Adelaide of Burgundy, Duchess of Brabant
Adelaide of Burgundy was a daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, by his first wife Yolande of Dreux. She was a member of the House of Burgundy, adelaides brother was Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, he succeeded their father upon his death in 1270. Adelaides eldest brother was Odo, Count of Nevers, but he died in 1266 and her paternal grandparents were Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, and Alice of Vergy. Her maternal grandparents were Robert III of Dreux and Aénor of Saint-Valéry, in 1251, Adelaide married Henry III, Duke of Brabant, he was the son of Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and Marie of Hohenstaufen. Adelaides husband died in 1261, and Adelaide died in 1273, the Château of Val-Duchesse was a priory for women founded in 1262 by Adelaide of Burgundy. The Duchess gave the name to the place Val Duchesse or Hertoginnedal, according to the legend she was inspired by Thomas Aquinas who is said to have been a guest at Val Duchesse. It was the first priory for women in the Low Countries that followed the rule of Saint Dominic and was donated by Adelaide.
Dukes of Brabant family tree Dukes of Burgundy family tree Alix of Burgundy
Margaret of Bourbon, Queen of Navarre
Margaret of Bourbon was Queen of Navarre and Countess of Champagne from 1232 until 1253 as the third wife of Theobald I of Navarre. After her husbands death, she ruled both the kingdom and the county as regent for three years in the name of their son, Theobald II of Navarre, Margaret was born into the House of Dampierre, the eldest daughter of Archambaud VIII, Lord of Bourbon. Her mother was her fathers first wife, Alice of Forez, daughter of Guigues III, Archambaud was the constable of Count Theobald IV of Champagne. Margaret was 15 years old when, on 12 September 1232 and his first wife, Gertrude of Dagsburg, had been repudiated and already deceased, while the second, Agnes of Beaujeu, died leaving only a daughter, Blanche. Their marriage was one of two unions of the counts of Champagne with a significant age disparity between spouses, the other one being the marriage of Henry I of Champagne and Marie of France. Only if the union ended in annulment, as her parents, Margarets marriage lasted twenty years, during which she delivered seven children.
In 1234, she became Queen of Navarre when Theobald inherited the kingdom from his maternal uncle, little is known of Margarets life as queen consort, until her husbands death in 1253 brought her into the spotlight. Their son Theobald II of Navarre being 18 at the time could not, by the laws of the realm, now queen dowager, became regent. She immediately had to deal with a crisis in the kingdom. Margaret prevented the outbreak of a rebellion by travelling with Theobald to the capital, Pamplona. She inherited her husbands long-standing dispute with the Knights Templar, Margaret resolutely prohibited them from acquiring any more land within the county. In 1254, Margaret was persuaded by her son to arrange a marriage for him with Isabella, King Theobald II reached the age of majority in 1256. No longer regent, Queen Margaret retired to her dower lands, consisting of seven castellanies. She died in Provins and was buried at the Saint-Joseph de Clairval abbey in Flavigny-sur-Ozerain
Henry III, Duke of Brabant
Henry III of Brabant was Duke of Brabant between 1248 and his death. He was the son of Henry II of Brabant and Marie of Hohenstaufen, the disputed territory of Lothier, the former Duchy of Lower Lorraine, was assigned to him by the German King Alfonso X of Castile. Alfonso appointed him Imperial Vicar to advance his claims on the Holy Roman Empire and he had two illegitimate sons, John Lyngwood Gilles, ancestor of the van der Balch family. Composed several pieces of music, among them Amors mest u cuer entree and Se kascuns del monde savoit
Henry I of Navarre
Henry the Fat was King of Navarre and Count of Champagne and Brie from 1270 until his death. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Bourbon, during the reign of his childless older brother Theobald II he held the regency during many of Theobalds numerous absences. In 1269, Henry married Blanche of Artois, daughter of the then-reigning King Louis IX of Frances brother Count Robert I of Artois and he was thus in the Angevin circle in international politics. Recognized as heir presumptive during his brothers reign, Henry succeeded to the thrones of the Kingdom of Navarre, Henry Is proclamation at Pamplona, did not take place till the following year,1 March 1271, and his coronation was delayed until May 1273. His first act was the swear to uphold the Fueros of Navarre, Henry came to the throne at the height of an economic boom in Navarre that was not happening elsewhere in Iberia at as great a rate. But by the Treaty of Paris, the English had been ceded rights in Gascony that effectively cut off Navarrese access to the ocean, Henry allowed the Pamplonese burg of Navarrería to disentangle itself from the union of San Cernin and San Nicolás, effected in 1266.
He granted privileges to the towns of Estella, Los Arcos and his relations with the nobility were, on the whole, though he was prepared to maintain the peace of his realm at nearly any cost. Henry initially sought to recover territory lost to Castile by assisting the revolt of King Alfonso X of Castiles brother Philip in 1270 and he eventually declined, preferring to establish an alliance with Castile through the marriage of his son Theobald to Alfonso Xs daughter Violant in September 1272. This failed with the death of the young Theobald after he fell from a battlement at the castle of Estella in 1273, Henry did not long outlive his son. He was suffocated, according to the generally received accounts, by his own fat and his only legitimate child, a one-year-old daughter named Joan, succeeded him under the regency of her mother Blanche. Joans 1284 marriage to Philip the Fair, the future King of France, in the same year united the crown of Navarre to that of France and saw Champagne devolve to the French royal domain.
In the Divine Comedy, Dante Alighieri, a contemporary, sees Henrys spirit outside the gates of Purgatory. Henry is not named directly, but is referred to as the kindly-faced, medieval Lands Project, Henry I, King of Navarre
Isabella of Valois
Isabella of France was Queen consort of England as the second spouse of King Richard II. Her parents were King Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria and she married the king at the age of seven and was widowed three years later. She married Charles, Duke of Orléans, dying in childbirth at the age of nineteen, Isabellas younger sister, was Queen of England from 1420 until 1422, wife of Henry V and mother of Henry VI. Catherine was a grandmother of Henry VII, Isabella lived during a period of political tension between France and England known as the Hundred Years War, the situation exacerbated by the mental instability of her father. On 31 October 1396, almost the age of seven, Isabella married the widower King Richard II of England in a move for peace with France, although the union was political, Richard II and the child Isabella developed a mutually respectful relationship. By May of 1399, the Queen had been moved to Portchester Castle for protection while Richard went on a campaign in Ireland.
King Henry IV decided Queen Isabella should marry his son, the future Henry V of England, knowing her husband was dead, she went into mourning, ignoring Henry IVs demands. Eventually he let her go back to France, on 29 June 1406, Queen Isabella married her cousin Charles, Duke of Orléans. She died in childbirth at the age of 19, leaving one daughter, Isabella was interred in Blois, in the abbey of St. Laumer, where her body was found entire in 1624, curiously wrapped in bands of linen plated over with quicksilver. It was transferred to the church of the Celestines in Paris, in Shakespeares play Richard II Richards queen appears in two significant scenes at the time of his deposition, but she is portrayed as an adult. She is forced by the new king Henry IV to leave for France after the deposition, two well-regarded novels about Isabellas life appeared in the late 1950s. Hilda Lewis The Gentle Falcon is about Isabellas marriage to Richard II, while Gladys Malverns My Lady, My Love is about Isabellas years after Richards death and her return to France
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child
Charles IV of France
Charles IV, called the Fair in France and the Bald in Navarre, was the last direct Capetian King of France and King of Navarre from 1322 to his death. Charles was the son of Philip IV, like his father. Beginning in 1323 Charles was confronted with a peasant revolt in Flanders, as duke of Guyenne, King Edward II of England was a vassal of Charles, but he was reluctant to pay homage to another king. In retaliation, Charles conquered the Duchy of Guyenne in a known as the War of Saint-Sardos. In a peace agreement, Edward II accepted to swear allegiance to Charles, in exchange, Guyenne was returned to Edward but with a much-reduced territory. When Charles IV died without heir, the senior lineage of the House of Capet ended. He was succeeded by his cousin Philip of Valois, but the legitimacy was one factor of the Hundred Years War. By virtue of the birthright of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, Charles claimed the title Charles I, King of Navarre. From 1314 to his accession to the throne, he held the title of Count of La Marche and was crowned King of France in 1322 at the cathedral in Reims.
Charles married his first wife, Blanche of Burgundy, the daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy, in 1308, after Charles assumed the throne he refused to release Blanche, their marriage was annulled, and Blanche retreated to a nunnery. His second wife, Marie of Luxembourg, the daughter of Henry VII, Charles married again in 1325, this time to Jeanne dÉvreux, she was his first cousin, and the marriage required approval from Pope John XXII. Jeanne was crowned queen in 1326, in one of the better recorded French coronation ceremonies, the coronation was the first appearance of the latterly famous medieval cook, Guillaume Tirel, only a junior servant. During the first half of his reign Charles relied heavily on his uncle, Charles of Valois, for advice, Charles of Valois would have been aware that if Charles died without male heirs, he and his male heirs would have a good claim to the crown. Charles undertook rapid steps to assert his own control, executing the Count of LIsle-Jourdain, a troublesome southern noble, Charles, a relatively well educated king, founded a famous library at Fontainebleau.
During his six-year reign Charles administration became increasingly unpopular and he debased the coinage to his own benefit, sold offices, increased taxation, exacted burdensome duties, and confiscated estates from enemies or those he disliked. He was involved in Jewish issues during the period. Charles father, Philip IV, had confiscated the estates of numerous Jews in 1306, and Charles took vigorous, Charles at least acquiesced, or at worst actively ordered, in the expulsion of many Jews from France following the leper scare. Charles inherited a long-running period of tension between England and France, once Charles took up the throne, Edward attempted to avoid payment again
Joan the Lame
Joan of Burgundy, known as Joan the Lame, was Queen of France as the first wife of King Philip VI. Joan served as regent while her husband fought on military campaigns during the Hundred Years War, Joan was the daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy, and Agnes of France. Her older sister, was the first wife of Louis X of France, Joan married Philip of Valois, Louiss cousin, in July 1313. From 1315 to 1328, they were Count and Countess of Maine, from 1325, they were Count and Countess of Valois and Anjou. King Philip IVs sons, Louis X, Philip V, and Charles IV, left no surviving male heirs, the Hundred Years War ensued, with Edward III of England, a nephew of Louis X, claiming the French crown. Intelligent and strong-willed, Joan proved a capable regent while her husband fought on military campaigns during the war. However, her nature and power earned both herself and her husband a bad reputation, which was accentuated by her deformity, and she became known as la male royne boiteuse. One chronicler described her as a danger to her enemies in court, Joan died of the plague 12 December 1349.
She was buried in the Basilica of Saint Denis, her tomb and her children with Philip VI were, John II. Marie, who married John of Brabant, the son and heir of John III, Duke of Brabant, in 1361, Joans grandnephew, Philip I of Burgundy, died without legitimate issue, ending the male line of the Dukes of Burgundy. Joan is a character in Les Rois maudits, a series of French historical novels by Maurice Druon and she was portrayed by Ghislaine Porret in the 1972 French miniseries adaptation of the series
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians, historians in the 19th century came to apply the name Capetian to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice and they were sometimes called the third race of kings, the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, the direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history. The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, with the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. He proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II, the throne thus passed securely to Robert on his fathers death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors.
Louis VIII – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married Blanche of Castile, a granddaughter of Aliénor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of England, invading at the invitation of the English Barons and these lands were added to the French crown, further empowering the Capetian family. Louis IX – Saint Louis – succeeded Louis VIII as a child, unable to rule for several years, the government of the realm was undertaken by his mother, at the death of Louis IX, France under the Capetians stood as the pre-eminent power in Western Europe. Unfortunately for the Capetians, the proved a failure. Philip IV had married Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, by this marriage, he added these domains to the French crown. More importantly to French history, he summoned the first Estates General – in 1302 – and in 1295 established the so-called Auld Alliance with the Scots and it was Philip IV who presided over the beginning of his Houses end. The first quarter of the century saw each of Philips sons reign in rapid succession, Louis X, Philip V, Louis – unwilling to release his wife and return to their marriage – needed to remarry.
He arranged a marriage with his cousin, Clementia of Hungary and this proved the case, but the boy – King John I, known as the Posthumous – died after only 5 days, leaving a succession crisis. Eventually, it was decided based on several reasons that Joan was ineligible to inherit the throne, which passed to the Count of Poitiers. Marie died in 1324, giving birth to a stillborn son, the last of the direct Capetians were the daughters of Philip IVs three sons, and Philip IVs daughter, Isabella. Since they were female, they could not transmit their Capetian status to their descendants, the wife of Edward II of England, Isabella overthrew her husband in favour of her son and her co-hort, only for Edward III to execute Mortimer and have Isabella removed from power. Joan, the daughter of Louis X, succeeded on the death of Charles IV to the throne of Navarre, she now being – questions of paternity aside – the unquestioned heiress
Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine
Princess Elisabeth Charlotte was a German princess and, as Madame, the wife of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV of France, and mother of Frances ruler during the Regency. Louis invoked her hereditary claim to the Palatinate as pretext to launch the Nine Years War in 1688. Her vast, frank correspondence provides an account of the personalities and activities at the court of her brother-in-law, Louis XIV for half a century. Her grandmother Elizabeth of Bohemia was a Scottish and English princess, daughter of James I of England and granddaughter of Mary and her first cousin became George I, the first Hanover King of England. In childhood she became known as Liselotte—a portmanteau of her names and her parents were in an unhappy dynastic marriage and in 1653 her father began an affair with Marie Luise von Degenfeld, one of his wifes attendants. He purported to marry her motu proprio as a prince-elector of the Empire, without benefit of a judicial divorce, Liselotte was five years old when she was sent to live with her fathers sister, wife of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover.
She always remembered her time with her aunt as the happiest of her life, in 1663, Liselotte had to move back to Heidelberg where she lived with her stepmother, fifteen half-siblings, and brother, the future Charles II, Elector Palatine. On 16 November 1671, she was married by proxy at Metz to Philippe I, by prearrangement, after leaving her fathers realm but prior to arriving in France, she formally converted to Roman Catholicism. At the French court, her husband Philippe was known by the honorific of Monsieur. As his wife, Elisabeth Charlotte assumed the style of Madame, Elisabeth Charlotte was very close to her two stepdaughters Marie Louise and Anne Marie. When Marie Louise left France to marry Charles II of Spain in 1679, the homosexual proclivities of her husband were well known at court. Elisabeth Charlotte confided that he needed rosaries and holy medals draped in the places to perform the necessary act with her. Elisabeth Charlotte objected to money spent on his favourites and the exercise of their influence with him to enrich themselves.
That is not at all pleasant, besides putting me in a position where, as God is my witness, we would have to live entirely on the Kings charity, Liselotte had an apartment at the Kings private residence, the Château de Marly. In her dowager years she would stay at the Grand Trianon built by her brother-in-law, the marriage at first proved to be happy, with the birth of two male heirs. After the death of the couples first son, the Duke of Valois, she experienced depression, after this birth, the relationship between husband and wife was never as close as it had been. After the birth of their daughter Élisabeth Charlotte, the couple agreed to cease conjugal relations. Philippe turned to his minions, and Elisabeth Charlotte to writing and her letters to her aunt, Sophia of Hanover, and others, created not only a vivid picture of life during the reign of Louis XIV, but of the regency era of her son, Philippe
Joan I of Navarre
Joan I, the daughter of King Henry I of Navarre and Blanche of Artois, reigned as queen regnant of Navarre and served as queen consort to Philip IV of France. Joan was born in Bar-sur-Seine, Champagne on 14 January 1273 as a princess of the House of Blois, the following year, upon the death of her father, she became Countess of Champagne and queen regnant of Navarre. Her mother, was her guardian and regent in Navarre and her mother arrived in France in 1274, and by the Treaty of Orléans in 1275, Joan was betrothed to one of Philips sons. Blanche therefore placed her daughter and the government of Navarre under the protection of the King of France, after this, Joan was brought up with Philip. It is, in fact, uncertain whether she ever resided in Navarre during her childhood, at the age of 11, Joan married the future Philip IV of France on 16 August 1284, becoming queen consort of France in 1285 a year later. Their three surviving sons would all rule as kings of France, in turn, and their surviving daughter.
Joan was described as having been plump and plain, whereas her beautiful daughter Isabella resembled her father more in physical appearance, as regards her character, Joan was bold and enterprising. Having grown up together, the couple was close to each other. His emotional dependence on her is suggested as a reason to why she never visited Navarre, in 1294, Philip appointed her regent of France should his son succeed him being still a minor. However, he is not believed to have entrusted her with influence over the affairs of France, unless they concerned her own domains Navarre, queen Joan founded the famous College of Navarre in Paris in 1305. Queen Joan I of Navarre and countess of Champagne and Brie was declared to be of legal majority upon her marriage in 1284, and did homage for Champagne and Brie to her father-in-law in Paris. Joan never visited the Kingdom of Navarre, which was ruled in her name by French governors appointed first by her father-in-law, from afar, edicts were issued in her name, coins struck in her image, and she gave her protection to chapels and convents.
She never came closer to Navarre than to Carcasonne in 1300, Joan was much more directly active as countess of Champagne. While being a county rather than a kingdom, Champagne was much richer, in 1297, she raised and led an army against the Count of Bar when he rebelled against her by invading Champagne. This was explicitly in the absence of her spouse, and she brought the count to prison before she joined her spouse. She personally acted in her process against Bishop Guichard of Troyes, Joan died in 1305, allegedly in childbirth, though one chronicler accused her husband of having killed her. Her personal physician was the inventor Guido da Vigevano, the Queens Regnant of Navarre, Succession and Partnership, 1274-1512