They are used in advertising and for branding purposes. Police badges date back to times when knights wore a coat of arms representing their allegiances. Badges can be made from metal, leather, rubber, etc. and they are attached to clothing, footwear, home electrical equipment. Textile badges or patches can be woven or embroidered, and can be attached by gluing, ironing-on. Badges have become collectable, in the UK, for example. In the military, badges are used to denote the unit or arm to which the wearer belongs, youth organizations such as scouting and guiding use them to show group membership and rank. Badges were popular as jewellery in the Middle Ages, and varied from extremely expensive works of jewellery, like the Dunstable Swan Jewel, one royal celebration in 1483 was marked by the distribution of 13,000 badges, a huge number relative to the population at the time. Other types were funerary badges, presumably presented to mourners for the funeral of important figures, the grandest form of badge was worn as a pendant to a metal collar, often in gold or silver-gilt.
From the livery badge, various badges of service evolved, worn by officials, soldiers, in the British army a metal cap badge denoting the soldiers regiment became standard by the 17th century, as in most European armies. One of the badges is the typically star-shaped U. S. sheriffs badge. The Chairman Mao badge is probably the most famous political badge, members of fraternities and sororities often refer to the pins that signify their membership as badges. The BBC childrens programme Blue Peter awards its own Blue Peter badge to members of the public who appear on the show and these are highly collectable as they cannot be bought—except from people who have been awarded one and wish to sell it. Case badges are thick, about 3 mm deep, 3-by-3-centimetre lucite stickers that are packaged with various computer parts, such as processors. Modern computer cases are frequently embellished with an indentation on the front panel to facilitate the affixing of a case badge. Button badges are a highly collectible round badge with a coating over a design or image.
They often have a pin back or a safety pin style back. The most popular size is 25. 4-millimetre but the badges can range anywhere from this right up to 120-millimetre badges. This style of badge is used in political campaigning and often given as part of a greeting such as a birthday card
A flag is a piece of fabric with a distinctive design that is used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or as decoration. National flags are patriotic symbols with varied wide-ranging interpretations, often including strong military associations due to their original, flags are used in messaging, advertising, or for other decorative purposes. The study of flags is known as vexillology, from the Latin word vexillum, due to the use of flags by military units, flag is used as the name of some military units. A flag is equivalent to a brigade in Arab countries, and in Spain, in antiquity, field signs or standards were used in warfare that can be categorized as vexilloid or flag-like. During the High Middle Ages flags came to be used primarily as a device in battle. Already during the medieval period, and increasingly during the Late Middle Ages. Regimental flags for individual units became commonplace during the Early Modern period, flags became the preferred means of communications at sea, resulting in various systems of flag signals, International maritime signal flags.
One of the most popular uses of a flag is to symbolize a nation or country, some national flags have been particularly inspirational to other nations, countries, or subnational entities in the design of their own flags. Some prominent examples include, The flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is attested in 1478, the flag of the Netherlands is the oldest tricolour. Its three colours of red and blue go back to Charlemagnes time, the 9th century, the coastal region of what today is the Netherlands was known for its cloth in these colours. Maps from the early 16th century already put flags in these colours next to this region, a century before that, during the 15th century, the three colours were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the three bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled. As state flag it first appeared around 1572 as the Princes Flag in orange–white–blue, soon the more famous red–white–blue began appearing, becoming the prevalent version from around 1630. Orange made a comeback during the war of the late 18th century.
During World War II the pro-Nazi NSB used it, any symbolism has been added to the three colours, although the orange comes from the House of Orange-Nassau. This use of orange comes from Nassau, which today uses orange-blue, not from Orange, the usual way to show the link with the House of Orange-Nassau is the orange pennant above the red-white-blue. It is said that the Dutch Tricolour has inspired many flags but most notably those of Russia, New York City, the national flag of France was designed in 1794. As a forerunner of revolution, Frances tricolour flag style has been adopted by other nations, Italy, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Mexico. The Union Flag of the United Kingdom is the most commonly used, british colonies typically flew a flag based on one of the ensigns based on this flag, and many former colonies have retained the design to acknowledge their cultural history
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
In heraldry, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects usually placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. Early forms of supporters are found in medieval seals, unlike the coronet or helmet and crest, supporters were not part of early medieval heraldry. As part of the achievement, they first become fashionable towards the end of the 15th century. The arms of nutritionist John Boyd-Orr use two garbs as supporters, the arms of the USS Donald Cook, the arms of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil, letters of the alphabet are used as supporters in the arms of Valencia, Spain. Human supporters can be allegorical figures, or, more rarely, specifically named individuals, the arms of the Congo provide an extremely unusual example of two supporters issuing from behind the shield. While such single supporters are generally eagles with one or two heads, there are examples, including the cathedra in the case of some Canadian cathedrals. At the other extreme and even rarer, the Scottish chief Dundas of that Ilk had three supporters, two red lions and the whole supported by a salamander.
The coat of arms of Iceland even has four supporters, an example of whales non-rampant is the arms of the Dutch municipality of Zaanstad. However, medieval Scottish seals afford numerous examples in which the 13th and 14th century shields were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or dragons, further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour. Trees and other objects which are sometimes used are called Soutiens. Knights Grand Companion and Principal Companions of the New Zealand Order of Merit are granted the use of heraldic supporters, originally, in England, supporters were regarded as little more than mere decorative and artistic appendages. In the United Kingdom, supporters are typically an example of royal favour. Hereditary supporters are normally limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, knights banneret were granted non-hereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I.
Tom Brown was so knighted by George II at the Battle of Dettingen, supporters may be granted to corporations which have a royal charter
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures called colours. In engraving, it is depicted as a region of vertical lines or else marked with gu. as an abbreviation. In Polish heraldry, gules is the most common tincture of the field, through the sixteenth century, nearly half of all noble coats of arms in Poland had a field gules with one or more argent charges on them. The original coat of arms of the family was plain gules. Sometimes, the different tinctures are said to be connected with special meanings or virtues, even if this is an idea mostly disregarded by serious heraldists throughout the centuries, it may be of anecdotal interest to see what they are, since people often ask for this information. Many sources give different meanings, but the gules tincture is said to represent the following, of jewels. The term gules derives from the Old French word goules, literally meaning throats, for many decades, heraldic authors have believed that the term may have arisen from the Persian word گل, but according to Brault there is no evidence to support this derivation
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to an extent, battles. A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above which is set the helm, on which sits the crest, the word crest derives from the Latin crista, meaning tuft or plume, perhaps related to crinis, hair. They first appeared in a context in the form of the metal fans worn by knights in the 12th and 13th centuries. These were primarily decorative, but may have served a purpose by lessening or deflecting the blows of opponents weapons. These fans were generally of one colour, evolving to repeat all or part of the arms displayed on the shield. The fan crest was developed by cutting out the figure displayed on it, to form a metal outline. Torses did not come into use in Britain until the 15th century, and are still uncommon on the Continent. Crests were mounted on a furred cap known as a chapeau. By the 16th century the age of tournaments had ended, and their illustrated equivalents consequently began to be treated as simply two-dimensional pictures.
In the same period, different helms began to be used for different ranks and knights helms faced forwards, whereas those of peers, torses suffered artistically, being treated not as silken circlets, but as horizontal bars. Heraldry in general underwent something of a renaissance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, crests are now generally not granted unless they could actually be used on a physical helm, and the rules about directions of helms are no longer rigidly observed. The use of crests was once restricted to those of tournament rank, i. e. knights and above and they are not generally used by women and clergymen, as they did not participate in war or tournaments and thus would not have helms on which to wear them. Some heraldists are of the opinion that crests, as devices, are not suited for use by corporate bodies. This practice did not exist in Britain until the modern era, and arms with more than one crest are still rare. After the 16th century, it common for armigers to detach the crest and wreath from the helm.
This led to the use of the term crest to mean arms. Unlike a badge, which can be used by any amount of relatives and retainers, a crest is personal to the armiger, and its use by others is considered usurpation
An achievement, armorial achievement or heraldic achievement in heraldry is a full display of all the heraldic components to which the bearer of a coat of arms is entitled. The word hatchment in its usage is thus identical in meaning. However, in recent years the word hatchment has come to be used almost exclusively to denote funerary hatchment, archived from the original on 20 April 2011. An achievement is a formal display of a coat of arms
Variation of the field
In heraldry, variations of the field are any of a number of ways that a field may be covered with a pattern, rather than a flat tincture or a simple division of the field. Variations of the field of present a problem concerning consistent spelling of adjectival endings in English blazons. A problem arises as to acceptable spellings of French words used in English blazons, especially in the case of adjectival endings, determined in normal French usage by gender and number. A person may be a good armorist, and a tolerable French scholar, the diminutives of the ordinaries are frequently employed to vary the field. Any of these patterns may be counterchanged by the addition of a line, for example, barry argent and azure, counterchanged per fess or checquy Or and gules. When the field is patterned with an number of horizontal stripes. More rarely, a field can be of two colours or two metals. The arms of Eyfelsberg zum Wehr provide a unique example of barry of four different tinctures that do not repeat.
With ten or more pieces, the field is described as barruly, a field having the appearance of a number of narrow piles throughout issuing from the dexter of sinister flanks is barry pily. Composed of pallets, the field is paly, of bendlets, bendy, in a fashion, bendy sinister, of chevronels. Part of the field of the arms of the 544th Intelligence and Reconnaissance Group of the United States Air Force is lozengy in perspective. A field masculy is composed entirely of mascles, that is, an extremely rare, possibly unique example of a field rustré - counterchanged rustres - occurs in Canadian heraldry in the arms of R. C. Purdy Chocolates Ltd. A shield that is divided quarterly and per saltire, forming eight triangular pieces, is gyronny and this is technically a field covered with gyrons, a rare charge in the form of a wedge, shown individually in the well-known arms of Mortimer. Possibly the best known example is in the arms of the ancient Scottish family of Campbell, Gyronny of eight or and sable, borne most notably by the Duke of Argyll, the first tincture in the blazon is that of the triangle in dexter chief.
While the gyrons of gyronny almost invariably meet in the point the arms of the University of Zululand are an unusual example of gyronny meeting in the nombril point. Gyronny can be modified by the lines of partition, the canting arms of Maugiron show Gyronny of six, clearly deemed mal-gironné. Any of the lines composing the variations of the field above may be blazoned with most of the different line shapes, e. g. paly nebuly of six, Or. A field fretty is composed of bendlets and bendlets-sinister or scarps, although almost invariably the bendlets and scarpes are of the same tincture, there is an example in which they are of two different metals
Norroy and Ulster King of Arms
Norroy and Ulster King of Arms is the King of Arms at the College of Heralds with jurisdiction over England north of the Trent and Northern Ireland. The two offices of Norroy and Ulster were formerly separate, but were merged in 1943, Norroy King of Arms is the older office, there being a reference as early as 1276 to a King of Heralds beyond the Trent in the North. The name is derived from the French nord roi meaning north king, the office of Ulster King of Arms was established in 1552 by King Edward VI to replace the older post of Ireland King of Arms, which had lapsed in 1487. Ulster King of Arms was independent from the College of Arms, heraldic matters in the Republic of Ireland are handled by the Genealogical Office. The arms of Norroy and Ulster King of Arms were devised in 1980 based on elements from the arms of the two former offices. They are blazoned, Quarterly Argent and Or a Cross Gules on a Chief per pale Azure, the current Norroy and Ulster King of Arms is Timothy Duke who succeeded Sir Henry Paston-Bedingfeld in 2014.
Indicates the holder was Lancaster King of Arms and this title was used for the King of Arms of the northern province in the reigns of Henry IV, V and VI, instead of Norroy. 1629-1633 Daniel Molyneux and Adam Ussher, Esq, 1655-1660 Sir Richard Carney 1660-1683 Sir Richard St George 1683-1698 Sir Richard Carney and George Wallis, Esq. 1722-1759 William Hawkins and John Hawkins, Esq
Dexter and sinister
Dexter and sinister are terms used in heraldry to refer to specific locations in an escutcheon bearing a coat of arms, and to the other elements of an achievement. Dexter means to the right from the viewpoint of the bearer of the shield, i. e. the bearers proper right, sinister means to the left from the viewpoint of the bearer, the bearers proper left, to the right from that of the viewer. The dexter side is considered the side of honour, for example when impaling two arms. Thus, by tradition, a husbands arms occupy the dexter half of his shield, the shield of a bishop shows the arms of his see in the dexter half, his personal arms in the sinister half. King Richard II adopted arms showing the arms of Edward the Confessor in the dexter half. More generally, by ancient tradition, the guest of greatest honour at a banquet sits at the hand of the host. The Bible is replete with passages referring to being at the hand of God. Sinister is used to mark that an ordinary or other charge is turned to the left of the shield. A bend sinister is a bend which runs from the top left to bottom right.
As the shield would have carried with the design facing outwards from the bearer. This division is key to dimidiation, a method of joining two coats of arms by placing the dexter half of one coat of arms alongside the sinister half of the other. In the case of marriage, the half of the husbands arms would be placed alongside the sinister half of the wifes. The Great Seal of the United States features an eagle clutching an olive branch in its talon and arrows in its sinister talon. The front of the shield was originally undecorated. Such usage may indeed have descended directly from Roman training techniques that were spread throughout Roman Europe and continued during the age of chivalry, when heraldry came into use
Blason is a form of poetry. The term originally comes from the heraldic blazon in French heraldry. The Dutch term is Blazoen, and in either Dutch or French, the term forms the root of the modern words emblazon, which means to celebrate or adorn with heraldic markings, and blazoner, one who emblazons. It is still being used with that meaning in literature and especially in poetry. I have seen roses damasked and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks, I love to hear her speak, yet well I know, That music hath a far more pleasing sound. I grant I never saw a goddess go, My mistress when she walks treads on the ground, and yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare As any she belied with false compare. Blason draws on Petrarchan conventions of representing the female beloved in Petrarchs Canzoniere of the 14th century, petrarch never offers a complete picture of his beloved Laura, but depicts her only as parts of a woman. The French Blason tradition can be considered anti-Petrarchan, as it moves away from the tone of the Petrarchan sonnet.
This term originated from Alfred Canels travelogue Blason Populaire de la Normandie, other cultures have types of blason poetry. For instance, Ethiopia has a genre of poetry called Mälkəˀ, meaning image or portrait, emblem book Coat of arms Blazon
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as the handmaid of history, the shorthand of history, in modern times, heraldry is used by individuals and private organizations, cities and regions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for thousands of years, similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found. In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, the Greek and Latin writers frequently describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, and units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, the medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature.
Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, and the arms attributed to the Nine Worthies. These too are now regarded as an invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to an individual, time. Yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic, in England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. A notable example of an armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders. Seals from the part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism. One of the earliest known examples of armory as it came to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
An enamel, probably commissioned by Geoffreys widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a shield decorated with six golden lions rampant. He wears a helmet adorned with another lion, and his cloak is lined in vair. A medieval chronicle states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in 1128, but this account probably dates to about 1175. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions as an emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by Geoffreys shield. Richard is credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant and it is from this garment that the phrase coat of arms is derived