Harry Andrew Blackmun was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994. Appointed by Republican President Richard Nixon, Blackmun became one of the most liberal justices on the Court, he is best known as the author of the Court's opinion in Roe v. Wade, which prohibits many state and federal restrictions on abortion. Raised in Saint Paul, Blackmun graduated from Harvard Law School in 1932, he practiced law in Minneapolis, representing clients such as the Mayo Clinic. In 1959, he was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the defeat of two previous nominees, President Richard Nixon nominated Blackmun to the Supreme Court to replace Associate Justice Abe Fortas. Blackmun and his close friend, conservative Chief Justice Warren Burger, were referred to as the "Minnesota Twins," but Blackmun drifted away from Burger during their tenure on the court.
Blackmun retired from the Court during the administration of President Bill Clinton, was succeeded by Stephen Breyer. Aside from Roe v. Wade, notable majority opinions written by Blackmun include Bates v. State Bar of Arizona, Bigelow v. Commonwealth of Virginia, Stanton v. Stanton, he joined part of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey but filed a separate opinion, warning that Roe was in jeopardy, he wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Furman v. Georgia, Bowers v. Hardwick, DeShaney v. Winnebago County. Harry Blackmun was born in Illinois, to Theo Huegely and Corwin Manning Blackmun. Three years his baby brother, Corwin Manning Blackmun, Jr. died soon after birth. Blackmun grew up in Dayton's Bluff, a working-class neighborhood in Saint Paul, Minnesota, he attended the same grade school as future Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, with whom he served on the Supreme Court for some sixteen years, he attended Harvard University on scholarship, earning an Artium Baccalaureus degree summa cum laude in mathematics and graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1929.
While at Harvard, Blackmun sang with the Harvard Glee Club. He attended Harvard Law School, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws in 1932, he served in a variety of positions including private counsel, law clerk, adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota Law School and William Mitchell College of Law. Blackmun's practice as an attorney at the law firm now known as Dorsey & Whitney focused in its early years on taxation and estates, civil litigation, he married Dorothy Clark in 1941 and had three daughters with her, Nancy and Susan. Between 1950 and 1959, Blackmun served as resident counsel for the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, he would describe his time at Mayo as "his happiest time". In the late 1950s, Blackmun's close friend Warren E. Burger an appellate judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit encouraged Blackmun to seek a judgeship. Judge John B. Sanborn Jr. of the Eighth Circuit, whom Blackmun had clerked for after graduating from Harvard, told Blackmun of his plans to assume senior status.
He said that he would suggest Blackmun's name to the Eisenhower administration if Blackmun wished to succeed him. After much urging by Sanborn and Burger, Blackmun agreed to accept the nomination, duly offered by Eisenhower and members of the Justice Department. Blackmun was nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on August 18, 1959, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Judge John B. Sanborn Jr; the American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary gave him an high rating of "exceptionally well qualified", he was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 14, 1959, received his commission on September 21, 1959. Over the next decade, Blackmun would author 217 opinions for the Eighth Circuit, his service terminated on June 1970, due to his elevation to the Supreme Court. Blackmun was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Richard Nixon on April 14, 1970, was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 12, 1970, by a 94–0 vote.
He received his commission on May 14, 1970 and took the oath of office on June 9, 1970. Blackmun was Nixon's third choice to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Abe Fortas on May 14, 1969, his confirmation followed contentious battles over two previous, failed nominations forwarded by Nixon in 1969–1970, those of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell. Nixon's original choice, Lewis F. Powell Jr. turned him down but joined the Court in 1972. Blackmun served as Circuit Justice for the Eighth Circuit from June 9, 1970 to August 2, 1994 and for the First Circuit from August 7, 1990 to October 8, 1990. Blackmun, a lifelong Republican, was expected to adhere to a conservative interpretation of the Constitution; the Court's Chief Justice at the time, Warren Burger, a long-time friend of Blackmun's and best man at his wedding, had recommended Blackmun for the job to Nixon. The two were referred to as the "Minnesota Twins" because of their common history in Minnesota and because they so voted together.
Indeed, Blackmun voted with
Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, who served from her appointment in 1981 by President Ronald Reagan until her retirement in 2006. She was the first woman to serve on the Court. Prior to O'Connor's tenure on the Court, she was a judge and an elected official in Arizona serving as the first female Majority Leader of a state senate as the Republican leader in the Arizona Senate. Upon her nomination to the Court, O'Connor was confirmed unanimously by the Senate. On July 1, 2005, she announced her intention to retire effective upon the confirmation of a successor. Samuel Alito was nominated to take her seat in October 2005, joined the Court on January 31, 2006; as a moderate Republican, O'Connor tended to approach each case narrowly without arguing for sweeping precedents. She most sided with the Court's conservative bloc, she wrote concurring opinions that limited the reach of the majority holding. Her majority opinions in landmark cases include Hamdi v. Rumsfeld.
She wrote in part the per curiam majority opinion in Bush v. Gore, was one of three co-authors of the lead opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey. Several publications have named her among the most powerful women in the world. On August 12, 2009, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor of the United States, by President Barack Obama. Sandra Day was born in El Paso, the daughter of Harry Alfred Day, a rancher, Ada Mae, she grew up on a 198,000-acre cattle ranch near Arizona. The ranch was nine miles from the nearest paved road; the family home did not have running electricity until Sandra was seven years old. She hunted from a young age, she began driving as soon as she could see over the dashboard and had to learn to change flat automobile tires herself. Sandra had two younger siblings, a sister and a brother eight and ten years her junior, her sister was Ann Day. She wrote a book with her brother, H. Alan Day, Lazy B: Growing up on a Cattle Ranch in the American West, about her childhood experiences on the ranch.
For most of her early schooling, O'Connor lived in El Paso with her maternal grandmother, attended school at the Radford School for Girls, a private school. The family cattle ranch was too far from schools, although O'Connor was able to return to the ranch for holidays and the summer. O'Connor spent her eighth-grade year riding a bus 32 miles to school, she graduated sixth in her class at Austin High School in El Paso in 1946. Sandra Day attended Stanford University, where she received her B. A. in Economics in 1950. She continued at the Stanford Law School for her law degree in 1952. There, she served on the Stanford Law Review with its presiding editor-in-chief, future Supreme Court Chief Justice William Rehnquist, the class valedictorian and whom she dated during law school, she has stated that she graduated third in her law school class, though Stanford's official position is that the law school did not rank students in 1952. On December 20, 1952, six months after graduating from law school, she married John Jay O'Connor III, whom she had met at Stanford Law School.
Upon graduation from law school, while her classmate Rehnquist went on to clerk for the Supreme Court, O'Connor had difficulty finding a paying job as an attorney because of her gender. O'Connor found employment as a deputy county attorney in San Mateo, after she offered to work for no salary and without an office, sharing space with a secretary, she worked with San Mateo County district attorney Louis Dematteis and deputy district attorney Keith Sorensen. When her husband was drafted, O'Connor decided to pick up and go with him to work in Germany as a civilian attorney for the Army's Quartermaster Corps, they remained there for three years before returning to the states where they settled in Maricopa County, Arizona, to begin their family. They had three sons: Scott and Jay. Following Brian's birth, O'Connor took a five-year hiatus from the practice of law, she volunteered in various political organizations, such as the Maricopa County Young Republicans, served on the presidential campaign for Arizona Senator Barry M. Goldwater in 1964.
O'Connor served as assistant Attorney General of Arizona from 1965 to 1969. In 1969, the governor of Arizona appointed O'Connor to fill a vacancy in the Arizona Senate, she won the election for the seat the following year. By 1973, she became the first woman to serve as Arizona's or any state's Majority Leader, she developed a reputation as a moderate. After serving two full terms, O'Connor decided to leave the Senate. In 1974, O'Connor was elected to the Maricopa County Superior Court serving from 1975 to 1979 when she was elevated to the Arizona State Court of Appeals, she served on the Court of Appeals-Division One until 1981 when she was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Ronald Reagan. On July 7, 1981, Reagan – who had pledged during his 1980 presidential campaign to appoint the first woman to the Court – announced he would nominate O'Connor as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court to replace the retiring Potter Stewart. O'Connor received notification from President Reagan of her nomination on the day prior to the announcement and did not know that she was a finalist for the position.
Reagan wrote in his diary on July 6, 1981: "Called Judge O'Connor and told her she was my nominee for supreme court. The flak is starting and from my own supporters. Right to Life people say. Sh
William Hubbs Rehnquist was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism, the court, for the first time since the 1930s, struck down an act of Congress as exceeding its power under the Commerce Clause. Born in Shorewood, Rehnquist pursued a legal career in Phoenix, Arizona after graduating from Stanford Law School, he clerked for Associate Justice Robert H. Jackson during the Supreme Court's 1952–1953 term and served as a legal adviser for Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in the 1964 election. In 1969, President Richard Nixon appointed Rehnquist as Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Legal Counsel. In 1971, Nixon nominated Rehnquist to succeed Associate Justice John Marshall Harlan II, Rehnquist won Senate confirmation that same year.
Rehnquist established himself as the most conservative member of the Burger Court. In 1986, President Ronald Reagan nominated Rehnquist to succeed retiring Chief Justice Warren Burger, Rehnquist again won Senate confirmation. Rehnquist served as Chief Justice for nearly 19 years, making him the fourth-longest-serving Chief Justice, the eighth-longest-serving Justice, he became an intellectual and social leader of the Rehnquist Court, earning respect from the Justices who opposed his opinions. Though he remained a member of the conservative wing of the court, Associate Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas were regarded as more conservative; as Chief Justice, Rehnquist presided over the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. Rehnquist wrote the majority opinions in United States v. Lopez and United States v. Morrison, holding in both cases that Congress had exceeded its power under the Commerce Clause, he opposed the court's Roe v. Wade decision and continued to argue that Roe had been incorrectly decided in Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
In Bush v. Gore, he voted with the court's majority to end the Florida recount. Rehnquist grew up in the Milwaukee suburb of Shorewood, his father, William Benjamin Rehnquist, was a sales manager at various times for printing equipment and medical supplies and devices. His paternal grandparents immigrated from Sweden. Rehnquist graduated from Shorewood High School in 1942, he attended Kenyon College, in Gambier, for one quarter in the fall of 1942, before entering the U. S. Army Air Forces, he served from March 1943 – 1946 in assignments in the United States. He was put into a pre-meteorology program and assigned to Denison University until February 1944, when the program was shut down, he served three months at Will Rogers Field in Oklahoma City, three months in Carlsbad, New Mexico, went to Hondo, for a few months. He was chosen for another training program, which began at Chanute Field and ended at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; the program was designed to teach the repair of weather instruments. In the summer of 1945, Rehnquist went overseas as a weather observer in North Africa.
After the war, Rehnquist attended Stanford University with assistance under the provisions of the G. I. Bill. In 1948, he received both a Master of Arts degree in political science. In 1950, he attended Harvard University, where he received another Master of Arts, this time in government, he returned to Stanford, graduated from the Stanford Law School in the same class as Sandra Day O'Connor, with whom he would serve on the Supreme Court. They dated at Stanford and Rehnquist proposed marriage, though O'Connor declined as she was by dating her future husband. Rehnquist graduated first in his class. Rehnquist went to Washington, D. C. to work as a law clerk for Justice Robert H. Jackson of the United States Supreme Court during the court's 1952–1953 term. There, he wrote a memorandum arguing against federal court-ordered school desegregation while the court was considering the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education, decided in 1954. Rehnquist's 1952 memo, entitled "A Random Thought on the Segregation Cases", defended the "separate-but-equal" doctrine.
In that memo, Rehnquist said: I realize that it is an unpopular and unhumanitarian position, for which I have been excoriated by "liberal" colleagues, but I think Plessy v. Ferguson was right and should be reaffirmed. To the argument that a majority may not deprive a minority of its constitutional right, the answer must be made that while this is sound in theory, in the long run it is the majority who will determine what the constitutional rights of the minority are. In both his 1971 Senate confirmation hearing for associate justice and his 1986 hearing for chief justice, Rehnquist testified that the memorandum reflected the views of Justice Jackson rather than his own views. Rehnquist said, "I believe that the memorandum was prepared by me as a statement of Justice Jackson's tentative views for his own use." Elsie Douglas, long-time secretary and confidante of Justice Jackson, stated during Rehnquist's 1986 hearings that his allegation was "a smear of a great man, for whom I served as secretary for many years.
Justice Jackson did not ask law clerks to express his views. He expressed his own and they express
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact. It is distinguished from a bench trial in which a panel of judges makes all decisions. Jury trials are used in a significant share of serious criminal cases in all common law lawful systems, juries or lay judges have been incorporated into the legal systems of many civil law countries for criminal cases. Only the United States makes routine use of jury trials in a wide variety of non-criminal cases. Other common law legal jurisdictions use jury trials only in a select class of cases that make up a tiny share of the overall civil docket, but true civil jury trials are entirely absent elsewhere in the world; some civil law jurisdictions, have arbitration panels where non-legally trained members decide cases in select subject-matter areas relevant to the arbitration panel members' areas of expertise. The availability of a trial by jury in American jurisdictions varies; because the United States legal system separated from that of the English one at the time of the American Revolution, the types of proceedings that use juries depends on whether such cases were tried by jury under English common law at that time rather than the methods used in English courts now.
For example, at the time, English "courts of law" tried cases of torts or private law for monetary damages using juries, but "courts of equity" that tried civil cases seeking an injunction or another form of non-monetary relief did not. As a result, this practice continues in American civil laws, but in modern English law, only criminal proceedings and some inquests are to be heard by a jury; the use of jury trials, which evolved within common law systems rather than civil law systems, has had a profound impact on the nature of American civil procedure and criminal procedure rules if a bench trial is contemplated in a particular case. In general, the availability of a jury trial if properly demanded has given rise to a system in which fact finding is concentrated in a single trial rather than multiple hearings, appellate review of trial court decisions is limited. Jury trials are of far less importance in countries. Ancient Athens had a mechanism, called dikastaí, to assure that no one could select jurors for their own trial.
For normal cases, the courts were made up of dikastai of up to 500 citizens. For capital cases—those that involved death, loss of liberty, loss of civil rights, or seizure of property—the trial was before a jury of 1,001 to 1,501 dikastai. In such large juries, they rule by majority. Juries were appointed by lot. Jurists cast a ceramic disk with an axle in its middle: the axle was either hollow or solid, thus the way they voted was kept secret because the jurists would hold their disk by the axle by thumb and forefinger, thus hiding whether its axle was hollow or solid. Since Periclean times, jurists were compensated for their sitting in court, with the amount of one day's wages; the institution of trial by jury was ritually depicted by Aeschylus in the Eumenides, the third and final play of his Oresteia trilogy. In the play, the innovation is brought about by the goddess Athena, who summons twelve citizens to sit as jury; the god Apollo takes part in the trial as the advocate for the defendant Orestes and the Furies as prosecutors for the slain Clytemnestra.
In the event the jury is split six to six, Athena dictates that in such a case, the verdict should henceforth be for acquittal From the beginning of the republic and in the majority of civil cases towards the end of the empire, there were tribunals with the characteristics of the jury, the Roman judges being civilian and not professional. Capital trials were held in front of juries composed of hundreds or thousands of people in the commitias or centuries, the same as in Roman trials. Roman law provided for the yearly selection of judices, who would be responsible for resolving disputes by acting as jurors, with a praetor performing many of the duties of a judge. High government officials and their relatives were barred from acting as judices, due to conflicts of interest; those found guilty of serious crimes were barred as were gladiators for hire, who were hired to resolve disputes through trial by combat. The law was as follows: "The peregrine praetor within the next ten days after this law is passed by the people or plebs shall provide for the selection of 450 persons in this State who have or have had a knight's census... provided that he does not select a person, or has been plebeian tribune, triumvir capitalis, military tribune in any of the first four legions, or triumvir for granting and assigning lands, or, or has been in the Senate, or who has fought or shall fight as a gladiator for hire... or, condemned by the judicial process and a public trial whereby he cannot be enrolled in the Senate, or, less than thirty or more than sixty years of age, or who does not have his residence in the city of Rome or within one mile of it, or, the father, brother, or son of any above-described magistrate, or, the father, brother, or son of a person, or has been a member of the Senate, or, overseas."
A Swabian ordinance of 1562 called for the summons of jurymen, various methods were in use in Emmendingen and Oberkirch. Hauenstein's charter of 1442 secured the right to be tried in all cases by 24 fellow equals, in Friburg the jury was composed of 30 citizens and councilors; the modern jury trial was first introduced in the Rhenish provinc
United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner and by the name of the respondent, other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially; the Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the standard reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following The Bluebook, a accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as: Brown v. Bd. of Educ.
347 U. S. 483. This citation indicates that the decision of the Court in the case entitled Brown v. Board of Education, as abbreviated in Bluebook style, was decided in 1954 and can be found in volume 347 of the United States Reports starting on page 483; the early volumes of the United States Reports were published by the individual Supreme Court Reporters. As was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them: Dallas's Reports, Cranch's Reports, etc; the decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the second volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period and the first decade after Independence. Alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals, he subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume, which he called Reports of cases ruled and adjudged in the courts of Pennsylvania and since the Revolution.
This would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. When the United States Supreme Court, along with the rest of the new Federal Government moved, in 1791, from New York City to the nation's temporary capital in Philadelphia, Dallas was appointed the Supreme Court's first unofficial, unpaid, Supreme Court Reporter. Dallas continued to publish Pennsylvania decisions in a second volume of his Reports; when the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the second volume, 2 Dallas Reports, with West v. Barnes. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter; when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, although the publication of the Reports remained a private enterprise for the reporter's personal gain.
The reports themselves were the subject of an early copyright case, Wheaton v. Peters, in which former reporter Henry Wheaton sued current reporter Richard Peters for reprinting cases from Wheaton's Reports in abridged form. In 1874, the U. S. government began creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, starting from the first volume of Dallas Reports. Therefore, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms: one for the volume number of the United States Reports. For example, the complete citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S. 316. Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume National Reporter System United States Supreme Court: Information About Opinions United States Supreme Court: Bound Volumes – Lists of PDFs Torrents of United States Reports 502–550
Byron Raymond "Whizzer" White was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from April 12, 1962 to June 28, 1993. Born and raised in Colorado, he played college football and baseball for the University of Colorado, finishing as the runner up for the Heisman Trophy in 1937, he was selected in the first round of the 1938 NFL Draft by the Pittsburgh Pirates and led the National Football League in rushing yards in his rookie season. White was admitted to Yale Law School in 1939 and played for the Detroit Lions in the 1940 and 1941 seasons. During World War II, he served as an intelligence officer with the United States Navy in the Pacific. After the war, he clerked for Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson. White entered private practice in Denver, working as a transactional attorney, he served as the Colorado state chair of John F. Kennedy's 1960 presidential campaign and accepted appointment as the United States Deputy Attorney General in 1961. In 1962, President Kennedy nominated White to the Supreme Court, making White the first Supreme Court Justice from Colorado.
He was succeeded by Ruth Bader Ginsburg. White is the twelfth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history. White viewed his own court decisions as based on the facts of each case rather than as representative of a specific legal philosophy, he wrote the majority opinion in cases including Coker v. Georgia, Washington v. Davis and Bowers v. Hardwick, he wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Miranda v. Arizona and Naturalization Service v. Chadha, Roe v. Wade. Born in Fort Collins, White was the younger son of Maude Elizabeth and Alpha Albert White, neither of whom attended high school, he was raised in the nearby town of Wellington, where he obtained his high school diploma in 1934. After graduating at the top of his tiny high school class of six, White attended the University of Colorado in Boulder on a scholarship, offered to all Colorado high school valedictorians, as his older brother Sam had done, he served as student body president his senior year. Graduating Phi Beta Kappa and valedictorian in 1938, he won a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford in England.
During this time in England, he became acquainted with Joe and John Kennedy, as their father Joseph Kennedy was the U. S. ambassador to London. White was an All-American halfback for the Colorado Buffaloes, where a newspaper columnist gave him the nickname "Whizzer", which to his chagrin followed him throughout his legal and Supreme Court careers; as a senior, White led Colorado to an undefeated 8–0 regular season in 1937, but they lost to favored Rice Institute of Houston 28–14 in the Cotton Bowl in Dallas on New Year's Day. He was the runner-up for the Heisman Trophy, played basketball and baseball at CU; the basketball team advanced to the finals of the inaugural National Invitation Tournament at Madison Square Garden in March 1938. White planned to attend Oxford in 1938 and not play pro football, he was selected fourth overall in the 1938 NFL draft, held in December 1937, by the NFL's Pittsburgh Pirates, became a Rhodes Scholar days later. Oxford allowed White to delay his start to early 1939, so he accepted the Pittsburgh offer in August and played the 1938 season in the NFL.
He was its highest-paid player. He sailed to England with the intent of staying for three years. With the outbreak of World War II in late summer, White returned to the United States, he enrolled at Yale Law School in 1939. In a 2000 interview, White said that he was supposed to enroll at Harvard Law School, but got sick on the train ride there, so he got off the train in New Haven and went to Yale. White earned the highest grades in the first-year class, but he turned down an editorship of the Yale Law Journal and took a leave of absence to play football with the Detroit Lions, again leading the league in rushing in 1940 and 1941. In three NFL seasons, he played in 33 games, he led the league in rushing yards in 1938 and 1940, he was one of the first "big money" NFL players, making $15,000 per year. White used the money, his NFL career was cut short when he entered the U. S. Navy in 1942, he was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954. During World War II, White served as an intelligence officer in the Navy and was stationed in the Pacific Theatre.
He wanted to join the Marines, but was kept out due to being colorblind. He wrote the intelligence report on the sinking of future President John F. Kennedy's PT-109. For his service, White was awarded two Bronze Star medals, was honorably discharged as a lieutenant commander. White first met his wife Marion, the daughter of the president of the University of Colorado, when she was in high school and he was a college football star. During World War II, Marion served in the WAVES while her future husband was a Navy intelligence officer, they married in 1946 and had two children: a son named Charles Byron and a daughter named Nancy. His older brother Clayton Samuel "Sam" White was a high school valedictorian and Rhodes Scholar, he became a physician and medical researcher on the effects of atomic bomb blasts. After his military service, White returned to Yale Law School, graduating magna cum laude and first in his
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin