Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Texas in the American Civil War
The U. S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. As with those of other States, the Declaration was not recognized by the United States government at Washington; some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, but Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers and horses for Confederate forces. Texas' supply role lasted until mid-1863, after which time Union gunboats controlled the Mississippi River, making large transfers of men, horses or cattle impossible; some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Union naval blockade of Galveston and other ports. In the late winter of 1860, Texan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession; the convention adopted an "Ordinance of Secession" by a vote of 166 to 8, ratified by a popular referendum on February 23.
Separately from the Ordinance of Secession, considered a legal document, Texas issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for declaring secession. The document specifies several reasons for secession, including its solidarity with its "sister slave-holding States," the U. S. government's inability to prevent Indian attacks, slave-stealing raids, other border-crossing acts of banditry. It accuses northern abolitionists of committing a variety of outrages upon Texans; the bulk of the document offers justifications for slavery saying that remaining a part of the United States would jeopardize the security of the two. The declaration includes this extract praising slavery, in which the Union itself is referred to as the "confederacy": We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, of the confederacy itself, were established by the white race, for themselves and their posterity. At this time, African Americans comprised around 30 percent of the state's population, they were overwhelmingly enslaved.
According to one Texan, keeping them enslaved was the primary goal of the state in joining the Confederacy: Independence without slavery, would be valueless... The South without slavery would not be worth a mess of pottage. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, public opinion in the cotton states of the Lower South swung in favor of secession. By February 1861, the other six states of the sub-region had separately passed ordinances of secession. However, events in Texas were delayed due to the resistance of Southern Unionist governor, Sam Houston. Unlike the other "cotton states"' chief executives, who took the initiative in secessionist efforts, Houston refused to call the Texas Legislature into special session to consider the question, relenting only when it became apparent citizens were prepared to act without him. In early December 1860, before South Carolina seceded, a group of State officials published via newspaper a call for a statewide election of convention delegates on January 8, 1861.
This election was irregular for the standards of the day. It relied on voice vote at public meetings, although "viva voce" voting for popular elections had been used since at least March 1846, less than three months after statehood. Unionists were discouraged from attending or chose not to participate; this resulted in lopsided representation of secessionists delegates. The election call had stipulated for the delegates to assemble in convention on January 28. Houston called the Legislature into session, hoping that the elected body would declare the unauthorized convention illegal. Though he expressed reservations about the election of Abraham Lincoln, he urged the State of Texas to reject secession, citing the horrors of war and a probable defeat of the South; the convention removed Houston from the governorship promoted the Lieutenant Governor, Edward Clark. However, the Texas Legislature voted the delegates' expense money and supplies and—over Houston's veto—made a pledge to uphold the legality of the Convention's actions.
The only stipulation was. With gubernatorial forces routed, the Secession Convention convened on January 28 and, in the first order of business, voted to back the legislature 140–28 in that an ordinance of secession, if adopted, be submitted for statewide consideration; the following day, convention president Oran Roberts introduced a resolution suggesting Texas leave the Union. The ordinance was read on the floor the next day, citing the failures of the federal government to protect the lives and property of Texas citizens and accusing the Northern states of using the same as a weapon to "strike down the interests and prosperity" of the Southern people. After the grievances were listed, the ordinance repealed the one of July 4, 1845, in which Texas approved annexation by the United States and the Constitution of the United States, revoked all powers of, obligations to, allegiance to, the U. S. federal government and the U. S. Constitution. In the interests of historical significance and posterity, the ordinance was written to take effect on March 2, the date of Texas Declaration of Independence.
On February 1, members of the Legislature, a huge crowd of private citizens, packed the House galleries and balcony to watch the final vote on the question of secession. Seventy
The peach is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a nectarine; the specific name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, from where it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot and plum, in the rose family; the peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Due to their close relatedness, the inside of a peach stone tastes remarkably similar to almond, peach stones are used to make a cheap version of marzipan, known as persipan. Peaches and nectarines are the same species though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes.
China alone produced 58% of the world's total for peaches and nectarines in 2016. Prunus persica grows up to 7 m wide. However, when pruned properly, trees are 3–4 m tall and wide; the leaves are lanceolate, 7 -- 16 cm long, 2 -- pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; the fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, a skin, either velvety or smooth in different cultivars. The flesh is delicate and bruised in some cultivars, but is firm in some commercial varieties when green; the single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped 1.3–2 cm long, is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries and apricots, are stone fruits. There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian Peach, or Indian Blood Peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer, can have color ranging from red and white, to purple. Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this varies greatly.
Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars; the scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple" becoming French pêche, whence the English peach; the scientific name, Prunus persica means "Persian plum", as it is related to the plum. Fossil endocarps with characteristics indistinguishable from those of modern peaches have been recovered from late Pliocene deposits in Kunming, dating to 2.6 million years ago. In the absence of evidence that the plants were in other ways identical to the modern peach, the name Prunus kunmingensis has been assigned to these fossils. Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the neolithic period.
Until it was believed that the cultivation started c. 2000 BC. More recent evidence indicates that domestication occurred as early as 6000 BC in Zhejiang Province of China; the oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao site. Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where the early selection for favorable peach varieties took place. Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early 1st millennium BC. A domesticated peach appeared early in Japan, in 4700–4400 BC, during the Jōmon period, it was similar to modern cultivated forms, where the peach stones are larger and more compressed than earlier stones. This domesticated type of peach was brought into Japan from China. In China itself, this variety is attested only at a date of c. 3300 to 2300 BC. In India, the peach first appeared during the Harappan period, it is found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times. Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC, it is claimed that Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians, although there is no historical evidence for this belief.
Peaches were, well known to the Romans in the 1st century AD, were cultivated in Emilia-Romagna. Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples; the peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. The horticulturist George Minifie brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buc
Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr.
Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. was an American businessman, politician and soldier. He was the paternal grandfather of future US President Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson was born in the tenth child of Lucy Webb and Jess Johnson, he was raised a Baptist, but became a member of the Christian Church. In his years, he became a Christadelphian, following his wife and daughter, he was the father of Texas politician Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. grandfather of Lyndon Baines Johnson, the uncle of Johnson City, Texas founder James Polk Johnson. After serving in the Civil War, Sam married Eliza Bunton of Caldwell County on December 11, 1867. In the late 1850s, Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. settled with his brother Jesse Thomas "Tom" Johnson in a one-room log cabin on 320 acres that became headquarters for the largest cattle driving operation in seven counties. Sam enlisted in Col. Xavier Debray's regiment on September 18, 1861, served until the end of the American Civil War on the coast of Texas and in Louisiana, he was present at the Battle of Pleasant Hill in Louisiana.
In the fall of 1892, Sam Ealy Johnson Sr. offered himself as the Populist candidate for Blanco and Gillespie County's seat in the state legislature. Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. from the Handbook of Texas Online National Park Service Johnson Settlement page
Johnson City, Texas
Johnson City is a city in Blanco County, United States. The population was 1,656 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Blanco County. Johnson City was the hometown of President Lyndon Johnson and was founded by James Polk Johnson, nephew of Samuel Ealy Johnson, Sr. and uncle to President Johnson. James Polk Johnson donated a 320-acre site on the Pedernales River for the founding of the town in 1879; the county seat of Blanco County was moved to Johnson City in 1890. Johnson City is located in central Blanco County at 30°16′35″N 98°24′29″W, about 1 mile south of the Pedernales River. U. S. Routes 281 and 290 join near the center of town; the two highways run south out of town together. According to the United States Census Bureau, Johnson City has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all land. Johnson City experiences a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers and a comfortable winter. Temperatures range from 82 °F or 27.8 °C in the summer to 47 8.3 °C during winter. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,191 people, 442 households, 317 families residing in the city.
The population density was 891.7 people per square mile. There were 490 housing units at an average density of 366.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.67% White, 0.84% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 8.23% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 20.57% of the population. There were 442 households out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $34,148, the median income for a family was $39,375. Males had a median income of $30,529 versus $21,607 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,977. About 9.2% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.8% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. The Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park, operated by the National Park Service, is 12 miles west of Johnson City. Johnson City is served by the Johnson City Independent School District; the district has middle school and high school. Students attend Lyndon B. Johnson High School; the Johnson City Record Courier is a weekly newspaper published in Johnson City. It was established in 1883. KFAN-FM/107.9 is licensed to serve Johnson City. City of Johnson City official website Johnson City Chamber of Commerce Johnson City Record Courier Johnson City from the Handbook of Texas Online Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Johnson City Independent School District City-Data.com
Blanco River (Texas)
The Blanco River is a river in the Hill Country of Texas in the United States. The primary source for the river is a series of springs in northern Kendall County; the river flows eastward for 87 miles through Kendall County, Blanco County and Hays County. Near San Marcos, it joins with the San Marcos River; the river is quite shallow, it dips below ground in some areas in the Hill Country. As with many of the rivers in the Texas Hill Country, there is great variability in the Blanco River's flow; the mean flow is 93 ft³/s, but heavy rains in the river's watershed can cause flash flooding with little warning. In 1998, the Blanco River had peak flooding discharge of 2,970 cubic metres per second from a 1,067 square kilometres basin. Early in the morning on May 24, during the 2015 Texas–Oklahoma floods, the Blanco River experienced catastrophic flooding; the river at Wimberley rose more than 30 feet in less than three hours, set a new record high crest of more than 40 feet while disabling the gauge.
Rainfall totals of 10 to 13 inches were reported upstream in southern Blanco County, all of this water entered the Blanco River and Little Blanco River. The Fischer Store Rd. bridge over the Blanco River was destroyed by flood waters west of Wimberley. The Blanco River, down stream from the bridge, at Wimberley reached a record crest; the gauge failed at 40 feet and the USGS estimated the crest at 44.9 feet with peak flow of 175,000 cubic feet per second. This height was more than 10 feet over the previous record height of 33.3 feet from 1929. Homes along the banks of the Blanco River from the City of Blanco, through Wimberley, down to San Marcos experienced an historic flood. Many homes were destroyed and swept down stream. Many homes were struck by large debris, including full size cypress trees which lined the banks of the river. A house in the 100 block of Deer Crossing Ln. in Wimberley was washed away in the flood with nine people inside. There was one lone survivor. Six bodies were recovered and the two small children remain missing.
Several of the bodies were recovered near Texas nearly 30 miles downstream. Ten fatalities were reported for this event; the river experienced rises. Estimates of insured losses are around $100 million. Overall in Hays County, including Wimberley and San Marcos, 321 homes were destroyed, with hundreds more damaged. During the May 24 event, the river crested at 36.52 ft at Kyle, the highest the river had been since a 40.0 ft crest in 1929. Kyle is downstream of the Wimberley gauge. On October 30, 2015, the river flooded again; the river crested at 37.24 ft at Kyle, exceeding the gauge height of the May 24, 2015 crest, becoming the highest the river had been since a 40.0 ft crest in 1929. The Wimberley gauge had a crest of only 26.54 ft on October 30, 2015. Flooding near San Marcos culminated in the closure of the Interstate 35 bridge over the Blanco River for the second time in 2015; the upper reaches of the Blanco River are hilly, the river's slopes are steep. As the river reaches the Balcones Escarpment near San Marcos, it widens and its slopes moderate.
The Blanco River provides drinking water for the city of Blanco, as well as water supplies for nearby ranches. The river supports a number of recreational areas, including the Blanco State Recreation Area in Blanco, the Boy Scouts camp El Rancho Cima near Wimberley, other private parks and resorts. Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority List of rivers of Texas Blanco River from the Handbook of Texas Online The Narrows from the Handbook of Texas Online Pull: Texas Canoe trip Video of a canoe trip down the river with winching. USGS WaterData: Stream Gauge Blanco River at Wimberly NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction at Wimberly WMBT2 USGS WaterData: Stream Gauge Blanco River near Kyle NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction near Kyle KYET2