Roane County, Tennessee
Roane County is a county of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 54,181, its county seat is Kingston. Roane County is included in TN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Roane County was formed in 1801, named for Archibald Roane, the second Governor of Tennessee. Upon the creation of the Southwest Territory in 1790, the territory's governor, William Blount wanted to locate the territorial capital at the mouth of the Clinch River, but was unable to obtain title to the land from the Cherokee. Kingston, Roane's county seat, is rooted in Fort Southwest Point, a frontier fort constructed in the early 1790s. During the Civil War, Roane County, like many East Tennessee counties, was pro-Union; when Tennessee voted on the Ordinance of Secession on June 8, 1861, Roane Countians voted 1,568 to 454 in favor of remaining in the Union. In October 1861, Union guerrilla William B. Carter organized the East Tennessee bridge-burning conspiracy from a command post in Kingston. During the Knoxville Campaign in December 1863, a Union force led by General James G. Spears scattered a small Confederate force led by John R. Hart near Kingston.
In the years following the Civil War, Rockwood grew into a major iron and coal mining center with the establishment of the Roane Iron Company by General John T. Wilder. Iron ore and coal were mined on Walden Ridge and shipped to Rockwood, where the ore was converted into pig iron; the pig iron was shipped to rolling mills in Knoxville or Chattanooga. During the late 19th century, northern investors established two planned cities in Roane County— Cardiff and Harriman. Cardiff, located northeast of Rockwood, was planned as a company town to support several proposed mining industries in the area. Harriman was planned as a Temperance Town. Both ventures suffered critical setbacks as a result of the Panic of 1893. Harriman survived, but never grew in the manner its planners had envisioned, while Cardiff failed altogether. During World War II, the federal government created the city of Oak Ridge as a planned community as part of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb; as a result of the Project, both the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are located in the county.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 395 square miles, of which 361 square miles is land and 34 square miles is water. Three rivers— the Tennessee River, the Clinch River, the Emory River— pass through Roane County; the Emory empties into the Clinch near Kingston, the Clinch empties into the Tennessee just downstream from Kingston. The rivers in Roane are part of Watts Bar Lake. Roane County straddles the geographical boundary between the Tennessee Valley and the Cumberland Plateau, with the latter's Walden Ridge escarpment visible from much of the county. Campbell Bend Barrens State Natural Area Crowder Cemetery State Natural Area Kingston Refuge McGlothin-Largen Wildlife Management Area Mount Roosevelt Wildlife Management Area Paint Rock Refuge Watts Bar Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2010, there were 54,181 people, 22,376 households, 15,450 families residing in the county; the population density was 150 people per square mile. There were 25,716 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.4% White, 2.7% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.0003% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,376 households out of which 23.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18 and 18.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.9 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.85 males. As of the census of 2000, the median income for a household in the county was $33,226, the median income for a family was $41,399.
Males had a median income of $32,204 versus $22,439 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,456. About 10.30% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.80% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. The Census Bureau has defined the Harriman-Kingston-Rockwood area as a contiguous urban cluster. Several movies have been filmed in Roane County, including Boys of October Sky. Roane County was the childhood home of actress Megan Fox, she attended elementary school, took dance classes, was on the swim team in Roane County. The 2010 film, Get Low, starring Bill Murray, Robert Duvall, Sissy Spacek, was based on the true story of a Roane County man, Felix Breazeale. Breazeale was a local hermit; the funeral intrigued many. Tennessee Magnet Publications Harriman Kingston Oak Ridge Rockwood Oliver Springs Midtown Blair Cedar Grove Midway Ten Mile Paint Rock Post Oak Farms Postoak Cardiff Wheat National Register of Historic Places listings in Roane County, Tennessee Official site Roane County at Curlie Roane County News - Thrice-weekly community newspaper covering Harriman, Oliver Springs and Roane County, Tennessee The
Hamilton County, Tennessee
Hamilton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 336,463, making it the fourth-most populous county in Tennessee, its county seat is Chattanooga. The county was named for the first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton County is part of TN-GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hamilton County was formed on October 25, 1819 from portions of Rhea County and Cherokee Nation land, it was named after Alexander Hamilton, an officer in the American Revolutionary War, member of the Continental Congress, the first US Secretary of Treasury, one of the founding fathers of the United States. Hamilton County was the site of an important saltpeter mine during the Civil War. Saltpeter was obtained by leaching the earth from caves. Lookout Mountain Cave was a major source of saltpeter during the Civil War; the mine was operated by Robert Cravens. In May 1861, Cravens contracted with the Tennessee Military and Financial Board to deliver 20,000 pounds of saltpeter.
On the 24th of the same month, he reported that he had ten hoppers set up in his cave. Cravens was mining Nickajack Cave in nearby Marion County. In 1862 he quit mining at Lookout Mountain Cave and rented the cave to the Confederate Nitre and Mining Bureau, which mined the cave from June 1862 through July 1863. Mining ceased when Chattanooga was occupied by Federal forces in 1863. In 1919 James County, Tennessee went bankrupt and became a part of Hamilton County in April 1919. James County had been established by the Tennessee General Assembly in January 1871 and was named after Reverend Jesse J. James. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles, of which 542 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. Hamilton County is one of the few counties in the United States to border 10 other counties. Raccoon Mountain Caverns is a show cave located 8 miles northwest of downtown Chattanooga, it was explored in 1929 by Leo Lambert who developed trails and installed lights and opened the cave to the public on June 28, 1931.
The cave was opened under the name Tennessee Caverns. The operators of the cave claim; the Crystal Caverns Cave Spider, Nesticus furtivus, is only known from this one cave. Cave guides will spot one of these rare spiders and point it out to the tourists. Ruby Falls Cave is a show cave located on the side of Lookout Mountain south of downtown Chattanooga, it was discovered by accident on December 28, 1928 when it was intersected by an elevator shaft, being drilled to develop Lookout Mountain Cave as a commercial cave. Ruby Falls Cave was intersected at a depth of 260 from the surface and Lookout Mountain Cave was reached at a depth of 420 feet below the surface; the entire project was the work of cave developer Leo Lambert. He named the new cave's waterfall after his wife Ruby; the lower cave, Lookout Mountain Cave, opened to the public on December 30, 1929. Ruby Falls opened to the public on June 16, 1930. Ruby Falls Cave, with its spectacular waterfall proved the more popular of the two caves and it is the only cave open to the public at the present time.
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Booker T. Washington State Park Chickamauga Wildlife Management Area Cumberland Trail Falling Water Falls State Natural Area Harrison Bay State Park North Chickamauga Creek State Natural Area I-24 I-75 US 11 US 27 US 41 US 64 US 72 US 74 US 76 US 127 SR 2 SR 17 SR 27 SR 58 SR 60 SR 111 SR 153 SR 307 SR 312 SR 317 SR 319 SR 320 SR 321 Hamilton County has a County Mayor and nine districts, each of which elect a Commissioner to serve on the county's legislative County Commission. Hamilton County has an elected Sheriff. Recent past sheriffs: Jerry Pitts 1976-78 H. Q. Evatt 1978-1994 John Cupp 1994-2006 Billy Long 2006-08 Jim Hammond 2008-current As of the census of 2000, there were 307,896 people, 124,444 households, 83,750 families residing in the county; the population density was 568 people per square mile. There were 134,692 housing units at an average density of 248 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.32% White, 20.14% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races.
1.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 124,444 households out of which 28.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.20% were married couples living together, 13.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.70% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 13.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,930, the median income for a family was $48,037. Males had a median income of $35,413 versus $24,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,593.
About 9.20% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.80% of those under age 18 and 11.20% of those age 65 or over. Politically, Hamilton County is conservative. Along with
Sumner County, Tennessee
Sumner County is a county located on the central northern border of the U. S. state in what is called Middle Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 160,645, its county seat is Gallatin, its largest city is Hendersonville. The county is named for American Revolutionary War hero General Jethro Sumner. Sumner County is part of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is made up of eight cities, including Gallatin, Hendersonville, Mitchellville, Portland and White House. Sumner County is 25 miles northeast of Tennessee. Prior to the European colonization of North America, the county had been inhabited by various cultures of Native Americans for several thousand years. Nomadic Paleo and Archaic hunter-gatherer campsites, as well as substantial Woodland and Mississippian-period occupation sites and burial grounds, can be found scattered throughout the county along the waterways; the majority of these sites exist along natural waterways, with the highest concentration occurring along what is now known as the Cumberland River.
Mississippian period earthwork mounds can still be seen in Hendersonville, most notably, at Castalian Springs. Long before Europeans entered the area, Native Americans made use of the natural hot springs for their medicinal and healing properties. British colonial longhunters traveled into the area as early as the 1760s, following existing Indian and buffalo trails. By the early 1780s, they had erected several trading posts in the region; the most prominent was Mansker's Station, built by Kasper Mansker near a salt lick. Another was Bledsoe's Station, built by Isaac Bledsoe at Castilian Springs. Sumner County was organized in 1786, just 3 yeears after the end of the American Revolutionary War, when Tennessee was still the western part of North Carolina; the county was developed for agriculture: tobacco and hemp, blooded livestock. Numerous settlers came from central Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, where these were the most important products. Middle Tennessee had fertile lands that could be used for similar crops and supported high-quality livestock as well.
The larger planters depended on the labor of enslaved African Americans, but Middle Tennessee had a lower proportion of slaves in the population than in West Tennessee, the plantation area of Memphis and the Delta, where cotton was cultivated. During the American Civil War, most of Tennessee was occupied by Union troops from 1862; this led to a breakdown in civil order in many areas. The Union commander, Eleazer A. Paine, was based at the county seat, he had suspected spies publicly executed without trial in the town square. He was replaced because of his mistreatment of the people. In 1873 the county was hit hard by the fourth cholera pandemic of the century, which had begun about 1863 in Asia, it reached North America and was spread by steamboat passengers who traveled throughout the waterways in the South on the Mississippi River and its tributaries. An estimated 120 persons died of cholera in Sumner County in 1873 during the summer; the disease was spread through contaminated water, due to the lack of sanitation.
About four-fifths of the county's victims were African Americans. Many families, both black and white, lost multiple members. In the United States overall, about 50,000 persons died of cholera in the 1870s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 543 square miles, of which 529 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Sumner County is located in Middle Tennessee on the state's northern border with Kentucky; the Cumberland River was important in early trade and transportation for this area, as it flows into the Ohio River to the west. That leads to the Mississippi River, downriver to the major port of New Orleans. Sumner County is in the Greater Nashville metropolitan area. Davidson County Macon County Robertson County Trousdale County Wilson County Allen County, Kentucky Simpson County, Kentucky Bledsoe Creek State Park Cragfont State Historic Site Gallatin Steam Plant Wildlife Management Area Old Hickory Lock and Dam Wildlife Management Area Rock Castle State Historic Site Taylor Hollow State Natural Area Wynnewood State Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 130,449 people, 48,941 households, 37,048 families residing in the county.
The population density was 246 people per square mile. There were 51,657 housing units at an average density of 98 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.49% White, 5.78% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races. 1.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 48,941 households out of which 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.30% were non-families. 20.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 30.70% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 10.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Sequatchie County, Tennessee
Sequatchie County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,112, its county seat is Dunlap. Sequatchie County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sequatchie County was created in 1857 from a portion of Hamilton County, it was named for the Sequatchie Valley. The word sequachee from ᏏᏆ ᎤᏤᏥᏍᏘ siqua utsedsdi in Cherokee means, "opossum" or "he grins." Settlers began arriving in what is now Sequatchie by the early 19th century, drawn to the area by the fertile land in the valley. At the outset of the Civil War, Sequatchie was divided over the issue of secession. On June 8, 1861, Sequatchie Countians voted in favor of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession by a vote 153 to 100. In October 1863, Confederate General Joseph Wheeler led a raid into Sequatchie, burning nearly a thousand wagons and capturing livestock. During the late 19th century, the Douglas Coal and Coke Company conducted extensive mining activities in the Dunlap area.
The company constructed 268 beehive ovens, now known as the Dunlap Coke Ovens, to convert coal into coke. The ovens are now the focus of a local park. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 266 square miles, of which 266 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Sequatchie is one of three counties situated in the Sequatchie Valley, a long, narrow valley running northeast-to-southwest across the eastern portion of the Cumberland Plateau; the county is flanked by the Plateau's Walden Ridge escarpment on the east. The Sequatchie River, which spans the valley, passes through the county. Two major highways, U. S. Route 127 and Tennessee State Route 111, intersect in Dunlap. While the two other counties in the Sequatchie Valley and Marion, are grouped with the East Tennessee grand division, Sequatchie is grouped with Middle Tennessee. Van Buren County Bledsoe County Hamilton County Marion County Grundy County Warren County North Chickamauga Creek State Natural Area Prentice Cooper State Forest Savage Gulf State Natural Area South Cumberland State Park As of the census of 2010, there were 14,112 people, 4,463 households, 3,311 families residing in the county.
The population density was 43 people per square mile. There were 4,916 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.66% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 0.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Sequatchie County was mentioned as an "Extreme Whitopia" in Rich Benjamin's book, Searching for Whitopia. There were 4,463 households out of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.80% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.80% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 30.00% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,959, the median income for a family was $36,435. Males had a median income of $27,535 versus $20,422 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,468. About 13.50% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.50% of those under age 18 and 20.30% of those age 65 or over. Sequatchie County has a consolidated school system, located in Dunlap; the system operates with an elected School Board. The Sequatchie County school system has three schools: Griffith Elementary School Sequatchie County Middle School Sequatchie County High School Sequatchie County is known as "The Hang Gliding Capital of the East", due in part to the presence of an active hang gliding association, the Tennessee Tree Toppers; this group maintains a hang gliding ramp at Henson's Gap, along the eastern wall of the Sequatchie Valley, where favorable flying conditions allow these unpowered aircraft to fly well into northwestern Georgia and northeastern Alabama after launch.
The gap is the site of numerous hang gliding competitions, is a popular tourist attraction for aficionodos of the sport from all over the world. Dunlap Lone Oak Brush Creek Cagle Lewis Chapel James Standifer, U. S. congressman William Stone, U. S. congressman National Register of Historic Places listings in Sequatchie County, Tennessee Official site Sequatchie County Chamber of Commerce Sequatchie County Schools Sequatchie County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Sequatchie County at Curlie
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website