St John Passion structure
The structure of the St John Passion, BWV 245, a sacred oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach, is "carefully designed with a great deal of musico-theological intent". Some main aspects of the structure are shown in tables below; the original Latin title Passio secundum Joannem translates to "Passion according to John". Bach's large choral composition in two parts on German text, written to be performed in a Lutheran service on Good Friday, is based on the Passion, as told in two chapters from the Gospel of John in the translation by Martin Luther, with two short interpolations from the Gospel of Matthew. During the vespers service, the two parts of the work were performed after the sermon. Part I covers the events until Peter's denial of Jesus, Part II concludes with the burial of Jesus; the Bible text is reflected in contemporary poetry and in chorales that end a "scene" of the narration, similar to the way a chorale ends most Bach cantatas. An anonymous poet supplied a few texts himself, quoted from other Passion texts and inserted various stanzas of chorales by nine hymn writers.
Bach led the first performance on 7 April 1724 in Leipzig's Nikolaikirche. He repeated it several times between 1724 and 1749, experimenting with different movements and changing others, which resulted in four versions; the Passion, close to Bach's heart, has an "immediate dramatic quality". The gospel account by John narrates the story in five "scenes"; the corresponding movement numbers are given from the Neue Bach-Ausgabe. Part I Arrest, Kidron Valley Denial, palace of the high priest Kaiphas Part II Court hearing with Pontius Pilate Crucifixion and death, Golgotha Burial, burial site Some musicologists regard movement 24 as the conclusion of scene 3, the aria "Eilt, ihr angefocht'nen Seelen" which locates the action from the courthouse to Golgotha, the calvary. Others, including Alfred Dürr, regard the scene as ending with the last comment by Pilate. Bach incorporated two short interpolations from the Gospel of Matthew, Matthew 26:75 after John 18:27, describing the weeping of Peter, Matthew 27:51–52 after John 19:30, describing the tearing of the temple curtain.
The narrator is a tenor. Jesus and all other male characters are sung by a bass, while the people who are summarily called die Jüden are sung by a four-part chorus in dramatic turba movements; the "immediate, dramatic quality" of the "kind of musical equivalent of the Passion Play" relies on the setting of the interaction between the historical persons and the crowd. At eleven moments in the Passion, stanzas from Lutheran chorales reflect the narration. Bach had an influence on their selection, he set them all in common time for four parts, the instruments playing colla parte with the voices. Five chorales conclude a scene. Five chorales comment within a scene, including the central movement. One chorale accompanies the bass soloist in an aria. Most chorale texts were written in the 16th and 17th century, by authors of the Reformation such as Martin Luther, Martin Schalling and Michael Weiße, by hymn writers including Paul Gerhardt and Johann Heermann; the central chorale is not part of a common hymn, its text being taken from a libretto by Christian Heinrich Postel.
The third source for the text is contemporary poetry. It was compiled by an unknown author, who used existing text: from the Brockes Passion by Barthold Heinrich Brockes, he copied the text for movements 7, 19, 20, 24, 32, 34, 35 and 39; the work is scored for vocal soloists, a four-part choir SATB, an orchestra of two flauto traverso, two oboes, two oboes da caccia, two oboes d'amore, two violins and basso continuo. Bach added some instruments which were old-fashioned at the time in arias for special effects, such as the archlute, the viola d'amore and the viola da gamba. Bach did not differentiate the vox Christi, singing the words of Jesus, from the other bass recitatives and arias, nor the evangelist from the tenor arias; the work displays a thoughtful symmetry. In the center of the five parts is the court hearing which confronts Jesus and the people. In the middle of the hearing, a chorale interrupts the argument, a discussion about freedom and captivity, it is surrounded by two choral movements, which not only both ask for the crucifixion of Jesus, but use the same musical motifs, the second time intensified.
Again, in a repetition of similar musical material, a preceding turba choir explains the law, while a corresponding movement reminds Pilate of the Emperor whose authority is challenged by someone calling himself a king. Preceding this, Jesus is greeted in mockery as a king, corresponding in motif to the request that Pilate should change the inscription saying he is "the King of the Jews" to "He said: I am
Oboes belong to the classification of double reed woodwind instruments. Oboes are made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials; the most common oboe plays in the soprano range. A soprano oboe measures 65 cm long, with metal keys, a conical bore and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed at a sufficient air pressure, causing it to vibrate with the air column; the distinctive tone is versatile and has been described as "bright". When the word oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family, such as the bass oboe, the cor anglais, or oboe d'amore A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. Today, the oboe is used in concert bands, chamber music, film music, some genres of folk music, as a solo instrument, heard in jazz, rock and popular music. In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear and penetrating voice; the Sprightly Companion, an instruction book published by Henry Playford in 1695, describes the oboe as "Majestical and Stately, not much Inferior to the Trumpet."
In the play Angels in America the sound is described as like "that of a duck if the duck were a songbird". The rich timbre is derived from its conical bore; as a result, oboes are easier to hear over other instruments in large ensembles due to its penetrating sound. The highest note is a semitone lower than the nominally highest note of the B♭ clarinet. Since the clarinet has a wider range, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Music for the standard oboe is written in concert pitch, the instrument has a soprano range from B♭3 to G6. Orchestras tune to a concert A played by the first oboe. According to the League of American Orchestras, this is done because the pitch is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning; the pitch of the oboe is affected by the way. The reed has a significant effect on the sound. Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch. German and French reeds, for instance, differ in many ways.
Weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch. Skilled oboists adjust their embouchure to compensate for these factors. Subtle manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the oboist to express timbre and dynamics. Most professional oboists make their reeds to suit their individual needs. By making their reeds, oboists can control factors such as tone color and responsiveness. Novice oboists may begin with a Fibrecane reed, made of a synthetic material. Commercially available cane reeds are available in several degrees of hardness; these reeds, like clarinet and bassoon reeds, are made from Arundo donax. As oboists gain more experience, they may start making their own reeds after the model of their teacher or buying handmade reeds and using special tools including gougers, pre-gougers, guillotines and other tools to make the reed to their liking. According to the late John Mack, former principal oboist of the Cleveland Orchestra, an oboe student must fill a laundry basket with finished reeds in order to master the art.
"Making good reeds requires years of practice, the amateur is well advised not to embark on making his own reeds... Orchestral musicians sometimes do this, co-principals in particular earn a bit on the side in this way.... Many professional musicians import their reed cane... directly from the growers in southern France and split it vertically into three parts themselves. Oboes require thicknesses of about 10 millimeters." This allows each oboist to adjust the reeds for individual embouchure, oral cavity, oboe angle, air support. The reed is considered the part of oboe playing that makes it so difficult because slight variations in temperature, altitude and climate will change a working reed into an unplayable collection of cane. In English, prior to 1770, the standard instrument was called a "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy"; the spelling of oboe was adopted into English c. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a transliteration of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French name. The regular oboe first appeared in the mid-17th century.
This name was used for its predecessor, the shawm, from which the basic form of the hautbois was derived. Major differences between the two instruments include the division of the hautbois into three sections, or joints, the elimination of the pirouette, the wooden ledge below the reed which allowed players to rest their lips; the exact date and place of origin of the hautbois are obscure, as are the individuals who were responsible. Circumstantial evidence, such as the statement by the flautist composer Michel de la Barre in his Memoire, points to members of the Philidor and Hotteterre families; the instrument may in fact have had multiple inventors. The hautbois spread throughout Europe, including Great Britain, where it was called "hautboy", "hoboy", "hautboit", "howboye", similar variants of the French name, it was the
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. An innovative and prolific master in three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art and the most important in Dutch art history. Unlike most Dutch masters of the 17th century, Rembrandt's works depict a wide range of style and subject matter, from portraits and self-portraits to landscapes, genre scenes and historical scenes and mythological themes as well as animal studies, his contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch art, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was prolific and innovative, gave rise to important new genres. Like many artists of the Dutch Golden Age, such as Jan Vermeer of Delft, Rembrandt was an avid art collector and dealer. Rembrandt never went abroad, but he was influenced by the work of the Italian masters and Netherlandish artists who had studied in Italy, like Pieter Lastman, the Utrecht Caravaggists, Flemish Baroque Peter Paul Rubens.
Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters. Rembrandt's portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs, his self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and with the utmost sincerity. Rembrandt's foremost contribution in the history of printmaking was his transformation of the etching process from a new reproductive technique into a true art form, along with Jacques Callot, his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, his wider reputation was based on them alone.
In his works he exhibited knowledge of classical iconography, which he molded to fit the requirements of his own experience. Because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called "one of the great prophets of civilization"; the French sculptor Auguste Rodin said, "Compare me with Rembrandt! What sacrilege! With Rembrandt, the colossus of Art! We should prostrate ourselves before Rembrandt and never compare anyone with him!" Vincent van Gogh wrote, "Rembrandt goes so deep into the mysterious that he says things for which there are no words in any language. It is with justice that they call Rembrandt—magician—that's no easy occupation." Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic, now the Netherlands. He was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck, his family was quite well-to-do. Religion is a central theme in Rembrandt's paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest.
His mother was Roman Catholic, his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church. While his work reveals deep Christian faith, there is no evidence that Rembrandt formally belonged to any church, although he had five of his children christened in Dutch Reformed churches in Amsterdam: four in the Oude Kerk and one, Titus, in the Zuiderkerk; as a boy he attended Latin school. At the age of 14, he was enrolled at the University of Leiden, although according to a contemporary he had a greater inclination towards painting. After a brief but important apprenticeship of six months with the painter Pieter Lastman in Amsterdam, Rembrandt stayed a few months with Jacob Pynas and started his own workshop, though Simon van Leeuwen claimed that Joris van Schooten taught Rembrandt in Leiden. Unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime, he opened a studio in Leiden in 1625, which he shared with friend and colleague Jan Lievens.
In 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, who procured for Rembrandt important commissions from the court of The Hague; as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. At the end of 1631 Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam rapidly expanding as the new business capital of the Netherlands, began to practice as a professional portraitist for the first time, with great success, he stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, in 1634, married Hendrick's cousin, Saskia van Uylenburgh. Saskia came from a good family: her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden; when Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan, she lived with an older sister in Het Bildt. Rembrandt and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandt's relatives. In the same
Philip Melanchthon was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and John Calvin as a reformer and molder of Protestantism. Melanchthon along with Luther denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, denounced the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance by the Catholic Church, which they believed could not offer certainty of salvation. Both rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation, but not the belief that the body and blood of Christ are present with the elements of bread and wine in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; the Lutheran view of sacramental union contrasts with the understanding of the Roman Church that the bread and wine cease to be bread and wine at their consecration. Melanchthon made the distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight.
By the "law", he meant God's requirements both in New Testament. He was born Philipp Schwartzerdt on 16 February 1497, at Bretten where his father Georg Schwarzerdt was armorer to Philip, Count Palatine of the Rhine, his birthplace, along with the whole city of Bretten, was burned in 1689 by French troops during the War of the Palatinate Succession. The town's Melanchthonhaus was built on its site in 1897. In 1507 he was sent to the Latin school at Pforzheim, where the rector, Georg Simler of Wimpfen, introduced him to the Latin and Greek poets and to Aristotle, he was influenced by a Renaissance humanist. Philipp was only eleven when in 1508 both father died within eleven days, he and a brother were brought to Pforzheim to live with his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Reuter, sister of Reuchlin. The next year he entered the University of Heidelberg, where he studied philosophy and astronomy/astrology, became known as a scholar of Greek. Denied the master's degree in 1512 on the grounds of his youth, he went to Tübingen, where he continued humanistic studies but worked on jurisprudence and medicine.
While there he was taught the technical aspects of astrology by Johannes Stöffler. After gaining a master's degree in 1516 he began to study theology. Under the influence of Reuchlin and others, he became convinced that true Christianity was something different from the scholastic theology as taught at the university, he instructed younger scholars. He lectured on oratory, on Virgil and on Livy, his first publications were a number of poems in a collection edited by Jakob Wimpfeling, the preface to Reuchlin's Epistolae clarorum virorum, an edition of Terence, a Greek grammar. Opposed as a reformer at Tübingen, he accepted a call to the University of Wittenberg from Martin Luther on the recommendation of his great-uncle, became professor of Greek there at the age of 21, he studied the Scriptures of Paul, Evangelical doctrine. Attending the disputation of Leipzig as a spectator, he nonetheless participated with his comments. After his views were attacked by Johann Eck, Melanchthon replied based on the authority of Scripture in his Defensio contra Johannem Eckium.
Following lectures on the Gospel of Matthew and the Epistle to the Romans, together with his investigations into Pauline doctrine, he was granted the degree of bachelor of theology, transferred to the theological faculty. He married Katharina Krapp, daughter of Wittenberg's mayor, on 25 November 1520, they had four children: Anna, Philipp and Magdalen. In the beginning of 1521 in his Didymi Faventini versus Thomam Placentinum pro M. Luthero oratio, he defended Luther, he argued that Luther rejected only papal and ecclesiastical practises which were at variance with Scripture. But while Luther was absent at Wartburg Castle, during the disturbances caused by the Zwickau prophets, Melanchthon wavered; the appearance of Melanchthon's Loci communes rerum theologicarum seu hypotyposes theologicae was of subsequent importance for Reformation. Melanchthon presented the new doctrine of Christianity under the form of a discussion of the "leading thoughts" of the Epistle to the Romans. Loci communes began the gradual rise of the Lutheran scholastic tradition, the theologians Martin Chemnitz, Mathias Haffenreffer, Leonhard Hutter expanded upon it.
Melanchthon continued to lecture on the classics. On a journey in 1524 to his native town, he encountered the papal legate, Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, who tried to draw him from Luther's cause. In his Unterricht der Visitatorn an die Pfarherrn im Kurfürstentum zu Sachssen Melanchthon presented the evangelical doctrine of salvation as well as regulations for churches and schools. In 1529 he accompanied the elector to the Diet of Speyer, his hopes of inducing the Imperial party to a recognition of the Reformation were not fulfilled. A friendly attitude towards the Swiss at the Diet was something he changed, calling Huldrych Zwingli's doctrine of the Lord's Supper "an i
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
The cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach consist of at least 209 surviving works. As far as is known, Johann Sebastian Bach's earliest surviving cantatas date from 1707, the year he moved to Mühlhausen. Most of Bach's cantatas date from his first years as Thomaskantor, a position which he took up in 1723. Working at the Thomaskirche and the Nikolaikirche, it was part of his job to perform a church cantata every Sunday and Holiday, conducting soloists, the Thomanerchor and orchestra as part of the church service. In his first years in Leipzig, starting after Trinity of 1723, it was not unusual for him to compose a new work every week. Works from three annual cycles of cantatas for the liturgical calendar have survived; these relate to the readings prescribed by the Lutheran liturgy for the specific occasion. He composed his last cantata in 1745. In addition to the church cantatas, Bach composed sacred cantatas for functions like weddings or Ratswahl, music for academic functions of the University of Leipzig at the Paulinerkirche, secular cantatas for anniversaries and entertainment in nobility and society, some of them Glückwunschkantaten and Huldigungskantaten.
His cantatas require four soloists and a four-part choir, but he wrote solo cantatas for one soloist and dialogue cantatas for two singers. The words for many cantatas combine Bible quotes, contemporary poetry and chorale, but he composed a cycle of chorale cantatas based on one chorale. Although the term Bachkantate became familiar, Bach himself used the title Cantata in his manuscripts, but in Ich will den Kreuzstab gerne tragen, BWV 56 he wrote Cantata à Voce Sola e Stromenti. Another cantata in which Bach used that term is Ich bin vergnügt mit meinem Glücke, BWV 84, he began a heading with the abbreviation J. J. followed by the name of the celebration, the beginning of the words and the instrumentation, for example in Gloria in excelsis Deo, BWV 191. Bach signed his cantatas with SDG, short for Soli Deo Gloria. Bach wrote a title page for the autograph score and copies of the original parts. For example, he titled the parts of Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir, BWV 38, using a mix of languages to describe the occasion, the incipit, the precise scoring and his name: "Dominica 21.
Post Trinit / Aus tieffer Noth schrey ich zu dir. / â / 4. Voc. / 2. Hautbois. / 2. Violini. / Viola. / 4. Tromboni / e / Continuo. / di / Signore / J. S. Bach"; the occasion for which the piece was performed is given first, in Latin: "Dominica 21. Post Trinit"; the title follows, given in German in the orthography of Bach's time. The scoring and his name appear in a mix of French and Italian, the common languages among musicians at the time abbreviated. Bach wrote more than 200 cantatas. In the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, Wolfgang Schmieder assigned them each a number within groups: 1–200, 201–216, 217–224. Since Schmieder's designation, several of the cantatas he thought authentic have been redesignated "spurious." However, the spurious cantatas retain their BWV numbers. The List of Bach cantatas sortable by other criteria. A typical Bach cantata of his first year in Leipzig follows the scheme: Opening chorus Recitative Aria Recitative Aria ChoraleThe opening chorus is a polyphonic setting, the orchestra presenting the themes or contrasting material first.
Most arias follow the form of a da capo aria. The final chorale is a homophonic setting of a traditional melody. Bach used an expanded structure to take up his position in Leipzig with the cantatas Die Elenden sollen essen, BWV 75, Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76, both in two parts, to be performed before and after the sermon and during communion, each part a sequence of opening movement, five movements alternating recitatives and arias, chorale. In an exemplary way both cantatas cover the prescribed readings: starting with a related psalm from the Old Testament, Part I reflects the Gospel, Part II the Epistle. Bach did not follow any scheme but composed as he wanted to express the words. A few cantatas are opened by an instrumental piece before the first chorus, such as the Sinfonia of Wir danken dir, wir danken dir, BWV 29. A solo movement begins Gott, man lobet dich in der Stille, BWV 120, because its first words speak of silence. Many cantatas composed in Weimar are set like chamber music for soloists, with a four-part setting only in the closing chorale, which may have been sung by the soloists.
In an early cantata Erschallet, ihr Lieder, ihr Saiten! BWV 172, Bach marked a repeat of the opening chorus after the chorale; the chorale can be as simple as a traditional four-part setting, or be accompanied by an obbligato instrument, or be accompanied by the instruments of the opening chorus or expanded by interludes based on its themes, or have the homophonic vocal parts embedded in an instrumental concerto as in the familiar Herz und Mund und Tat und Leben, BWV 147, or have complex vocal parts embedded in the concerto as in Ärgre dich, o Seele, nicht, BWV 186, in a form called Choralphantasie. In Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BW
Chorale is the name of several related musical forms originating in the music genre of the Lutheran chorale: Hymn tune of a Lutheran hymn, or a tune in a similar format Such tune with a harmonic accompaniment Such a tune presented in a homophonic or homorhythmic harmonisation four-part harmony A more complex setting of a hymn tune The chorale originated when Martin Luther forked sacred songs in vernacular language from established practices of church music near the end of the first quarter of the 16th century. The first hymnals according to Luther's new practice were published in 1524. Luther and his followers not only wrote metrical hymn lyrics, but composed metrical musical settings for these texts; this music was based on established melodies of church hymns and known secular songs. In the 17th century the repertoire was enriched with more choral and organ settings of the chorale tunes. By the end of the century a four-part setting for SATB voices had become the standard for the choral settings, while the congregational singing of chorales was verging towards monody with an instrumental accompaniment.
The prolific creation of new Lutheran chorale tunes ended around the same time. After the introduction in Lutheran churches, in the early 18th century, of the cantata genre only consisting of recitatives and arias, the format was soon expanded with choral movements in the form of four-part chorales. Composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach and Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel placed these chorales as a concluding movement at the end of their church compositions; the chorale as conclusion was emulated in more secular genres such as Romantic 19th-century symphonies. Other composers of that era, such as Franck, expanded the repertoire of the organ chorales emulating what late Baroque composers such as Bach had produced more than a century before. New chorale compositions became rare after the Romantic era, but by that time the four-part harmonisation technique, as exemplified in four-part chorales, had become part of the canon of Western music. In German, the word Choral may as well refer to Protestant congregational singing as to other forms of vocal music, including Gregorian chant.
The English word which derived from this German term, chorale, however exclusively refers to the musical forms that originated in the German Reformation. The bulk of Lutheran hymn texts and chorale melodies was created before the end of the 17th century. Johann Pachelbel's Erster Theil etlicher Choräle, a set of organ chorales, was published in the last decade of the 17th century. Johann Sebastian Bach's earliest extant compositions, works for organ which he wrote before his fifteenth birthday, include the chorales BWV 700, 724, 1091, 1094, 1097, 1112, 1113 and 1119. In the early 18th century Erdmann Neumeister introduced the cantata format consisting of recitatives and arias, in Lutheran liturgical music. Within a few years, the format was combined with other pre-existing liturgical formats such as the chorale concerto, resulting in church cantatas that consisted of free poetry, for instance used in recitatives and arias, dicta and/or hymn-based movements: the Sonntags- und Fest-Andachten cantata libretto cycle, published in Meiningen in 1704, contained such extended cantata texts.
The chorale cantata, called per omnes versus when its libretto was an entire unmodified Lutheran hymn, was a format modernised from earlier types. Dieterich Buxtehude composed six per omnes versus chorale settings. BWV 4, an early Bach-cantata composed in 1707, is in this same format. For his 1720s second cantata cycle, Bach developed a chorale cantata format where the inner movements paraphrased text of the inner verses of the hymn on which the cantata was based; each of the Meiningen cantata librettos contained a single chorale-based movement, on which it ended. Composers of the first half of the 18th century, such as Bach, Stölzel and Georg Philipp Telemann closed a cantata with a four-part chorale setting, whether or not the libretto of the cantata contained verses of a Lutheran hymn. Bach set several of the Meiningen librettos in 1726, Stölzel expanded the librettos of Benjamin Schmolck's Saitenspiel cycle with a closing chorale for each half cantata, when he set that cycle in the early 1720s.
Two of such closing chorales by Telemann inadvertently ended up in the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis: the fifth movements of the cantatas BWV 218 and 219, in the catalogue of Telemann's vocal works adopted as Nos. 1:634/5 and 1:1328/5 respectively. These closing chorales always conformed to these formal characteristics: text consisting of one, or more exceptionally two, stanzas of a Lutheran hymn chorale tune sung by the highest voice homophonic text setting four-part harmony, for SATB vocalists colla parte instrumentation, including continuoAround 400 of such settings by Bach are known, with the colla parte instrumentation surviving for more than half of them, they do not only appear as closing movements of church cantatas: they can appear in other places in cantatas exceptionally, opening a cantata. Bach's Jesu, meine Freude motet contains several such chorales. Larger-scale compositions, such as Passions and oratorios contain multiple four-part chorale settings which in part define the compositio