Elisabeth of Swabia
Elisabeth of Swabia, was a German princess member of the House of Hohenstaufen and by marriage Queen consort of Castile and Leon. Born in Nürnberg, she was the daughter of Philip, Duke of Swabia and King of Germany. The marriage ceremony between Elisabeth and Ferdinand III was celebrated on 30 November 1219 in the city of Burgos, in Castile, she assumed the name Beatrice, probably in honour to both her eldest sister the Holy Roman Empress and the youngest one. In 1230, after the death of her father-in-law, King Alfonso IX of Leon, she became in the Queen consort of that country, during her marriage, Elisabeth gave birth to ten children, King Alfonso X of Castile and Leon. Infante Frederick of Castile and Leon, infante Ferdinand of Castile and Leon. Infanta Eleanor of Castile and Leon, infanta Berengaria of Castile and Leon, a nun at the Cistercian monastery Santa María la Real at Las Huelgas since September 1243. Infante Henry of Castile and Leon, infante Philip of Castile and Leon. Infante Sancho of Castile and Leon, Archbishop of Toledo from 1251–1261, infante Manuel of Castile and Leon.
Infanta Maria of Castile and Leon, Queen Beatrice died in Toro on 5 November 1235 aged 30. Her death was related to her last childbirth, or even died after giving birth. She was buried in the Royal Monastery of Huelgas de Burgos, her son Alfonso X transferred her body to Seville Cathedral in 1279, where that of her husband rested. Ed. Graves of the house of Castile. Lourdes Vaquero, Belen Castillo, Martha Black, ministry of Culture and Social Welfare. Ed. Pantheon Real de las Huelgas de Burgos, the tombs of the kings of León and Castile. Ed. s Pantheon Royal Huelgas de Burgos
Catherine of Lancaster
Catherine of Lancaster was Queen of Castile by marriage to King Henry III of Castile. She governed Castile as regent from 1406 until 1418 during the minority of her son, Queen Catherine was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his second wife, Constance of Castile. She was born in Hertford Castle, her fathers chief country home, Catherine became Queen of Castile through her marriage to Henry III. In 1386, Catherine joined her parents in an expedition to Castile to claim the throne and Portugal entered into an alliance against Castile in 1386 and solidified their ties through the marriage of King John I and Catherines half-sister, Philippa. John of Gaunt had ruled Santiago de Compostela and Pontevedra with ease, a final treaty in regards to this proposal was ratified at Bayonne in Gascony on 8 July 1388. The marriage helped to restore a semblance of legitimacy to the Trastámara line, together with the Truce of Leulingham and the one made at Monção Municipality, the betrothal helped to end the Spanish period of the Hundred Years War.
On 5 August 1388, Catherine announced that she entered into the marriage freely and fully accepted the treaty, the treaty had included a dower of the towns of Soria, Almazán, Atienza and Molina. By 17 September 1388, Catherine was married to the nine-year-old Henry in Palencia Cathedral and her husband took over the throne after the death of his father in 1390, but only in 1393 was he declared of age and began to rule. Catherines only contribution to Henrys rule was the bearing of his three children and her devotion to the patronage of the Dominican Order. In September 1390, Catherine accepted the authority of the Avignon Papacy, under Antipope Clement VII, of those three parties, Ferdinand was to be the one with the greatest share of power. However, the custody of John II was given to two nobles, Diego López de Zúñiga and Juan Fernandez de Velasco. Catherine prepared to defend herself and her household in a famous Spanish castle, Ferdinand was eventually able to make a deal that allowed Catherine to maintain custody of her son.
Ferdinand ordered Mudéjars to wear a symbol, a moon on their clothing. They were not allowed to leave their homes, nor were they allowed to work or trade with Christians, the Jews, were not allowed to work or trade with Christians. This was an attempt by Juan II to suppress religious minorities, tensions between the regents led to a division of rule. The royal council awarded Catherine control over the Northern part of the Kingdoms of Castile and her half-brother fostered the trade between Castile and England. Her international policies were beneficial to the Castilian communities, but her co-regents did not always act in their best interests, because of Catherines opposition to Ferdinand, she supported the position of Antipope Benedict XIII and initially spoke up against the Council of Constance. When Ferdinand died in 1416, Catherines authority was reduced, because his rivals no longer supported her, sickly due to a stroke, relinquished the custody of her son
Violant of Aragon
Her maternal grandparents were Andrew II of Hungary and Yolanda de Courtenay. Due to Violants young age, she was unable to get pregnant for several years, alfonso came to believe that his wife was barren and came to even consider the possibility of asking the pope for an annulment of the marriage. Legend has it that the Queen could not get pregnant and the doctor told her to rest, in response, the widow of Ferdinand, Blanche of France, enlisted the help of her brother, Philip III of France. In 1276, Violant founded the Convent of San Pablo in Valladolid and this was erected in honor of the Hungarian Order of St. Paul. Violants mother brought some Hungarian influence on the Spanish culture, Queen Violant of Aragon died at Roncesvalles, in the kingdom of Navarre in 1301, on her return from Rome, where she had won the Jubilee in 1300. Alfonso and Violant had the children, Berengaria. She was betrothed to Louis, the son and heir of King Louis IX of France and she entered the convent in Las Huelgas, where she was living in 1284.
She married William VII, Marquess of Montferrat, Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile. He married Blanche, the daughter of King Louis IX of France, because he predeceased his father, his younger brother Sancho inherited the throne. Eleanor Sancho IV of Castile Constance, a nun at Las Huelgas, Lord of Ledesma John, Lord of Valencia de Campos. She married Diego López V de Haro, Lord of Biscay James, Lord of Cameros Translation from Spanish Wikipedia
Juana Manuel of Castile was Queen consort of Castile from 1369 until 1379. She was the heiress of Escalona, Villena, Peñafiel and Lara and she was the daughter of the Infante Juan Manuel of Castile and his second wife Blanca Núñez de Lara de La Cerda. Her mother Blanca was a descendant of the Lords of Biscay and of Lara and she was the last legitimate member of the House of Ivrea. Her father had been for five years a serious enemy of King Alfonso XI, his former protégé, although Juana was not the heiress, already in her youth she had to go along with royal wishes. The kings very influential concubine, Leonor de Guzmán, wanted to obtain some high prestige, on 27 July 1350 her brother and guardian, Fernando Manuel of Peñafiel, had to marry his young sister to Henry, eldest of the illegitimate sons of Alfonso XI of Castile. She had more rights to the throne of Castile than her husband because she was a descendant of Alfonso X of Castile. In 1369, Henry became King Henry II of Castile, after he deposed his half-brother to take the throne and they had the following children, King John I of Castile Eleanor Joanna In 1361 she inherited Villena, Escalona and Peñafiel.
Because Juana was a granddaughter of La Palomilla, from her another cousin, Isabel de Lara who was murdered in 1361 and her young daughter Florentina, she inherited Lara. In 1369, she became queen of Castile and León, when in 1381 she died and left her inheritance to her son, Biscay finally was united with Castile, and ultimately Spain. The Basque people remember her for that
Constanza Manuel of Villena was the daughter of Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, called el escritor, Duke of Peñafiel, and his second wife Constance of Aragon, a daughter of James II of Aragon. While still a child she became the first wife of future King Alfonso XI of Castile, a child at the time, the marriage was annulled in 1327. Constance was a Castilian noblewoman, whose date of birth is unknown. Constance was a paternal great-granddaughter of King Ferdinand I of Castile and her maternal grandparents were James II of Aragon and his second wife Blanche of Anjou. Constance was imprisoned in a castle in Toro while her father waged war against Alfonso XI until 1329, the two reached a peaceful accord after mediation by Juan del Campo, Bishop of Oviedo, this secured Constances release from prison. Afonso IV quickly learned that his daughter Maria was being mistreated by her husband King Alfonso, Constances father had been rebuffed by the king when she was rejected in favor of the Portuguese infanta.
Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married his son and heir and they married on 24 August 1339 in Lisbon. When Constance arrived in Portugal, Inês de Castro, the daughter of an aristocratic Castilian land-owner, Peter fell in love with Inês very quickly, and the two conducted an affair that lasted until Constances death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish Inês from court, but this did not end the relationship, Constance died on the 13 November 1345, weeks after giving birth to her son and future King of Portugal, Fernando. She was buried four years in Santarém, Portugal and her husband presumably married Inês after Constances death, however, Inês was murdered on the orders of King Afonso. Peter became King twelve years after Constances death in 1357 and they had three children, married to Infante Ferdinand of Aragon, son of Alfonso IV of Aragon. Ferdinand I of Portugal, 9th King of Portugal
Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, better known as El Cid, or simply Rodrigo, was a Castilian nobleman and military leader in medieval Spain. The Moors called him El Cid, which meant the Lord, and the Christians, El Campeador and he was born in Vivar, a town near the city of Burgos. After his death, he became Castiles celebrated national hero and the protagonist of the most significant medieval Spanish epic poem, El Cantar de Mio Cid. Born a member of the nobility, El Cid was brought up at the court of King Ferdinand the Great and served Ferdinands son, Sancho II of León. He rose to become the commander and royal standard-bearer of Castile upon Sanchos ascension in 1065, Rodrigo went on to lead the Castilian military campaigns against Sanchos brothers, Alfonso VI of León and García II of Galicia, as well as in the Muslim kingdoms in Al-Andalus. He became renowned for his prowess in these campaigns, which helped expand Castilian territory at the expense of the Muslims. When conspirators murdered Sancho in 1072, Rodrigo found himself in a tight spot, since Sancho was childless, the throne passed to his brother Alfonso, the same whom El Cid had helped remove from power.
Although Rodrigo continued to serve the Castilian sovereign, he lost his ranking in the new court which treated him at arms length, finally, in 1081, he was ordered into exile. El Cid found work fighting for the Muslim rulers of Zaragoza, while in exile, he regained his reputation as a strategist and formidable military leader. He repeatedly turned out victorious in battle against the Muslim rulers of Lérida and their Christian allies, in 1086, an expeditionary army of North African Almoravids inflicted a severe defeat to Castile, compelling Alfonso to overcome the resentments he harbored against El Cid. The terms for the return to the Christian service must have been attractive enough since Rodrigo soon found himself fighting for his former Lord and he gradually increased his control over Valencia, the Islamic ruler, al-Qadir, became his tributary in 1092. When the Almoravids instigated an uprising that resulted in the death of al-Qadir, Valencia finally fell in 1094, and El Cid established an independent principality on the Mediterranean coast of Spain.
He ruled over a society with the popular support of Christians. El Cids final years were spent fighting the Almoravid Berbers and he inflicted upon them their first major defeat in 1094, on the plains of Caurte, outside Valencia, and continued resisting them until his death. Although Rodrigo remained undefeated in Valencia, his son, and heir. After El Cids death in 1099, his wife, Jimena Díaz, succeeded him as ruler of Valencia, to this day, El Cid remains a Spanish popular folk-hero and national icon. Numerous plays, folktales and even video games continue to memorialize the traditions of allegiance that his allegories typify, the Mozarabs or the Arabs that served in his ranks may have addressed him in this way, which the Christians may have transliterated and adopted. Historians, have not yet found contemporary records referring to Rodrigo as Cid, arab sources use instead Rudriq, Ludriq al-Kanbiyatur or al-Qanbiyatur
Beatrice of Portugal
Beatrice, was the only surviving child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal and his wife, Leonor Teles. During her first years of life, Beatrice was a pawn in the politics of alliances of her father. Finally, the master of Avís was proclaimed King of Portugal, but the dynastic cause that incarnated still continued in force and difficult the normalization of the relations between Castile and Portugal. From the second decade of the 15th century onwards, her documentary trail became scarce until completely disappears about 1420, Beatrice was born in Coimbra, during the brief siege that the Castilian troops imposed to the city during the second Fernandine War. The siege was lifted and King Henry II of Castile continued on his way to Santarém, during the siege of Lisbon, Cardinal legate Guido of Bologna obtained the agreement between the Kings of Castile and Portugal in the Peace of Santarém. The Cortes de Leiria of 1376 swore Beatrice as heiress of the throne, the betrothal was solemnized in Leiria on 24 November 1376, and on 3 January 1377 was accepted by King Henry II.
Although John obtained the pardon, he opted to flee to Castile fearful of the Telles family. In May 1379 King Henry II of Castile died and his son John I succeeded him, in this way the succession to the throne again was vetoed to the children of Inés de Castro. The marriage agreement was approved in the Cortes de Soria in August 1380, to negotiate this alliance came to Portugal an exile petrist, Juan Fernández de Andeiro, Count of Ourém, who would have a prominent influence in the Portuguese court. Fernão Lopes states that the court dressed in mourning only for protocol, in addition, Portugal returned to the obedience of Antipope Clement VII, in a Kingdom religiously divided by the Western Schism. But John I of Castile widowed in 1382, and the Count of Ourém, favorite of Queen Leonor Teles, negotiated a new betrothal for Beatrice, the marriage contract was signed on 2 April 1383 in Salvaterra de Magos. Once the wedding place, she went to live in Castile with her husband. The marriage contract was taken to the Cortes de Santarém of August and September to swear Beatrice and John I of Castile as heirs of Portugal, although the acts have not been conserved.
For her part, Queen Leonor Teles gave birth on 27 September a daughter who lived only a few days, King Ferdinand I of Portugal died on 22 October 1383. Leonor Teles, his widow, according to the Treaty of Salvaterra, the regent maintained her clique of Castilian petrists, which formed an opposition that asked that the Council of the regent counted only with councilors of Portuguese origin. The news of the death of the Portuguese King came to John I of Castile and Beatrice in Torrijos, once closed the Cortes in Segovia. The master of Aviz wrote to the Castilian monarch urging him to take the Portuguese crown that belonged to him through his wife and that the own master could assumed the regency on their behalf. Later, he convened the Royal Council in Montalbán and sent Alfonso López de Tejeda to Portugal with instructions to the regent to proceeded to proclaim him and his wife as King and Queen of Portugal
Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Castile
Isabella of Portugal was Queen consort of Castile and León. She was the mother of Queen Isabella I the Catholic and she was born as a scion of a collateral branch of the Aviz dynasty that had ruled Portugal since 1385. Isabella of Braganza was therefore a half-niece of her husband, isabellas father held some lordships, but was not among the forefront of the Portuguese royal house, there being a multitude of powerful dukes ahead of him. Isabella was married to king John II of Castile as his second wife and his first wife, Mary of Aragon, had given him four children, though only one, the future Henry IV of Castile, had survived. Henry had been joined to Blanche II of Navarre in a marriage for seven years and was called El Impotente. Because of this, John decided to seek another wife, the two were wed on 22 July 1447 when John was 42 and Isabella only 19. De Luna had dominated the king for years and doubtless expected this to continue after the marriage, de Luna tried to control the young queen as well, even going as far as to attempt to limit the couplings between the amorous king and his bride.
Isabella took exception to de Lunas influence over her husband and attempted to persuade her husband to remove this favourite and she had little success until after the 1451 birth of her daughter and namesake who would become Isabella I of Castile. The queens confinement was long and difficult, and the new mother sank into a depression during which she refused to speak to anyone. To do this, Isabella employed the help of a nobleman, Alfonso Pérez de Vivero, hoping that de Luna would kill Pérez, when de Luna discovered this, he murdered Pérez, just like Isabella had planned. When de Lunas crime was discovered, Isabella used it as an excuse to have him executed, the death of his favourite saddened the old king, and his health began to decline rapidly. On 15 November 1453, Isabella gave birth to a son, Henry IV, newly divorced from Blanche, became king. After Henry ascended the throne, he sent his stepmother, who was three years younger than himself, and his two little half-siblings to the Castle of Arévalo, while there, the dowager queen and her two children lived austerely.
There is no evidence that the widowed queen ever considered remarrying, while at Arévalo, Isabella sank deeper into the melancholy and paranoia that had begun after the birth of her elder child. She became increasingly unhinged with every passing year, after a while, she forgot who everyone around was, and at times she could not even remember her own identity, becoming aggressive. When Henry IV died in 1474, Isabella bypassed the claims of her niece, together and Ferdinand spent their time uniting Spain by completing the reconquista. It was not until 1496, when the queen heard that her mother was dying, the deranged and distraught old woman did not recognise her daughter. After her death, she was interred next to her husband and her children were, Isabella I of Castile
Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The municipality had a population of 81,522 in 2011, Palencia is located approximately 190 km north of Madrid, and some 40 km north of the capital of Valladolid. Two hills surround the city in its north-east area, on the closest stands the 30 metre high statue of Christ known as the Cristo del Otero, the fourth tallest statue of Christ in the world. Palencia has a substantial forest of 1,438 hectares 6 km away on a plateau above the city and this park is a popular amusement area for the locals. The Canal de Castilla runs close to the city, Palencias municipality includes the village of Paredes de Monte,14 km away. Fogs are frequent because of the Carrion river, summer tends to be warm with temperatures that consistently surpass 30 °C in July and that can rarely reach 38 °C. Due to Palencias altitude, nightly temperatures tend to be cooler, precipitation levels are moderated, but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.
Summer and winter are the driest seasons, with most rainfall occurring in the autumn, the rain is very frequent in winter, and infrequent in summer. Rainfall is light but frequent during the months, and infrequent in summer with heavy thunderstorms. The snow is an unfrecuently and light phenomenon at the city and it usually falls some days per year, during December and February, but it´s common watching some snowfalls during November or March. The fortified Celtiberian settlement is mentioned as Pallantia by Strabo and Ptolemy and it was the chief town of the Vaccaei, although Strabo wrongly assigns it to the Arevaci. The city was starved into submission by the Romans in the 2nd century BCE and incorporated into the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, though the little Roman garrison city was an active mint, it was insignificant compared to the Roman villas of Late Antiquity in the surrounding territory. Archeologists have uncovered the remains of Roman villas at La Olmeda and at the Quintanilla de la Cueza, when the Visigoths conquered the territory, they retained the Roman rural villa system in establishing the Campos Góticos.
The Catholic bishopric of Palencia was founded in the 3rd century or earlier, assuming that its bishop was among those assembled in the 3rd century to depose Basilides, the Priscillianists which originated in Egypt but came to Spain was declared a heresy by the emperor Gratian. It was mix of orthodox Catholic beliefs and Gnostic/Montanist teachings, priscillian was ordained priest and consecrated bishop of Avila. The heresy was strongest in northwestern Spain, the declaration of it as a heresy was a political move by the Catholic usurper emperor Maximus to curry favor with the Catholic emperors Valentinian II and Theodosius I. After the establishment of effective Visigothic power Catholics disputed the bishopric of Palencia with the Arian Visigoths, maurila, an Arian bishop established in Palencia by Leovigild, followed King Reccareds conversion to Catholicism, and in 589 he assisted at the Third Council of Toledo. When the Moors arrived in the early 8th century, resistance was fragmented among bishops in control of the walled towns
Isabella of Portugal
She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse in 1529–1532 and 1535–1539. Isabella was the child and eldest daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal. She was named after her maternal grandmother Isabella I of Castile and her aunt Isabella, Princess of Asturias, Isabella was second-in-line to the throne until the birth of her brother Louis in 1506. However, as the oldest daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Isabella were both grandchildren of the notable rulers Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. The union between Charles and his cousin Isabella had been proposed by the parliaments of both Castile and Aragon, Charles agreed to marry the Infanta Isabella purely for political reasons. Early in 1526, the travelled to Seville, where the wedding took place on 10 March in the palace of Alcázar of Seville. Isabella brought with her a dowry that greatly assisted Spanish finances. Although it began as a union, the marriage proved to be a love-match. Records show that during their honeymoon when are together, although there are people around, they do not notice anyone else, they talk and laugh.
Isabella proved to be a competent politician and she served as regent of Spain during her husbands absences between 1529–1532 and 1535–1539. She was noted for her intelligence and beauty, Isabella died in May 1539, when her sixth pregnancy ended in a stillbirth. The emperor was away at the time, and her death affected him deeply. He never remarried, and he dressed in black for the rest of his life, in 1547, the nobleman Francis Borgia conveyed her corpse to her burial-place in Granada. It is said that when he saw the effect of death on the beautiful empress, in 1580, more than 40 years after her death, her son Philip succeeded the Portuguese throne. It was he who claimed the rights to the throne of Portugal that temporarily united the Iberian peninsula under one crown in what would be called the Iberian Union. Isabella married Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on 10 March 1526 and their children were as follows, Philip II of Spain, the only son to reach adulthood. Maria, who married her first cousin Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, who married her first cousin João Manuel, Prince of Portugal.
Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal