An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.
A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.
True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.
In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.
Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta
Joint valley landscape
Joint valley landscape or fissure valley terrain is a type of relief common in Finland and Norway. The landscape originates from the erosion of joints in the bedrock which leaves out small plateaus or ridges in between; when the block summits in joint valley landscape are of different height it may indicate the past movement of a vertical geological fault. Karna Lidmar-Bergström identifies the following type or areas centered on Blekinge, Bohuslän, Linköping/Västervik and Hudiksvall. In the last three areas the flat summits of the landscapes are parts of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain. In addition to this there is a large-scale joint valley landscape that extends from the High Coast inland; the landscape type was first identified by Sten De Geer. Joint valley landscapes are among the few places in southern Sweden where there are steep slopes in excess of 25°
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he succeeded him as Pfalzgraf, he was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless king Christopher of Bavaria and he was the first king of the Swedish Caroline era, which had its peak during the end of the reign of his son, Charles XI, he led Sweden during the Second Northern War. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland before ascending to the Swedish throne, his numbering as Charles X derives from a 16th-century invention. The Swedish king Charles IX chose his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden; this king was the fourth actual King Charles, but has never been called Charles IV. In his early childhood raised in the Swedish court alongside his cousin Queen Christina he received an excellent civil education.
Charles X learned the art of war under Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld and at Jankowitz. From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden, but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in 1649, despite the opposition of the Privy Council headed by Axel Oxenstierna. In 1648 he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany; the conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia in October 1648 prevented him from winning the military laurels he is said to have desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had an opportunity to learn diplomacy, a science he is described as having mastered. As the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden was dangerous because of the growing discontent with the queen.
He therefore withdrew to the isle of Öland until the abdication of Christina on 5 June 1654 called him to the throne. Charles Gustav was crowned on 7 June 1654; the beginning of Charles X's reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords and on the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest. On the recommendation of his predecessor, he contracted a political marriage on 24 October 1654 with Hedwig Eleonora, the daughter of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he was hoping to secure a future ally against Denmark. The Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Over three days a secret committee presided over by the King decided the war question: Charles X persuaded the delegates that a war against Poland appeared necessary and might prove advantageous. In 1659 he proclaimed severe punishment for anyone hunting in the royal game reserve in Ottenby, Öland, where he had built a long dry-stone wall separating the southern tip of the island.
On 10 July 1655, Charles X left Sweden to engage in a war against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in what became the Second Northern War. By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. Hostilities had begun with the occupation of Dünaburg in Polish Livonia by the Swedes on 1 July 1655. On 21 July 1655 Swedish army under Arvid Wittenberg crossed into Poland and proceeded towards the encampment of the Greater Poland Levy of the Nobility encamped among the banks of the Noteć river, with some regular infantry for support. On 25 July the Polish noble levy army capitulated, the voivodeships of Poznań and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish King. Thereupon the Swedes occupied the whole of Greater Poland; the Polish king, John II Casimir of Poland of the House of Vasa fled to Silesia after his armies had suffered defeats. A great number of Polish nobles and their personal armies joined the Swedes, including the majority of the famous Winged Hussars.
Many Poles saw Charles X Gustav as a strong monarch who could be a more effective leader than John II Casimir. Meanwhile, Charles X Gustav pressed on towards Kraków, which the Swedes captured after a two months' siege; the fall of Kraków followed a capitulation of the Polish Royal armies, but before the end of the year a reaction began in Poland herself. On 18 November 1655 the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Częstochowa, but the Poles defended it and after a seventy days’ siege the Swedish besiegers had to retire with great loss; this success elicited popular enthusiasm in Poland and gave rise to a nationalistic and religious rhetoric concerning the war and Charles X. He was depicted as his mercenaries barbaric, his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet and his negotiations for the partition of the state he affected to befriend, awoke a nationalistic spirit in the country. In the beginning of 1656 King John II Casimir returned from exile and the reorganised Polish army, increased in numbers.
By this time Charles had discovered that he could more defeat the Poles than conquer Poland. What is described as his chief object, the con
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae. Cod is used as part of the common name for a number of other fish species, some species suggested to belong to genus Gadus are not called cod; the two most common species of cod are the Atlantic cod, which lives in the colder waters and deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic, the Pacific cod, found in both eastern and western regions of the northern Pacific. Gadus morhua was named by Linnaeus in 1758. Cod is popular as a food with a mild flavour and a dense, white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids. Young Atlantic cod or haddock prepared in strips for cooking is called scrod. In the United Kingdom, Atlantic cod is one of the most common ingredients in fish and chips, along with haddock and plaice. At various times in the past, taxonomists included many species in the genus Gadus. Most of these are now either classified in other genera, or have been recognized as forms of one of three species.
All these species have a number of common names, most of them ending with the word "cod", whereas other species, as related, have other common names. However, many other, unrelated species have common names ending with cod; the usage changes with different localities and at different times. Three species in the genus Gadus are called cod: Cod forms part of the common name of many other fish no longer classified in the genus Gadus. Many are members of the family Gadidae; the tadpole cod family has now been placed in Gadidae. Gadiformes include: Some fish have common names derived from "cod", such as codling, codlet or tomcod; some fish known as cod are unrelated to Gadus. Part of this name confusion is market-driven. Shrunken Atlantic cod stocks have led to the marketing of cod replacements using culinary names of the form "x cod", according to culinary rather than phyletic similarity; the common names for the following species have become well established. PerciformesFish of the order Perciformes that are called "cod" include: Blue cod Parapercis colias Eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei Mary River cod Maccullochella peelii mariensis Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peelii Potato cod Epinephelus tukula Sleepy cod Oxyeleotris lineolatus Trout cod Maccullochella macquariensis The notothen family, including: Antarctic cod Dissostichus mawsoni Black cod Notothenia microlepidota Maori cod Paranotothenia magellanicaRock cod, reef cod, coral codAlmost all coral cod, reef cod or rock cod are in order Perciformes.
Most are better known as groupers, belong to the family Serranidae. Others belong to the Nototheniidiae. Two exceptions are the Australasian red rock cod, which belongs to a different order, the fish known as the rock cod and as soft cod in New Zealand, Lotella rhacina, which as noted above is related to the true cod. ScorpaeniformesFrom the order Scorpaeniformes: Ling cod Ophiodon elongatus Red rock cod Scorpaena papillosa Rock cod SebastesOphidiiformesThe tadpole cod family and the Eucla cod family, were classified in the order Ophidiiformes, but are now grouped with the Gadiformes; some fish that do not have "cod" in their names are sometimes sold as cod. Haddock and whiting belong to the Gadidae, as cod. Haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus Whiting Merlangius merlangus Cods of the genus Gadus have three rounded dorsal and two anal fins; the pelvic fins are small, with the first ray extended, are set under the gill cover, in front of the pectoral fins. The upper jaw extends over the lower jaw; the eyes are medium-sized the same as the length of the chin barbel.
Cod have a distinct white lateral line running from the gill slit above the pectoral fin, to the base of the caudal or tail fin. The back tends to be a greenish to sandy brown, shows extensive mottling towards the lighter sides and white belly. Dark brown colouration of the back and sides is not uncommon for individuals that have resided in rocky inshore regions; the Atlantic cod can change colour at certain water depths. It has two distinct colour phases: reddish brown, its average weight is 5 -- 12 kilograms. Pacific cod are darker in colour. Atlantic cod live in deeper sea regions throughout the North Atlantic. Pacific cod is found in both western regions of the Pacific. Atlantic cod divide into several stocks, including the Arcto-Norwegian, North Sea, Iceland, East Greenland, West Greenland and Labrador stocks. There seems to be little interchange between the stocks, although migrations to their individual breeding grounds may involve distances of 200 miles or more. Atlantic cod occupy varied habitat, favouring rough ground inshore, are demersal in de
Gotland is a province, county and diocese of Sweden. It is Sweden's largest island; the province includes the islands of Fårö and Gotska Sandön to the north, as well as the Karlsö Islands to the west. The population is 58,595, of which about 23,600 live in the main town; the island of Gotland and the other areas of the province of Gotland make up less than one percent of Sweden's total land area. The island's main sources of income are agriculture along with food processing, information technology services and some heavy industry such as concrete production from locally mined limestone. From a military viewpoint, it occupies a strategic location in the Baltic sea; as of 2018 the Gotland Regiment has been re-raised and is the first time since World War II that a new regiment has been established in Sweden. The island is the home of the Gutes, sites such as the Ajvide Settlement show that it has been occupied since prehistory. A DNA study conducted on the 5,000-year-old skeletal remains of three Middle Neolithic seal hunters from Gotland showed that they were related to modern-day Finns, while a farmer from Gökhem parish in Västergötland on the mainland was found to be more related to modern-day Mediterraneans.
This is consistent with the spread of agricultural peoples from the Middle East at about that time. Gutasaga contains legends of how the island was populated by his descendants, it tells that a third of the population had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe, a tradition associated with the migration of the Goths, whose name has the same origin as Gutes, the native name of the people of the island. It tells that the Gutes voluntarily submitted to the king of Sweden and asserts that the submission was based on mutual agreement, notes the duties and obligations of the Swedish King and Bishop in relationship to Gotland. According to some historians, it is therefore an effort not only to write down the history of Gotland, but to assert Gotland's independence from Sweden, it gives Awair Strabain as the name of the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden. The number of Arab dirhams discovered on the island of Gotland alone is astoundingly high. In the various hoards located around the island, there are more of these silver coins than at any other site in Western Eurasia.
The total sum is as great as the number, unearthed in the entire Muslim world. These coins moved north through trade between Rus merchants and the Abbasid Caliphate, along the Silver-Fur Road, the money made by Scandinavian merchants would help northern Europe Viking Scandinavia and the Carolingian Empire, as major commercial centers for the next several centuries; the Berezan' Runestone, discovered in 1905 in Ukraine, was made by a Varangian trader named Grani in memory of his business partner Karl. It is assumed; the Mästermyr chest, an important artefact from the Viking Age, was found in Gotland. On 16 July 1999, the world's largest Viking silver treasure, the Spillings Hoard, was found in a field at Spillings farm northwest of Slite; the silver treasure was divided into two parts weighing a total of 67 kg and consisted of coins, about 14,000, from foreign countries Islamic. It contained about 20 kg of bronze objects along with numerous everyday objects such as nails, glass beads, parts of tools, iron bands and clasps.
The treasure was found by using a metal detector, the finders fee, given to the farmer who owned the land, was over 2 million crowns. The treasure was found by accident while filming a news report for TV4 about illegal treasure hunting on Gotland. Early on, Gotland became a commercial center, with the town of Visby the most important Hanseatic city in the Baltic Sea. In late medieval times, the island had twenty district courts, each represented by its elected judge at the island-ting, called landsting. New laws were decided at the landsting, which took other decisions regarding the island as a whole; the city of Visby and rest of the island were governed separately, a civil war caused by conflicts between the German merchants in Visby and the peasants they traded with in the countryside had to be put down by King Magnus III of Sweden in 1288. In 1361, Valdemar Atterdag of Denmark invaded the island. About 1,500 Gotlandic farmers were killed by the Danish invaders after massing for battle at Mästerby.
The Victual Brothers occupied the island in 1394 to set up a stronghold as a headquarters of their own in Visby. At last, Gotland became a fief of the Teutonic Knights, awarded to them on the condition that they expel the piratical Victual Brothers from their fortified sanctuary. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered the island in 1398, destroying Visby and driving the Victual Brothers from Gotland. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark and Sweden; the authority of the landsting was successively eroded after the island was occupied by the Teutonic Orde
Verbascum, common name mullein, is a genus of about 360 species of flowering plants in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae. They are native to Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean. Mullein or "mullein leaf" refers to the leaves of Verbascum thapsus, the great or common mullein, used in herbal medicine, they are biennial or perennial plants annuals or subshrubs, growing to 0.5 to 3 metres tall. The plants first form a dense rosette of leaves at ground level, subsequently sending up a tall flowering stem. Biennial plants form the stem the following season; the leaves are spirally arranged densely hairy, though glabrous in some species. The flowers have five symmetrical petals; the fruit is a capsule containing numerous minute seeds. In gardening and landscaping, the mulleins are valued for their tall narrow stature and for flowering over a long period of time in dry soils. Many cultivars are available, of which'Gainsborough','Letitia','Pink Domino' and ‘Tropic Sun’ have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Since the year 2000, a number of new hybrid cultivars have come out that have increased flower size, shorter heights, a tendency to be longer-lived plants. A number have new colors for this genus. Many mulleins are raised including both the short-lived perennial and biennial types; the plant has a long history of use as a herbal remedy. Although this plant is a recent arrival to North America, Native Americans used the ground seeds of this plant as a paralytic fish poison due to their high levels of rotenone. Verbascum flowers have been used in traditional Austrian medicine internally or externally for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, veins, gastrointestinal tract, the locomotor system; the plant's stem, when dried, can be used in the hand drill method of friction fire lighting."Early European settlers learned from the Native Americans how useful mullien leaves could be as toilet paper. Better than Charmin when used in the proper direction; the leaves were good as bandages for wounds.
The plant itself has strong tap roots that drill hard clay and make it more arable and suitable for growing crops. The long seed heads provided flowers for earache medicine and the dried cobs made torches to keep insects and pests away, as well as, to light the way to the outhouse at night." The following species are accepted by The Plant List: Mullein moth, a species in the order Lepidoptera which feeds on Verbascum and other plants. Flora Europaea: Verbascum Flora of China: Verbascum Davis, P. H. Edmondson, J. R. Mill, R. R. & Parris, B. S. eds.. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 461. Texts on Wikisource: "Mullein"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Mullein". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. "Mullein". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Mullein". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920. "Mullein". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921. Verbascum.org