Naracoorte, South Australia
Naracoorte is a town in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia, approximately 336 kilometres south-east of Adelaide and 100 kilometres north of Mount Gambier on the Riddoch Highway. Naracoorte was formed from the merger of two towns, founded in 1845 by Scottish explorer William Macintosh, and Narracoorte, established as a government settlement in 1847. The name has gone through a number of spellings, and is believed to be derived from the Aboriginal words for place of running water or large waterhole and it grew during the 1850s as a service town for people going to and from the Victorian gold rush. The Post Office opened on 22 March 1853 and was known as Mosquito Plains until 1861, the Railway Line to Kingston closed on 28 November 1987 dismantled 15 September 1991 the Mount Gambier to Wolseley line closed 12 April 1995 whilst still pending for gauge standardization. The town has historically relied largely on sheep and wheat farming, in recent decades, tourism has become a major industry with the promotion of the World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves National Park and the internationally recognised wetland, Bool Lagoon.
It receives a number of visitors due to its proximity to the Coonawarra, Wrattonbully. Naracoorte is in the Naracoorte Lucindale Council, the electoral district of MacKillop. There are three schools, Naracoorte High on Stewart Terrace, Naracoorte Primary on Park Terrace and Naracoorte South Primary, independent schools include Naracoorte Christian School formerly on Rolland Street, now located on Caves Road. The town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Kowree-Naracoorte-Tatiara Football League, and supplies players for a number of surrounding teams such as Kybybolite and Border Districts. FairfaxDigital Travel - Naracoorte Naracoorte Lucindale Council Accessed 5 March 2011
Station (Australian agriculture)
In Australia, a station is a large landholding used for producing livestock, predominantly cattle or sheep, that need an extensive range of grazing land. It corresponds to American ranches that operate under the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 on public lands, the owner of a station is called a pastoralist or a grazier. Originally station referred to the homestead – the owners house and associated outbuildings of a pastoral property, stations in Australia are on Crown land pastoral leases, and are known colloquially as sheep stations or cattle stations as most are stock specific, dependent upon the country and rainfall. The operators or owners are known as pastoralists. Sheep and cattle stations can be thousands of kilometres in area. Anna Creek Station in South Australia is the worlds largest working cattle station, because of the extended distances, there is a School of the Air so that children can attend classes from their homes, originally using pedal powered radios to communicate with the teachers.
The larger stations have their own school and teacher to educate the children on the station until at least they commence high school, large isolated stations have their own stores to supply workers with their needs. A station hand is an employee, who is involved in duties on a station. Some stations are in areas that are not easy to access. Accommodation for couples and families may be limited, many station employees are young and temporary. An important example is the jackaroo or jillaroo, a person who works on a station for several years in a form of apprenticeship. Aborigines have played a big part in the cattle industry where they were competent stockmen on the cattle stations. Nowadays staff on these stations may work in the homestead and in stock camps, especially ringers, may be seasonal employees. Others include boremen, mechanics, machinery operators and camp cooks, veterinary surgeons fly to some of the more distant cattle and sheep stations. The long-running television drama McLeods Daughters is set on an Australian cattle station, the film Australia was set on a fictional station Faraway Downs, but parts were filmed on Home Valley Station.
Jeannie Gunn arrived at Elsey Station in 1902, leaving after her husband died, Elsey featured in the 1946 film The Overlanders, the crew set up camp on the property for a month. The river crossing sequence was shot at the Roper River, pastoral lease List of ranches and stations § Australia List of the largest stations in Australia Outstation Station Media related to Sheep and cattle stations in Australia at Wikimedia Commons
Crocodiles or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, the Americas and Australia. Crocodylinae, all of whose members are considered true crocodiles, is classified as a biological subfamily, a broader sense of the term crocodile, Crocodylidae that includes Tomistoma, is not used in this article. The term crocodile here applies only to the species within the subfamily of Crocodylinae, although they appear to be similar to the untrained eye, crocodiles and the gharial belong to separate biological families. The gharial having a narrow snout is easier to distinguish, while morphological differences are more difficult to spot in crocodiles and alligators. The most obvious differences are visible in the head with crocodiles having narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators. Also, when the mouth is closed, the large fourth tooth in the lower jaw fits into a constriction in the upper jaw. For hard-to-distinguish specimens, the tooth is the most reliable feature to define the family that the species belongs to.
Crocodiles have more webbing on the toes of the feet and can better tolerate saltwater due to specialized salt glands for filtering out salt. Another trait that separates crocodiles from other crocodilians is their higher levels of aggression. Crocodile size, morphology and ecology somewhat differs between species, they have many similarities in these areas as well. All crocodiles are semiaquatic and tend to congregate in freshwater such as rivers, wetlands. They are carnivorous animals, feeding mostly on such as fish, reptiles and mammals. All crocodiles are tropical species that, unlike alligators, are sensitive to cold. They separated from other crocodilians during the Eocene epoch, about 55 million years ago, many species are at the risk of extinction, some being classified as critically endangered. The word crocodile comes from the Ancient Greek κροκόδιλος, used in the phrase ho krokódilos tou potamoú, there are several variant Greek forms of the word attested, including the form κροκόδειλος found cited in many English reference works.
In the Koine Greek of Roman times and crocodeilos would have been pronounced identically, crocodilos or crocodeilos is a compound of krokè, and drilos/dreilos, although drilos is only attested as a colloquial term for penis. It is ascribed to Herodotus, and supposedly describes the habits of the Egyptian crocodile. The form crocodrillus is attested in Medieval Latin and it is not clear whether this is a medieval corruption or derives from alternative Greco-Latin forms
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet, and the Bard of Avon and his extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a career in London as an actor, writer. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.
He wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, in his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and it was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as not of an age, but for all time. In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship. His plays remain highly popular and are studied, performed. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden and he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 and he was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, the consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaways neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596, after the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the bill of a law case before the Queens Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
The West Australian
The West is the second-oldest continuously produced newspaper in Australia, having been published since 1833. The West tends to have conservative leanings, and has supported the Liberal–National Party Coalition. Of Australias largest newspapers by circulation, The West is ranked fourth and is the newspaper in the top 20 not owned by either News Limited or Fairfax Media. As of January 2015, refraining from reporting greatly reduced print circulation, the Saturday edition was rebranded as The Weekend West in October 2010. There is an enlarged classified-advertising section for motor vehicles each Wednesday, a digital archive subscription enables past editions to be accessed for $220 per month or $2,200 per year. The West has conservative leanings, and has supported the Liberal–National Party Coalition throughout the political groups existence. At the state election held in March 2017, the newspapers editorial endorsed the Australian Labor Party opposition, led by Mark McGowan, the tabloid newspaper publishes international and local news.
As of 23 February 2015, newsgathering was integrated with the TV news and current-affairs operations of Seven News, Perth, a breaking news and video news website are staffed in the same area, together with sales and other departments. In the 1990s, the newspaper introduced a weekly Earth 2000 segment on environmental matters, opinion columnists now include Zoltan Kovacs, Paul Murray and a variety of writers syndicated from Fairfax Media including Gerard Henderson, Danny Katz and Brian Toohey. The paper publishes a supplement titled WestWeekend Magazine which is included as an insert in The Weekend West, the West Australian was owned by the publicly listed company West Australian Newspapers Ltd from the 1920s. The following year Alan Bond, through Bond Corporation, gained control of Bell Group and this ownership structure only survived for a few years until the collapse of Bond Corporation. A newly formed company, West Australian Newspapers Holdings, purchased the paper from the receivers before being floated in an oversubscribed $185 million public offering, chairman Trevor Eastwood announced in the annual report that the company was listed on the Australian Securities Exchange on 9 January 1992.
A management fee of $217,000 and underwriting/brokers handling fee of $1,981,136 were paid to companies associated with former short-term directors John Poynton and J. H. Nickson. After having acquired Seven Media Group in February 2011, West Australian Newspapers Holdings Limited became Seven West Media, the West Australian traces its origins to The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Journal, the first edition of which appeared on 5 January 1833. Owned and edited by Perth postmaster Charles Macfaull, it was originally a four-page weekly and it was, at first, published on Saturdays, but changed to Fridays in 1864. The new publisher, M. Shenton, remained in place until 26 June 1874, when it was bought by a syndicate who renamed it The Western Australian Times and who in September 1874 increased production to two editions a week. On 18 November 1879, it was relaunched as The West Australian, in October 1883, production was increased to three editions per week, two years it became a daily publication.
The proprietors of the West Australian at that time inaugurated the Western Mail, delivery of the paper beyond settled areas was problematic, but the growth and development of the rural railway system in the early 1900s facilitated wider circulation
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
Penola, South Australia
Penola is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located about 338 kilometres southeast of the state capital of Adelaide in the wine growing area known as the Coonawarra. At the 2006 census, Penola had a population of 1,317, Woods and MacKillop established in Penola her order of nuns, the Congregation of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart. The order, otherwise known as the Josephites or Brown Joeys, continue to work with the poor, the first Europeans to the area were the Austin brothers who arrived in 1840 and established a run of 109 square miles. The first settlers were Scottish-born Alexander Cameron and his wife Margaret in January 1844 after obtaining an occupation licence, in April 1850, Cameron obtained 80 acres of freehold land and established the private town of Panoola, known as Penola. By 1850, he had built the Royal Oak Hotel and was doing much business supplying liquor to the travelers passing through to the Victoria goldfields. Penola Post Office opened around 1852, John Riddoch purchased Yallum in 1861.
Riddoch grew up in poverty in the highlands of Scotland and in 1851 emigrated to try his luck on the Victoria goldfields, within a few years he was a successful shopkeeper and wine merchant on the Geelong goldfields. He acquired 35,000 acres on which he ran 50,000 head of sheep and it was Riddoch who planted the first grape vines and helped to diversify the pastoral economy of the area with an agricultural industry. In 1890, he established the Penola Fruit Growing Colony which was renamed Coonawarra in 1897, in 2010, a strong tornado ripped through the township destroying at least four buildings and damaging many more. Penola is in the government area of the Wattle Range Council. It is in the electorate of MacKillop and the federal Division of Barker. The town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Kowree-Naracoorte-Tatiara Football League, Penola is the name of a high school in Melbourne, named after the South Australian town due to its link to its patron saint Mary MacKillop.
Penola has been home to notable and interesting people. Among them Saint Mary MacKillop, poets John Shaw Neilson and Adam Lindsay Gordon, Father J. T. Woods, William Henry Ogilvie, Sara Douglass, Michael Graham and John Riddoch. The Antarctic explorer John Riddoch Rymill was born in Penola, named his ship Penola, corartwalla, A History of Penola, the Land and Its People, 382pp ISBN 0-9579652-0-6 South Australian History Wattle Range Council
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia, the newspaper is published six days a week. It is available at outlets in Sydney, regional New South Wales, the Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety of supplements, including the magazines Good Weekend, and Sunday Life. By February 2016, average circulation had fallen to 104,000, similarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspapers website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month. In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published, the original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily, in 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for almost 150 years, based his editorial policies upon principles of candour, honesty and we have no wish to mislead, no interest to gratify by unsparing abuse or indiscriminate approbation.
During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there, the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the countrys metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch, in 1949, the newspaper launched a Sunday edition, The Sunday Herald. Four years later, this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, in 1995, the company launched the newspapers web edition smh. com. au. The site has grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition. Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, the SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year, however, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013.
Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers websites. The subscription type is to be a model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. In July 2013 it was announced that the SMHs news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, on 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014. Ahead of the decommissioning of the plant at Chullora in June 2014
A stalagmite is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings. Stalagmites may be composed of amberat, minerals, peat, sand, the corresponding formation hanging down from the ceiling of a cave is a stalactite. Mnemonics have been developed for which word refers to type of formation, one is that stalactite has a C for ceiling. The most common stalagmites are speleothems, which form in limestone caves. This stalagmite formation occurs only under certain pH conditions within the underground cavern and they form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the form of calcium carbonate rock, which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide. If stalactites – the ceiling formations – grow long enough to connect with stalagmites on the floor and dirt from human contact can stain the formation and change its color permanently.
Another type of stalagmite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside, the mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalagmites. A key difference with lava stalagmites is that once the lava has ceased flowing and this means if the stalagmite were to be broken it would never grow back. Stalagmites in lava tubes are rarer than their stalactite counterparts because during formation the dripping material falls onto still-moving lava floors that absorb or carry the material away, the generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately, and evolved from the word icicle. A common stalagmite found seasonally or year round in many caves is the ice stalagmite, commonly referred to as icicles, water seepage from the surface will penetrate into a cave and if temperatures are below freezing temperature, the water will collect on the floor into stalagmites. Deposition may directly from the freezing of water vapor. Similar to lava stalagmites, ice stalagmites form very quickly within hours or days, unlike lava stalagmites however, they may grow back as long as water and temperatures are suitable.
Ice stalagmites are more common than their stalactite counterparts because warmer air rises to the ceilings of caves, ice stalactites may form corresponding stalagmites below them, and given time, may grow together to form an ice column. Stalactites and stalagmites can form on concrete ceilings and floors, calcium carbonate deposition as a stalagmite occurs when the solution carries the calcium laden leachate solution to the ground under the concrete structure. Carbon dioxide is absorbed into the alkaline solution, which facilitates the chemical reactions to deposit calcium carbonate as a stalagmite. These stalagmites rarely grow taller than a few centimetres, secondary deposits, which create stalagmites, flowstone etc, outside the natural cave environment, are referred to as “calthemites”. These concrete derived secondary deposits can’t be referred to as “speleothems” due to the definition of the word, the largest known stalagmite in the world exceeds 70 metres in height and is located in Sơn Đoòng Cave, Vietnam
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the second most populous city in South Australia with an estimated urban population of 28,929. The peak of the dormant volcano was the first place in South Australia named by European explorers and it was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the survey brig, HMS Lady Nelson, and named for Lord James Gambier, Admiral of the Fleet. The peak is marked by Centenary Tower, built in 1901 to commemorate the first sighting, the city is known for its geographical features, particularly its volcanic and limestone features, most notably its Blue Lake and gardens, caves and sinkholes. Before European settlement, the Buandig people were the original Aboriginal inhabitants of the area and they called it ereng balam or egree belum, meaning home of the eagle hawk. The peak of the dormant Mount Gambier crater was sighted in 1800 by Lieutenant James Grant from the brig, HMS Lady Nelson. The Post Office opened on 22 September 1846, John Byng built the Mount Gambier Hotel in 1847, hastings Cunningham founded Gambierton in 1854 by subdividing a block of 77 acres.
From 1861 to 1878 the Post Office was known by name before reverting to Mount Gambier. Local government appeared in 1863 when Dr Wehl, who now owned a substantial millhouse on Commercial Road, was elected chairman of the District Council of Mount Gambier. In December 1864 this became the District Council of Mount Gambier West and, at the same time, incorporation in 1876 saw a further division, with the creation of the Town Council and Mr John Watson elected Mayor. Mount Gambier was governed in this fashion until 1932, when the District Council of East and West merged to form a single District Council of Mount Gambier once more. On 9 December 1954, Mount Gambier was officially declared a city, Mount Gambiers urban area is located mainly along the northern slopes and plain of a maar volcano of the same name, Mount Gambier. Comprising several craters, it is part of the Newer Volcanics Province complex of volcanoes, one of these contains a huge lake of high-quality artesian drinking water which changes colour with the seasons.
In winter, it is a grey and changes to a spectacular cobalt blue in the summer, giving rise to its name. This 70-metre deep lake accommodates a range of aquatic flora and fauna. There are several craters in the city including Valley Lake. The region surrounding the city includes other features such as Mount Schank. Mount Gambier has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, the town has warm dry summers and cool wet winters. July is the wettest month with an average of 99.6 mm falling on 22 days whilst February normally records the lowest rainfall with an average of 25 mm on an average 8 days