Hartsville is a town in Trousdale County, United States. It is the county seat of Trousdale County, with which it shares a consolidated city-county government; the population of Hartsville was 2,369 as of 2010. Hartsville now shares with Trousdale County a consolidated city-county government by virtue of a referendum which passed in Trousdale County in 2000. Despite the city-county government, under Tennessee law, Hartsville is considered to be a distinct municipality. Trousdale County High School is located here, as well a Tennessee Colleges of Applied Technology campus operated by the Tennessee Board of Regents. Trousdale County is one of two counties in Tennessee to have legalized parimutuel betting on horse racing, but no group has stepped forward to build a racetrack. Hartsville is located north of the Cumberland River and is fifty miles northeast of Nashville. In 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority began construction on the Hartsville Nuclear Plant, but cancelled the project in 1984 after spending nearly $2 billion.
The plant's unused cooling tower dominates the view south from State Route 25 between Smith County and Trousdale County. The first Euro-American settlers arrived in what is now Hartsville in 1797, when the family of James Hart settled along the west bank of the West Fork of Goose Creek, the family of Charles Donoho settled along the creek's east bank. Donoho erected a mill shortly thereafter, the town was known as Donoho's Mill. James Hart established Hart's Ferry along the Cumberland River several miles to the south, purchased the Donoho property in 1800. Hartsville was recognized as a town in 1817. Donoho's Mill, on the east bank of the creek, had become known as "Damascus," although it merged with Hartsville in 1840 when Hartsville incorporated. During the Civil War, Hartsville was site of the Battle of Hartsville, which took place in 1862. Trousdale County is serviced by three public schools: Trousdale County High School, Trousdale County Elementary School, Jim B. Satterfield Middle School.
In October 2013, Trousdale County school district was awarded the State Collaborative on Reforming Education, or SCORE, Prize winner for the school district that has most improved student achievement. Trousdale County "serves more than 1,200 students and has narrowed the achievement gap in science between white students and African-American and Hispanic students, it has shown notable growth on TVAAS in math and Biology I." Hartsville is located at 36°23′30″N 86°9′37″W. The town's business district is situated along the West Fork of Goose Creek, which flows into Trousdale County from the hills to the north and empties into the Old Hickory Lake impoundment of the Cumberland River several miles to the south. A large hill rises to the west of the business district and overlooks the entire eastern half of the county. Hartsville lies at the junction of State Route 25, which connects the town with Carthage to the southeast and Sumner County to the west, State Route 141, which connects Hartsville with Lebanon to the south and Macon County to the north.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.6 square miles in 2000, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,395 people, 938 households, 601 families residing in the town; the population density was 673.5 people per square mile. There were 1,043 housing units at an average density of 293.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 75.70% White, 22.46% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.46% of the population. There were 938 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.2% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $26,797, the median income for a family was $33,523. Males had a median income of $27,232 versus $21,429 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,226. About 17.0% of families and 19.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under age 18 and 24.3% of those age 65 or over. John Martin and politician from Hartsville, Tennessee. Martin represented Kansas in the United States Senate from 1893 until 1895. Hartsville — Trousdale County — official site
Avery's Trace was the principal road used by settlers travelling from the Knoxville area in East Tennessee to the Nashville area from 1788 to the mid-1830s. In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory of Tennessee, in 1787 North Carolina ordered a road to be cut to lead settlers into the Cumberland Settlements — from the south end of Clinch mountain to French Lick. Peter Avery, a hunter familiar with the area, directed the blazing of this trail through the wilderness, he had the trail laid out along trails which the Cherokee Indians had long made their own and used as war paths, following passages of buffalo. It led from Fort Southwest Point at Kingston through the Cumberland Mountains up into what is now Jackson County, Tennessee to Fort Blount. From there it worked through the hills and valleys of upper Middle Tennessee to Bledsoe's Fort at Castalian Springs to Mansker's Fort, to Fort Nashborough; these five forts provided protection for travelers along the Trace.
In 1787, the Assembly of North Carolina provided 300 soldiers to be available for protection at the Cumberland Settlements. The soldiers assisted Avery in laying out the Trace, each soldier was paid with a land grant of 800 acres for one year's work. A 10-foot wide trail was cleared. In that year, 25 families traveled along the new road. By 1788, the "Trace" was still a rough trail marked by trees scored to guide the pioneers and travelers. For several years, only people on horseback and with pack horses could follow the rugged trail. Journals of many travelers along the Trace detail hardship encountered as they journeyed for several days to make the 300-mile trip; the Trace was called the "Walton Road," "North Carolina Road," "Avery's Trace", sometimes "The Wilderness Road." Because a portion of the Trace passed through Cherokee land, tribe members demanded a toll for settlers' use of the road. Disputes arose over the toll. Despite colonists and Cherokees' agreeing on a treaty designed to settle these disputes, war was declared.
As a result, Cherokees killed 102 travelers along the road. The North Carolina legislature ordered militia details of 50 men each to be maintained to escort travelers when large enough groups had gathered at the Clinch River to head west. In 1792 Americans built a blockhouse at the Clinch River. Territorial Governor William Blount placed many territorial militia on active duty under the command of General John Sevier, who based his operations at the blockhouse and began to provide armed escorts for travelers along the Trace. A few years the North Carolina legislature ordered widening and improvements to the Trace to upgrade it to a wagon road, they raised funds by a lottery. As a wagon road, the Trace still offered bone-jolting travel. Pioneers were advised to keep a close watch on their horses, which Native American hunters stole; the war over the territory had ended, so travelers no longer feared for their lives. By the late 1790s, road conditions varied from "bottomless" to "fine and dry". Wagons sank to their axles in mudholes.
At places the Trace was covered with stone slabs. Much of the way was passable only on foot. Rivers and streams had to be forded. At Spencer's Mountain, now in Cumberland County, the road became steep and full of rock slabs, it was so bad that wagons could not go down the mountain without the brakes on all wheels and with a tree hung on behind to slow them down. The mountain top was said to be "quite denuded of trees." As rough and difficult as the road was, it was the major passage to the Cumberland Settlements. Lone travelers or pioneer families would load their possessions into wagons and meet fellow pioneers at the Clinch River; when the settlers had gathered, a militia detail joined them. They drive their horses across the Clinch River to start their journey into the unknown wilderness. Many believed, they faced a tortuous trail with many hazards. Pioneers camped along the way, sleeping under the stars; as the days wore on, they were fortunate enough to find families living along the Trace who gave them shelter and food for themselves and their horses, but these were few and far between.
One traveler recorded that "the houses are so far apart from each other that you see more than two or three in a day." High prices were sometimes charged for any food. The land they traveled through was rich with beautiful hills and valleys full of canebrakes, giant trees and tangled vines. Many of those who made the journey described it as 300 miles of wilderness — one inhabited by wolves, mountain lions, coyotes and buffalo herds. Along the Trace, settlers turned off for their individual land grants. By the last fort, Fort Nashborough only the militia remained; the soldiers picked up another group of settlers going back East. A traveler reported that families were moving in and out of the area, "back to whence they came or onward to other settlements." Many notable people traveled along the Trace, among them Andrew Jackson, Judge John McNairy, Governor William Blount, Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Bishop Francis Asbury, French botanist André Michaux, Tennessee Governor Archibald Roane, Thomas "Big Foot" Spencer, others.
The Trace now stands as a testament to the travelers and families who had the courage to undertake such an arduous and difficult journey, in search of a new life for themselves and future generatio
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given by scholars to the first peoples who entered, subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios, meaning "old" or "ancient"; the term "Paleo-Indians" applies to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term "Paleolithic". Traditional theories suggest that big-animal hunters crossed the Bering Strait from North Asia into the Americas over a land-and-ice bridge; this bridge existed from 45,000–12,000 BCE. Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. From c. 16,500 – c. 13,500 BCE, ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America. This allowed animals, followed by humans; the people used primitive boats along the coastline. The precise dates and routes of the peopling of the New World remain subjects of ongoing debate.
Stone tools projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Archaeologists and anthropologists use surviving crafted lithic flaked tools to classify cultural periods. Scientific evidence links Indigenous Americans to eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to Siberian populations by linguistic factors, the distribution of blood types, in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA. There is evidence for at least two separate migrations. From 8000–7000 BCE the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in more sedentary lifestyle; the specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into Beringia between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska 17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Archaeologists contend that Paleo-Indians migrated out of Beringia, ranging from c. 40,000 – c. 16,500 years ago. This time range promises to continue as such for years to come; the few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period, or more what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 16,000–13,000 years before present. However, alternative theories about the origins of Paleoindians exist, including migration from Europe. Sites in Alaska are where some of the earliest evidence has been found of Paleo-Indians, followed by archaeological sites in northern British Columbia, western Alberta and the Old Crow Flats region in the Yukon.
The Paleo-Indian would flourish all over the Americas. These peoples were spread over a wide geographical area. However, all the individual groups shared a common style of stone tool production, making knapping styles and progress identifiable; this early Paleo-Indian period lithic reduction tool adaptations have been found across the Americas, utilized by mobile bands consisting of 20 to 60 members of an extended family. Food would have been plentiful during the few warm months of the year. Lakes and rivers were teeming with many species of fish and aquatic mammals. Nuts and edible roots could be found in the forests and marshes; the fall would have been a busy time because foodstuffs would have to be stored and clothing made ready for the winter. During the winter, coastal fishing groups trap fresh food and furs. Late ice age climatic changes caused plant communities and animal populations to change. Groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought.
Small bands utilized hunting and gathering during the spring and summer months broke into smaller direct family groups for the fall and winter. Family groups moved every 3–6 days traveling up to 360 km a year. Diets were sustaining and rich in protein due to successful hunting. Clothing was made from a variety of animal hides that were used for shelter construction. During much of the Early and Middle Paleo-Indian periods, inland bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct megafauna. Large Pleistocene mammals were the giant beaver, steppe wisent, musk ox, woolly mammoths and ancient reindeer; the Clovis culture, appearing around 11,500 BCE, undoubtedly did not rely on megafauna for subsistence. Instead, they employed a mixed foraging strategy that included smaller terrestrial game, aquatic animals, a variety of flora. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included efficient fluted style spear points, as well as microblades used for butchering and hide processing.
Projectile points and hammerstones made from many sources are found traded or moved to new locations. Stone tools were traded and/or left behind fro
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
Natchez is the county seat and only city of Adams County, United States. Natchez has a total population of 15,792. Located on the Mississippi River across from Vidalia in Concordia Parish, Natchez was a prominent city in the antebellum years, a center of cotton planters and Mississippi River trade. Natchez is some 90 miles southwest of Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, located near the center of the state, it is 85 miles north of Baton Rouge, located on the lower Mississippi River. Natchez is the 25th-largest city in the state; the city was named for the Natchez tribe of Native Americans, who with their ancestors, inhabited much of the area from the 8th century AD through the French colonial period. Established by French colonists in 1716, Natchez is one of the oldest and most important European settlements in the lower Mississippi River Valley. After the French lost the French and Indian War, they ceded Natchez and near territory to Spain in the Treaty of Paris of 1763.. After the United States acquired this area from the British after the American Revolutionary War, the city served as the capital of the American Mississippi Territory and of the state of Mississippi.
It predates Jackson by more than a century. The strategic location of Natchez, on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River, ensured that it would be a pivotal center of trade and the interchange of ethnic Native American and African cultures in the region. In U. S. history, Natchez is recognized for its role in the development of the Old Southwest during the first half of the nineteenth century. It was the southern terminus of the historic Natchez Trace, with the northern terminus being Nashville, Tennessee. After unloading their cargoes in Natchez or New Orleans, many pilots and crew of flatboats and keelboats traveled by the Trace overland to their homes in the Ohio River Valley; the Natchez Trace played an important role during the War of 1812. Today the modern Natchez Trace Parkway, which commemorates this route, still has its southern terminus in Natchez. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the city attracted wealthy Southern planters as residents, who built mansions to fit their ambitions.
Their plantations were vast tracts of land in the surrounding lowlands along the river fronts of Mississippi and Louisiana, where they grew large commodity crops of cotton and sugarcane using slave labor. Natchez became the principal port from which these crops were exported, both upriver to Northern cities and downriver to New Orleans, where much of the cargo was exported to Europe. Many of the mansions built by planters before 1860 survive and form a major part of the city's architecture and identity. Agriculture remained the primary economic base for the region until well into the twentieth century. During the American Civil War Natchez was surrendered by Confederate forces without a fight in September, 1862. Following the Union victory at the Battle of Vicksburg in July, 1863, many refugees, including former slaves, freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, began moving into Natchez and the surrounding countryside; the Union Army officers claimed to be unable to provide for the refugees. The Army planned to address the situation with a mixture of paid labor for freed slaves on government leased plantations, the enlistment of able bodied males who were willing to fight in the Union Army and the establishment of refugee camps where former slaves could be provided with education.
However, as the war continued, the plan was never implemented and the leased plantations were poorly managed and raided by Confederate troops who controlled the surrounding territory. Hundreds of people living in Natchez, including many former slaves and refugees, died of hunger, disease or were killed in the fighting during this period. After the American Civil War, the city's economy revived due to Natchez having been spared the destruction visited upon many other parts of the South; the vitality of the city and region was captured most in the 80 years or so following the war by the photographers Henry C. Norman and his son Earl; the output of the Norman Studio between 1870 and 1950 documents this period in Natchez's development vividly. During the twentieth century, the city's economy experienced a downturn, first due to the replacement of steamboat traffic on the Mississippi River by railroads in the early 1900s, some of which bypassed the river cities and drew away their commerce. In the 20th century, many local industries closed in a restructuring that reduced the number of jobs in the area.
Despite its status as a popular destination for heritage tourism because of well-preserved antebellum architecture, Natchez has had a general decline in population since 1960. It remains the principal city of the MS -- LA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Natchez is located at 31°33'16" latitude, 91°23'15" longitude. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.9 square miles, of which 13.2 square
William Christian (Virginia)
William Christian was an Indian fighter, Continental soldier and politician from the Colony of Virginia who served in the era of the American Revolution. The Town of Christiansburg, Virginia, is named in his honor, he was founder of Fort William. Christian helped to negotiate the Treaty of Long Island—making peace between the Overmountain Men and the majority of the Cherokee tribes in 1777. Christian was born in Staunton, Virginia, a descendant of a Manx family which had migrated to Ireland, his parents, Israel Christian and Elizabeth Starke, had settled in Virginia in 1740, where they ran a general store. In the mid-1760s, Christian worked in the law office of Patrick Henry, married Henry's sister, Anne. Christian resided in Botetourt County and Fincastle County, Virginia, he represented Fincastle County in the Virginia House of Burgesses for three sessions, from 1773 to 1775. He was a signatory to the Fincastle Resolutions, the earliest statement of armed resistance to the British Crown in the American Colonies.
In 1775, with the approach of the American Revolutionary War, Christian served on the Fincastle Committee of Safety, attended the March 20 and July 17 meetings of the Virginia Conventions. The Town of "Christiansburgh," Virginia – as it was spelled – was named in honor of Christian, an early settler in the region. A concentration of taverns and rest stops along the Great Wilderness Road, the original 1.1-square mile Town was established on November 10, 1792, by an act passed by the Virginia General Assembly. The Town of Christiansburg was incorporated on January 7, 1833. At about the age of 18, William served as a captain in the Anglo-Cherokee War under Colonel William Byrd. In 1774, he commanded a regiment of militia from Fincastle County in Dunmore's War, but he and his troops arrived too late to participate in the decisive Battle of Point Pleasant. On February 13, 1776, he was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 1st Virginia Regiment of the Continental Army, was promoted to colonel in March.
When the British-allied Cherokees under Dragging Canoe and Oconostota went to war with the colonies in 1776, Christian resigned his commission in July of that year, accepting a commission as colonel in the militia from the Virginia Council of Defense. Christian led an expedition against the Overhill Cherokees, which saw little combat, but razed several villages, compelled some of the chiefs to agree to peace, he served in the commission which negotiated the "Treaty of the Long Island of the Holston" with the Cherokees, signed on July 20, 1777. He was a commissioner in a second treaty with the Cherokees – in 1781. William Christian and his wife helped established Fort William, where he directed the defense of what is now Louisville from Native American attacks. In 1785, Christian moved his family to the neighborhood of the Louisville settlement, where he executed claims to 9,000 acres of land, he was killed in the Illinois Country the next year during battle with the Wabash Indians. Christian is buried in Jefferson County, Kentucky in the Bullitt cemetery in Oxmoor, near his residence, a log house still standing.
Several places are named after him: Christiansburg, Virginia Christian County, Illinois Christian County, Kentucky Christian County, Missouri Perrin, William Henry. Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky: historical and biographical. F. A. Battey Publishing Company. Pp. 48–49. McCormick, Thomas Denton. "William Christian" in the Dictionary of American Biography, vol. III, p. 96, edited by Dumas Malone. New York: Scribner's, 1936. Historical marker in Jefferson County, Kentucky Historical marker in Hopkinsville, noting that Christian County was named for him in 1797. William Christian at Find a Grave