Niels Treschow was a Norwegian philosopher and politician. Treschow was born in Strømsø, now part of Drammen in Buskerud, he was the son of Peter Treschow, a merchant. He took his student examation in 1766 and was awarded a Master's Degree in philosophy in 1774. Treschow was rector at the Trondheim Cathedral School from 1774-1780 and served as an educator in Oslo and Copenhagen, he became a professor at the newly established University of Oslo in 1813 and as one of only five professors was influential in forming the university during its first period. Today, the main building of the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Oslo bears his name, he served as Minister of Education and Church Affairs 1814-1816, 1817-1819, 1820-1822 and 1823-1825, member of the Council of State Division in Stockholm 1816-1817, 1819-1820, 1822-1823. He was elected a member of the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters in 1790. In 1825, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, he was decorated with both theCommander's Cross of the Order of the North Star and the Knight's Cross of Order of the Dannebrog.
Forsøg om Guds tilværelse af theoretiske grunde: i anledning af den kantiske philosophie Philosophiske Forsøg Moral for Folk og Stat Om Philosophiens Natur og Dele: en dogmatisk og historisk Indledning til denne Videnskab Om den menneskelige Natur i Almindelighed, især dens aandelige Side Almindelig Logik' Christendommens Aand, eller Den evangeliske Lære: frimodig og upartisk beskreven Christophersen, H. O Niels Treschow, 1751-1833: En tenker mellom to tidsaldrer ISBN 978-8250402706 Norway and the Norwegians, Treschow —His writings — Anthropology — Eilschow by Robert Gordon Latham, pp. 149–153. Treschows gate
University Botanical Garden (Oslo)
The University Botanical Garden is Norway's oldest botanical garden. It is administrated by the University of Oslo, it is situated in the neighborhood of Tøyen in Norway. The Tøyen estate is rich in history, the main wing is the oldest wooden building in greater Oslo. Tøyen i Aker was an estate owned by the Nonneseter Abbey. Norway's Chancellor Jens Bjelke acquired the property about 1640. King Frederik VI of Denmark acquired the estate and subsequently gifted the property to the University of Christiania in 1812. In 1814, work began on the University Botanical Garden; the University of Oslo's oldest building, Tøyen Manor, is located in the garden.. Today the historic Tøyen Manor houses a café for staff and visitors; the University Botanical Garden, founded in 1814, belongs to the Natural History Museum of the University of Oslo. Through research and plant conservation, the garden seeks to increase public awareness of the importance of plant diversity; the plant collections contain approx. 7500 species.
Johan Siebke was the botanical gardener at the Botanical Garden from the date of establishment. He contributed to the planning and construction of the botanical garden and to the operation during the next first 40 years; the garden covered 75,000 square metres, but has since doubled in size. Botanical Museum which dated to 1863 was merged with the Botanical Garden in 1975; the collection includes 35,000 plants of about 7,500 unique species. The Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo is Norway's most comprehensive natural history collection. A selection of specimens are on display for the general public, in the Geological Museum and the Zoological Museum; the Natural History Museum in Oslo is where you can see the famous fossil known as "Ida", the oldest primate fossil known and the most complete fossil of an early primate. She was bought by the museum in 2007, presented to the world in 2009; the geological museum was established in 1917 by Waldemar Christofer Brøgger. Official website of the Natural History Museum at the University of Oslo
Aker University Hospital
Aker University Hospital was founded in 1895 in Oslo, Norway. Since January 1, 2009, the hospital has been part of Oslo University Hospital. Since January 2002 the hospital is organized as a health trust, owned by Southern and Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority and, responsible for the hospital budget. An exception from this is the hospital's academic activities, which are financed by the University of Oslo, private sector companies and the Government of Norway; the hospital is responsible for providing health care to 170,000 people residing in the northern part of Oslo as well as the municipalities of Ski, Oppegård, Frogn, Ås and Vestby. It serves as a regional hospital for Norway's Health Region East, which includes Oslo, Oppland, Akershus and Østfold counties with a total population of 1.6 million. Official website
University of Oslo Faculty of Law
The Faculty of Law of the University of Oslo is Norway's oldest law faculty, established in 1811 as one of the four original faculties of The Royal Frederick University. Alongside the law faculties in Copenhagen and Uppsala, it is one of Scandinavia's leading institutions of legal education and research. Prior to 1811, the University of Copenhagen was the only university of Denmark-Norway, the curriculum of the new law faculty in Christiania was based on that of the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Law and long retained strong similarities after the dissolution of the Dano-Norwegian union in 1814; as the only faculty of law in Norway until 1980, it traditionally educated all lawyers of Norway and remains the country's most important law faculty, educating around 75% of all new legal candidates in Norway. Its law programme is one of the most competitive programmes to get into at any Norwegian university, with an acceptance rate of 12%; the faculty offers education and conducts research in both law and in related areas such as criminology and sociology of law, also in economics.
The faculty occupies the old university campus in the centre of Oslo, near the National Theatre, the Royal Palace, the Parliament, constructed 1841–1851 by Christian Heinrich Grosch with the assistance of world-famous Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in Schinkel's neoclassical style, with strong similarities to Schinkel's famous museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. The old campus includes three main buildings, called Domus Academica, Domus Media and Domus Bibliotheca, centered on the University Square and facing Karl Johans gate; the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the atrium of the central building of the old campus, Domus Media, 1947–1989, since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in this building. The Parliament of Norway convened in the Old Ceremonial Hall in Domus Academica 1854–1866; the faculty publishes several academic journals, including the English-language journal Oslo Law Review. The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479; as there was no university in Norway itself, the University of Copenhagen served both Denmark and Norway during the countries' personal union, the University of Copenhagen had both Norwegian students and teachers.
With the rise of absolute monarchy and a more professional civil service, legal education became of central importance by the early 18th century. During the Napoleonic Wars, after years of discussion, The Royal Frederick University in Norway was established in 1811 and named in honour of Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway, the Faculty of Law was one of the four original faculties, ranking second after the Faculty of Theology and before the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Arts. In 1816, its first lecturers were appointed by the government: Lorents Lange was appointed Professor of Jurisprudence, Henrik Lauritz Nicolai Steenbuch was appointed Lecturer in Jurisprudence; as a sovereign kingdom, Norway always had its own laws, but in 1687, Norway received its Norwegian Code, nearly identical to the Danish Code, parts of which remain in effect until this day. Norway and Denmark hence in fact many of the same laws; the curriculum of the Faculty of Law in Christiania was hence to a large degree a direct continuation of the curriculum and traditions of the University of Copenhagen.
Similarities exist until this day, although they have been weakened. The field of economics as an academic discipline in Norway evolved at the Faculty of Law. In 1840, a chair in "Jurisprudence and Statistics" was created by the King; the most important programme of the Faculty of Law is the 5-year legal education leading to a Master of Laws degree, known in Norwegian as master i rettsvitenskap, a protected title under Norwegian law. The programme replaced the former six-year programme leading to a Candidate of Law degree, created in 1736 at the University of Copenhagen and retained at the Royal Frederick University from 1811; the Master or Laws or the former Candidate of Law are the only degrees qualifying for legal work in Norway. The graduates have a monopoly on a number of occupations, such as advocate, judge and, all the high ranks of the Norwegian Police Service and a number of senior civil servant positions. Norway has a united legal profession and all persons working in legal occupations have the same education.
Alongside the programme in medicine, the programme in law in Oslo is one of the most competitive to get into at any Norwegian university with an acceptance rate of 12%. Although students do not receive a formal degree before they have completed the five-year programme, the first four years correspond to an American J. D. degree. In the fifth year, students write a thesis corresponding to one semester and take advanced courses of their choice corresponding to one semester. Alternatively, they may choose to write corresponding to a full year. Parts of the fifth year, or the full year, may be taken abroad; the fifth year leads to the Master of Laws degree. From 1840 to 1966, the field of economics was part of the Faculty of Law, most of the professors of economics until the mid 20th century had a background in law. Prior to 1966, the Faculty of Law conferred the degree cand.oecon. Created in 1905, a 2-year supplementary degree in economics intended for
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
University of Oslo Library
The University of Oslo Library is a library connected to the University of Oslo. Like the university, it was established in 1811 with Georg Sverdrup as the first head librarian, it doubled as the Norwegian national library, was located at the old University of Oslo campus. In 1913 the current library building in Henrik Ibsens gate was completed. Head librarian at the time, from 1876 to 1922, was Axel Drolsum. In 1989 the institution National Library of Norway was established, it took over the national library tasks from the University Library in 1998, allowing the latter to concentrate on university matters. The same year, the University Library left the building in Henrik Ibsens gate for the newly constructed Georg Sverdrup's House, located at the modern University of Oslo campus at Blindern. Official website
A meadow is a open habitat, or field, vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants. They attract a multitude of wildlife and support flora and fauna that could not thrive in other conditions, they provide areas for courtship displays, food gathering, pollinating insects, sometimes sheltering, if the vegetation is high enough, making them ecologically important. There are multiple types of meadows, such as agricultural and perpetual, each important to the ecosystem. Meadows may be occurring or artificially created from cleared shrub or woodland. In agriculture, a meadow is grassland, not grazed by domestic livestock, but rather allowed to grow unchecked in order to produce hay. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the term meadow is used in its original sense to mean a hay meadow, signifying grassland mown annually in the summer for making hay. Agricultural meadows are lowland or upland fields upon which hay or pasture grasses grow from self-sown or hand-sown seed. Traditional hay meadows are now in decline.
Ecologist Professor John Rodwell states that over the past century and Wales have lost about 97% of their hay meadows. Fewer than 15.000 hectares of lowland meadows remain in the UK and most sites are small and fragmented. 25% of the UK's meadows are found in Worcestershire, with Foster's Green Meadow managed by the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust being a major site. A similar concept to the hay meadow is the pasture, which differs from the meadow in that it is grazed through the summer, rather than being allowed to grow out and periodically be cut for hay. A pasture can refer to any land used for grazing, in this wider sense the term refers not only to grass pasture, but to non-grassland habitats such as heathland and wood pasture; the term, grassland, is used to describe both hay meadows and grass pastures. The specific agricultural practices in relation to the meadow can take on various expressions; as mentioned, this could be hay production or providing food for grazing cattle and livestock but to give room for orchards or honey production.
A transitional meadow occurs when a field, farmland, or other cleared land is no longer cut or grazed and starts to display luxuriant growth, extending to the flowering and self-seeding of its grass and wild flower species. The condition is however only temporary, because the grasses become shaded out when scrub and woody plants become well-established, being the forerunners of the return to a wooded state. A transitional state can be artificially-maintained through a double-field system, in which cultivated soil and meadows are alternated for a period of 10 to 12 years each. In North America prior to European colonization, Algonquians and other Native Americans peoples cleared areas of forest to create transitional meadows where deer and game could find food and be hunted. For example, some of today's meadows originated thousands of years ago, due to regular burnings by Native Americans. A perpetual meadow called a natural meadow, is one in which environmental factors, such as climatic and soil conditions, are favorable to perennial grasses and restrict the growth of woody plants indefinitely.
Types of perpetual meadows may include: Alpine meadows occur at high elevations above the tree line and maintained by harsh climatic conditions. Coastal meadows maintained by salt sprays. Desert meadows restricted by low lack of nutrients and humus. Prairies maintained by periods of severe subject to wildfires. Wet meadows saturated with water throughout much of the year. Artificially or culturally conceived meadows emerge from and continually require human intervention to persist and flourish. In many places, the natural, pristine populations of free roaming large grazers are either extinct or limited due to human activities; this reduces or removes their natural influence on the surrounding ecology and results in meadows only being created or maintained by human intervention. Existing meadows could and decline, if unmaintained by agricultural practices, but a reintroduction of large grazers could influence meadows to reappear as natural habitats in the landscape. Mankind has influenced the ecology and the landscape for millennia in many parts of the world, so it can sometimes be difficult to discern what is natural and what is cultural.
Meadows are one example. As extensive farming like grazing is diminishing in some parts of the world, the meadow is endangered as a habitat; some scientific projects are therefore experimenting with reintroduction of natural grazers. This includes deer, goat, wild horse, etc. depending on the location. A more exotic example with a wider scope, is the European Tauros Programme; some environmental organization recommend to convert Lawns to meadows by stopping or reducing mowing. They claim that meadows can better preserve biodiversity, reduce the use of fertilizers. For example, in 2018 environmental organizations with the support of the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs of England, concerned by the decline in the numbre of Bees worldwide, in the first day of Bees' Needs Week 2018 give some recommendation how preserve bees; the recommendations include 1) growing flowers and trees, 2) letting the garden grow wild, 3) cutting grass less 4) leaving insect nest and hibernation spots alone, 5) using careful consideration with pesticides.
Foundation for Restoring European Ecosystems UK Wild Meadows Website Irish Wild Meadows Website Meadow Planting A Year in a Meadow Grow a Back Yard Meadow Adrian Higgins, "Today, 32,000 Seedlings.