tell was found in a most dismantled state. At five o'clock Lion, of 64 guns, some little time afterwards Foudroyant, of 80 guns, came up, after a determined and gallant resistance Guillaume Tell surrendered. Nelson wrote from Palermo to Blackwood himself:'Is there a sympathy which ties men together in the bonds of friendship without having a personal knowledge of each other? If so, I was your acquaintance before I saw you. Your conduct and character on the late glorious occasion stamps your fame beyond the reach of envy, it was like yourself.
Thanks. In April 1803 Blackwood was appointed to Euryalus, of 36 guns. During the next two years he was employed on the coast of Ireland or in the Channel, in July 1805 was sent to watch the movements of the allied fleet under Villeneuve after its defeat by Sir Robert Calder. On his return with the news that Villeneuve had gone to Cadiz, he stopped on his way to London to see Nelson, who went with him to the Admiralty, received his final instructions to resume the command of the fleet without delay. Blackwood, in Euryalus, accompanied him to Cadiz, was appointed to the command of the inshore squadron, with the duty of keeping the admiral informed of every movement of the enemy, he was offered a line-of-battle ship, but preferred to remain in Euryalus, believing that he would have more opportunity of distinction. When he saw the combined fleets outside, Blackwood could not but regret his decision. On the morning of Trafalgar, 21 Oct. in writing to his wife, he added:'My signal just made on board Victory – I hope to order me into a vacant line-of-battle ship.'
This signal was made at six o'clock, from that time till after noon, when the shot were flying thickly over the Victory, Blackwood remained on board, receiving the admiral's last instructions, together with Captain Hardy, witnessing the disregarded codicil to the admiral's will. He was ordered to return to his ship.'God bless you, Blackwood,' said Nelson, shaking him by the hand. After the battle Collingwood hoisted his flag on board the Euryalus, but after ten days removed it to Queen, Euryalus was sent home with despatches and with the captured French admiral, Pierre-Charles de Villeneuve. Blackwood landed at Falmouth and was one of the first messengers to use the Trafalgar Way to deliver his dispatches to the Admiralty in London, he was thus in England at the time of Lord Nelson's funeral, on which occasion he acted as train-bearer of the chief mourner, Sir Peter Parker, the aged admiral of the fleet. In 1807, while captain of Ajax in the Dardanelles under the command of Admiral Sir John Duckworth, his vessel accidentally caught fire, with the loss of 252 lives.
This still counts as one of the greatest traged