HMS Bounty, known as HM Armed Vessel Bounty, was a small merchant vessel purchased by the Royal Navy for a botanical mission. The ship was sent to the Pacific Ocean under the command of William Bligh to acquire breadfruit plants and that mission was never completed due to a mutiny led by Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian. This incident is now known as the Mutiny on the Bounty. The ship was burned on Pitcairn Island by the mutineers. The remains of the Bounty were re-discovered in 1957 by an American adventurer, Bounty was originally known as collier Bethia, built in 1784 at the Blaydes shipyard in Kingston upon Hull, East Yorkshire, England. The vessel was purchased by the Royal Navy for £1,950 on 23 May 1787, the ship was relatively small at 215 tons, but had three masts and was full-rigged. After conversion for the expedition, she was equipped with four 4-pounder cannon. The experiment was proposed by Sir Joseph Banks, who recommended William Bligh as commander, in June 1787, Bounty was refitted at Deptford.
The great cabin was converted to house the potted breadfruit plants, the ships complement was 46 men, a single commissioned officer,43 other Royal Navy personnel, and two civilian botanists. On 23 December 1787, Bounty sailed from Spithead for Tahiti, for a full month, the crew attempted to take the ship around Cape Horn, but adverse weather prevented this. Bligh proceeded east, rounding the tip of Africa. During the outward voyage, Bligh demoted Sailing Master John Fryer and this act seriously damaged the relationship between Bligh and Fryer, and Fryer claimed that Blighs act was entirely personal. Bligh is commonly portrayed as the epitome of abusive sailing captains, caroline Alexander points out in her 2003 book The Bounty that Bligh was relatively lenient compared with other British naval officers. Bligh enjoyed the patronage of Sir Joseph Banks, a wealthy botanist and that, together with his experience sailing with Cook, familiarity with navigation in the area, and local customs were probably important factors in his appointment.
Bounty reached Tahiti on 26 October 1788, after ten months at sea and his crew spent five months in Tahiti, called Otaheite and preparing 1,015 breadfruit plants to be transported. Bligh allowed the crew to live ashore and care for the breadfruit plants. Many of the seamen and some of the gentlemen had themselves tattooed in native fashion. Masters Mate and Acting Lieutenant Fletcher Christian married Maimiti, a Tahitian woman, other of Bountys warrant officers and seamen were said to have formed connections with native women
Vice admiral William Bligh FRS RN was an officer of the British Royal Navy and a colonial administrator. Fifteen years after the Bounty mutiny, he was appointed Governor of New South Wales in Australia and his actions directed against the trade resulted in the so-called Rum Rebellion, during which Bligh was again placed under arrest and deposed from his command. William Bligh was born on 9 September 1754 but it is not clear where. It is likely that he was born in Plymouth, Devon, as he was baptised at St Andrews Church, Plymouth on 4 October 1754, Blighs ancestral home of Tinten Manor in St Tudy near Bodmin, Cornwall, is a possibility. Blighs mother, Jane Pearce, was a widow who married Francis at the age of 40. Bligh was signed for the Royal Navy at age seven, at a time when it was common to sign on a young gentleman simply to gain, or at least record, the experience at sea required for a commission. In 1770, at age 16, he joined HMS Hunter as an able seaman and he became a midshipman early in the following year.
In September 1771, Bligh was transferred to the Crescent and remained on the ship for three years, Bligh returned to England at the end of 1780 and was able to give details of Cooks last voyage. Bligh married Elizabeth Betham, daughter of a collector, on 4 February 1781. The wedding took place at nearby Onchan, a few days later, he was appointed to serve on HMS Belle Poule as master. Soon after this, in August 1781, he fought in the Battle of Dogger Bank under Admiral Parker, for the next 18 months, he was a lieutenant on various ships. He fought with Lord Howe at Gibraltar in 1782, between 1783 and 1787, Bligh was a captain in the merchant service. Like many lieutenants, he would have found employment in the Navy, however. In 1787, Bligh was selected as commander of Bounty and he rose eventually to the rank of vice admiral in the Royal Navy. William Blighs naval career involved various appointments and assignments and he first rose to prominence as Master of Resolution, under the command of Captain Cook.
Bligh received praise from Cook during what would be the final voyage. Bligh served on three of the ships from Fletcher Christians naval career. In the early 1780s, while in the merchant service, Bligh became acquainted with a man named Fletcher Christian
Captain James Cook FRS RN was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755 and he saw action in the Seven Years War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society, in three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail, as he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, Cook was attacked and killed while attempting to kidnap the native chief of Hawaii during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.
James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the church of St Cuthbert. He was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, in 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his fathers employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years schooling, he work for his father. For leisure, he would climb a hill, Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks Cottage, his parents last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the village of Staithes. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suitable for work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sandersons, John.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade and their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their fleet of vessels. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada. It is part of the Canadian province of British Columbia, the island is 460 kilometres in length,100 kilometres in width at its widest point, and 32,134 km2 in area. It is the largest island on the West Coast of North America and this area has one of the warmest climates in Canada, and since the mid-1990s has been mild enough in a few areas to grow subtropical Mediterranean crops such as olives and lemons. Vancouver Island has a population of 759,366 according to the Canada 2011 Census, nearly half of that figure live in the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria. Other notable cities and towns on Vancouver Island include Nanaimo, Port Alberni, Parksville and Campbell River. Victoria, the city of British Columbia, is located on the island. Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years, the island was explored by British and Spanish expeditions in the late 18th century.
Quadras name was dropped from the name. It is one of several North American locations named after George Vancouver, Vancouver Island is the worlds 43rd largest island, Canadas 11th largest island, and Canadas second most populous island after the Island of Montreal. It is the largest Pacific island anywhere east of New Zealand, Vancouver Island has been the homeland to many indigenous peoples for thousands of years. The groupings, by language, are the Kwakwakawakw, Nuu-chah-nulth and their cultures are connected to the natural resources abundant in the area. The Kwakwakawakw today number about 5,500, who live in British Columbia on northern Vancouver Island and they are known as Kwakiutl in English, from one of their tribes, but they prefer their autonym Kwakwakawakw. Their indigenous language, part of the Wakashan family, is Kwakwala, the name Kwakwakawakw means speakers of Kwakwala. The language is now spoken by less than 5% of the population—about 250 people, today 17 separate tribes make up the Kwakwakawakw.
Some Kwakwakawakw groups are now extinct, Kwakwala is a Northern Wakashan language, a grouping shared with Haisla and Wuikyala. The Nuu-chah-nulth are indigenous peoples in Canada and their traditional home is on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The Nuu-chah-nulth speak a Southern Wakashan language and are related to the Makah of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington State. The Coast Salish are the largest of the southern groups and they are a loose grouping of many tribes with numerous distinct cultures and languages
Nootka Sound is a sound of the Pacific Ocean on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in the Canadian province of British Columbia, historically known as King Georges Sound. It separates Vancouver Island and Nootka Island, the inlet is part of the traditional territory of the indigenous Nuu-chah-nulth people. John R. Jewitt is an Englishman who describes the area in detail in a memoir about his years as a captive of chief Maquinna from 1802 to 1805. On August 8,1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California. Pérez named the entrance to Nootka Sound Surgidero de San Lorenzo, when Esteban José Martinez arrived in 1789 he gave Nootka Sound the name Puerto de San Lorenzo de Nuca. The Spanish establishment established at Friendly Cove he gave the name Santa Cruz de Nuca, in March 1778, Captain James Cook of the Royal Navy landed on Bligh Island and named the inlet King Georges Sound.
He recorded that the name was Nutka or Nootka, apparently misunderstanding his conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot. There may have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the natives autonym and it may have simply been based on Cook’s mis-pronunciation Yuquot, the native name of the place. The earlier Spanish and British names for the Sound swiftly went out of use, at the time, the Spanish monopolized the trade between Asia and North America, and had granted limited licenses to the Portuguese. The Russians had established a fur trading system in Alaska. The Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérezs voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest, the British became increasingly active in the region. The next European to visit Nootka Sound after James Cook was the British trader James Hanna in August 1785, Hanna traded iron bars for furs. He sold the furs in China for a profit, beginning an era of the Maritime Fur Trade. Starting in 1774 Spain sent several expeditions to Alaska to assert its claim over the Pacific Northwest which dated back to the 16th century.
The endeavours of these merchants did not last long in the face of Spains opposition, the challenge was opposed by a Japan holding obdurately to national seclusion. In 1789 Spain sent Sub-Lieutenant Esteban José Martinez, commanding the Princesa and he arrived in February 1789 and established a settlement and built Fort San Miguel. The ship Iphigenia Nubiana, under Captain William Douglas and owned by John Meares, was impounded, two American ships in the area were allowed to sail as the United States was Spains ally. However, the American ship Fair American was seized and taken to San Blas, the capture of the British ships led to the Nootka Crisis and near war between Britain and Spain
British Columbia Coast
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canadas western continental coastline on the Pacific Ocean. The usage is synonymous with the term West Coast of Canada, the aerial distance from Victoria on the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Stewart, British Columbia on the Alaska border at the head of the Portland Canal is 965 kilometres in length. The dominant landforms of the BC Coast are the Insular Mountains, comprising most of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, and the Coast Mountains, which extend beyond into Alaska and the Yukon. The British Columbia Coast is mostly part of the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the system used by Environment Canada, established by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the area is defined as the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. The great fjords of the British Columbia Coast rival those of Norway in length and depth but have even higher mountain scenery with a more alpine flavour. Many of the islands offshore are much larger than those along the Norwegian coast, many large enough to have major fjords of their own, as well as their own mountain ranges.
The waterway route through these islands between Vancouver and Prince Rupert, and between Seattle and Alaska, is known as the Inside Passage. It has played a role in U. S. -Canada relations more than once, the islands of Howe Sound are classed among the southern Gulf Islands, but they adjoin the mainland rather than Vancouver Island and are usually considered separately. The natural fecundity of the environment—rich in seafood and greenery—combined with the ease of travel is seen in all cases to have generated a dynamic and gifted civilization. The fishery of the Pacific Northwest Coast is legendary, especially for its salmon runs. Salmon runs have diminished since pre-Contact years and the advent of commercial canning and, ultimately. Other commercial fisheries include halibut and herring roe, sea urchin and other specialty sushis, haddock, crab, scheduled Passenger Services operating on the British Columbia Coast are dominated by BC Ferries and the Alaska Marine Highway. Dozens of smaller ferries ply lesser routes between the Gulf Islands and the mainland or Vancouver Island as well as on lakes in the Interior where no bridges exist.
Other runs connect Horseshoe Bay to the Sunshine Coast and Bowen Island, from there, a ferry operates to Comox. The Alaska Marine Highway operates regular ferry sailings from Bellingham, Washington to Ketchikan, Sitka, Skagway, the Alaska Marine Highway operates a vessel from Prince Rupert to Ketchikan and other Southeast ports. Other scheduled passenger services are run by various shipping and water-taxi companies. Non-scheduled passenger services include all major lines and various small luxury craft sharters, as well as shuttles to. Yellow Point Lodge, Nanaimo Painters Lodge, Desolation Sound Nations of Southeast Alaska and Georgia Strait-Puget Sound are included as they are part of the same cultural and historical ecumene
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day