Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set
The Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set is a set of rulebooks for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. First published in 1977, it saw a handful of reprintings; the first edition was written by J. Eric Holmes based on Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson's original work. Editions were edited by Tom Moldvay, Frank Mentzer, Troy Denning, Doug Stewart; the Basic Set details the essential concepts of the D&D game. It gives rules for character advancement for player characters at beginning levels, it includes information on how to play adventures inside dungeons for both players and the Dungeon Master. The original Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set was published by TSR, Inc. in 1977. TSR hired outside writer John Eric Holmes to produce the Basic Set as an introductory version of the D&D game, it incorporates concepts from the original 1974 D&D boxed set plus the Supplement I: Greyhawk. The rulebook covers characters of levels one through three, rules for adventuring in dungeons, introduces the concepts of the game, explained the game's concepts and method of play in terms that made it accessible to new players ages twelve and above who might not be familiar with tabletop miniatures wargaming.
Although the Basic Set was not compatible with Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, players were expected to continue play beyond third level by moving to AD&D, which began to be released that year. Holmes preferred a lighter tone with more room for personal improvisation, while Gary Gygax, who wrote the advanced game, wanted an expansive game with rulings on any conceivable situation which might come up during play, a document which could be used to arbitrate disputes at tournaments; the first Basic Set was available as a 48-page stand-alone rulebook featuring artwork by David C. Sutherland III, or as part of a boxed set, packaged in a larger, more visually appealing box than the original boxed set, allowing the game to be stocked on retail shelves and targeted at the general public via toy stores; the boxed set included a set of supplemental materials. In that same year, Games Workshop published their own version of the rulebook, with a cover by John Blanche, illustrations by Fangorn. Supplemental materials appearing in the boxed set included geomorphs and treasure lists, a set of polyhedral dice.
For a period in 1979, TSR experienced a dice shortage. Basic sets published during this time frame came with two sheets of numbered cutout cardstock chits that functioned in lieu of dice, along with a coupon for ordering dice from TSR; the rulebook included a brief sample dungeon with a full-page map. Starting with the fourth printing in 1978, the two booklets of maps, encounter tables, treasure lists were replaced with the module B1 In Search of the Unknown. After the release of the AD&D game, the Basic Set saw a major revision in 1981 by editor Tom Moldvay; the game was not brought in line with AD&D but instead further away from that ruleset, thus the basic D&D game became a separate and distinct product from TSR's flagship game AD&D. The former was promoted as a continuation of the tone of original D&D, while AD&D was an advancement of the mechanics; the revised version of the set included a larger, sixty-four page rule book with a red border and a color cover by Erol Otus, the module B2 The Keep on the Borderlands, six polyhedral dice, a marking crayon.
The book was predrilled for use in a three-ringed binder, the complete set of polyhedral dice came in a heat-sealed bag with a small black wax crayon to use in marking the dice. The revised rulebook was visually distinct from the previous version: the Holmes booklet had a monochrome pale blue cover, while the Moldvay rulebook had a bright red. With the revision of the Basic Set, discrete rulesets for higher character levels were introduced as expansions for the basic game; the Moldvay Basic Set was followed by the accompanying release of an Expert Set edited by Dave Cook that supported character levels four through fourteen, with the intent that players would continue with the Expert Set. In 1983, the Basic Set was revised again, this time by Frank Mentzer, redubbed Dungeons & Dragons Set 1: Basic Rules; the set included a sixty-four page Players Manual, a forty-eight page Dungeon Masters Rulebook, six dice, in sets in which the dice were not painted, a crayon. The 1983 revision was packaged in a distinctive red box, featured cover art by Larry Elmore.
Between 1983 and 1985, the system was revised and expanded by Mentzer as a series of five boxed sets, including the Basic Rules, Expert Rules, Companion Rules, Master Rules, Immortal Rules. Instead of an adventure module, the Basic Set rulebooks included a solo adventure and an introductory scenario to be run by the Dungeon Master; the rules for the game were little changed from the Moldvay set, but the presentation was overhauled into a more tutorial form, to make the game easier for younger players to learn. The 10th Anniversary Dungeons & Dragons Collector's Set boxed set, published by TSR in 1984, included the rulebooks from the Basic and Companion sets; this set was limited to a thousand copies, was sold by mail and at GenCon 17. In 1991, TSR released a new version of the Basic Set, labeled as The New Easy-to-Master Dungeons & Dragons Game, nicknamed the "black box"; this version was principally designed by Troy Denning and made few changes to the game. I
Scott R. Kurtz is an American webcomic artist. Known for creating daily online comic-strip PvP, Kurtz is among the first professional webcomic creators. Kurtz was born to a Catholic household in California, he attended the University of North Texas where he created and published a daily comic strip Captain Amazing in the North Texas Daily, the student newspaper. It ran for four semesters, his first work on the Internet was Tales from the Tavern and Samwise, which he began in 1998. Kurtz co-wrote the comic Truth and the American way with Aaron Williams. Kurtz lived in Kenmore, Washington until his move to Seattle, where he worked from the Penny Arcade offices for over a year, he now works from home. He launched PvP May 1998, for a gaming company. In June 1999, Kurtz retooled the strip, re-launched it as version 2.0. The online version has a readership of 150,000. In March 2000, he launched a print version as a bi-monthly for Dork Storm Press. After publishing the print version of PvP for 8 years through Image Comics, began self-publishing, citing a natural readership decline of the print version and an increase of the online version.
His self-publishing company, Toonhound Studios LLC, is a Texas entity with operations in Seattle. Kurtz started creating a spin-off webcomic of PvP in 2013, titled Table Titans, he co-writes The Trenches, with Jerry Holkins and Mike Krahulik. Kurtz played the character Dwarven Fighter Binwin Bronzebottom in Acquisitions Incorporated, a Dungeons & Dragons-related podcast and live show. In 2013, Kurtz collaborated with Kris Straub to write and produce an animated series for ShiftyLook based on the video game Mappy, titled Mappy: The Beat, with Kurtz voicing several characters. 2005: Nominated, Eisner Award, Best Writer/Artist—Humor — Image Comics, PvP 2006: Eisner Award, Best Digital Comic — PvP 2010: Harvey Award, Best Online Comic Work — PvP How to Make Web Comics, by Brad J. Guigar, Dave Kellett, Scott Kurtz, Kris Straub, Image Comics OCLC 173719846 ISBN 9781582408705 PvP Table Titans PvP Ding! The Trenches
African wild dog
The African wild dog known as the painted hunting dog, painted wolf, African hunting dog, Cape hunting dog or African painted dog, is a canid native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is the largest of its family in Africa, the only extant member of the genus Lycaon, distinguished from Canis by dentition specialised for a hypercarnivorous diet, a lack of dewclaws, it was classified as endangered by the IUCN in 2016, as it had disappeared from much of its original range. The 2016 population was estimated at 39 subpopulations containing 6,600 adults, only 1,400 of which were reproductive; the decline of these populations is ongoing, due to habitat fragmentation, human persecution and disease outbreaks. The African wild dog is a social animal, living in packs with separate dominance hierarchies for males and females. Uniquely among social carnivores, the females rather than the males scatter from the natal pack once sexually mature and the young are allowed to feed first on carcasses; the species is a specialised diurnal hunter of antelopes, which it catches by chasing them to exhaustion.
Like other canids, it regurgitates food for its young, but this action is extended to adults, to the point of being the bedrock of African wild dog social life. It has few natural predators, though lions are a major source of mortality and spotted hyenas are frequent kleptoparasites. Although not as prominent in African folklore or culture as other African carnivores, it has been respected in several hunter-gatherer societies those of the predynastic Egyptians and the San people; the earliest possible written reference to the species comes from Oppian, who wrote of the thoa, a hybrid between the wolf and leopard, which resembles the former in shape and the latter in colour. Solinus's Collectanea rerum memorabilium from the third century AD describes a multicoloured wolf-like animal with a mane native to Ethiopia; the species was first described scientifically in 1820 by Coenraad Temminck, after having examined a specimen taken from the coast of Mozambique. He named the animal Hyaena picta, it was recognised as a canid by Joshua Brookes in 1827, renamed Lycaon tricolor.
The root word of Lycaon is the Greek λυκαίος, meaning "wolf-like". The specific epithet pictus, which derived from the original picta, was returned to it, in conformity with the International Rules on Taxonomic Nomenclature; the English language has several names for Lycaon pictus, including painted lycaon, African wild dog, African hunting dog, Cape hunting dog, painted dog, ornate wolf and painted wolf. The latter name is being promoted by some conservationists as a way of rebranding the species, as "wild dog" has several negative connotations that could be detrimental to its image; the name "African wild dog" is still used. The name "painted wolf" is encouraged because it conveys more that the African wild dog is a wild animal that does not behave like a domestic dog; the oldest L. pictus fossil was found in HaYonim Cave, Israel. The evolution of the African wild dog is poorly understood due to the scarcity of fossil finds; some authors consider the extinct Canis subgenus Xenocyon as ancestral to both the genus Lycaon and the genus Cuon, which lived throughout Eurasia and Africa from the Early Pleistocene to the early Middle Pleistocene.
Others propose. The species Canis falconeri shared the African wild dog's absent first metacarpal, though its dentition was still unspecialised; this connection was rejected by one author because C. falconeri's missing metacarpal was a poor indication of phylogenetic closeness to the African wild dog and the dentition was too different to imply ancestry. Another ancestral candidate is the Plio-Pleistocene L. sekowei of South Africa on the basis of distinct accessory cusps on its premolars and anterior accessory cuspids on its lower premolars. These adaptions are found only in Lycaon among living canids, which shows the same adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. L. sekowei had not yet lost the first metacarpal absent in L. pictus and was more robust than the modern species, having 10% larger teeth. Paleontologist George G. Simpson placed L. pictus in the subfamily Simocyoninae, along with Cuon alpinus and Speothos venaticus, on the basis of all three species having trenchant carnassials. This grouping was disputed by Juliet Clutton-Brock, who argued that, other than dentition, too few similarities exist between the three species to warrant classifying them in a single subfamily.
The species' molecular genetics indicate that it is related to genus Canis. Phylogenetic studies place L. pictus and Cuon alpinus into a clade of "wolf-like canids" alongside the extant members of Canis, including C. simensis, C. aureus, C. anthus, C. latrans, C. lupus, C. rufus and the more basal C. adustus and C. mesomelas. In 2018, whole genome sequencing was used to compare the dhole with the African hunting dog. There was strong evidence of ancient genetic admixture between the two. Today, their ranges are remote from each other, however during the Pleistocene era the dhole could be found as far west as Europe; the study proposes that the dhole's distribution may have once included the Middle East, from where it may have admixed with the African hunting dog in North Africa. However, there is no evidence of the dhole having existed in the Middle North Africa; as of 2005, five subspecies are recognised by MSW3: Nevertheless, although the species is genetic
Halfling (Dungeons & Dragons)
The halfling is a fictional race found in the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. Halflings are similar to about half their size; the original Dungeons & Dragons included hobbits, but the game began using the name "halfling" as an alternative to "hobbit" for legal reasons. The hobbit first appeared as a player character class in the original 1974 edition of Dungeons & Dragons. In earlier editions of D&D, halflings are inspired by Tolkien's hobbits, being diminutive, furry-footed home-bodies with a penchant for dwelling in hollowed out hillsides and a racial talent for burglary; the "halfling" appeared as a player character race in the original Player's Handbook. The halfling appeared in the original Monster Manual, which described the halfling subraces of hairfoot and tallfellow. A number of halfling subraces were presented as character races in the original Unearthed Arcana; the halfling appeared as a character class in the Dungeons & Dragons Basic Set, Companion Rules, Master Rules.
The halfling appeared as a character race in the second edition Player's Handbook. The hairfoot halfling, the stout halfling, the tallfellow halfling appeared in the Monstrous Compendium Volume One, Monstrous Manual; the Athasian halfling for the Dark Sun setting first appeared in Dragon #173, appeared in the Dark Sun Monstrous Compendium Appendix II: Terrors Beyond Tyr and Dark Sun Campaign Setting and Revised. Several halfling sub-races were detailed as player character races in The Complete Book of Gnomes and Halflings, including the Athasian halfling, the furchin; the halfling appeared as a character race in the third edition Player's Handbook, in the 3.5 revised Player's Handbook The lightfoot halfling, the deep halfling, the tallfellow halfling appeared in the third edition Monster Manual, the 3.5 revised Monster Manual. The jerren, a race related to halflings, appeared in the Book of Vile Darkness; the lightfoot halfling, ghostwise halfling, the strongheart halfling for the Forgotten Realms setting were detailed in the Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting, in Races of Faerûn.
The aquatic halfling, the arctic halfling, the desert halfling, the jungle halfling, the halfling paragon, the water halfling were detailed in Unearthed Arcana. The halfling appeared as a character race in the fourth edition Player's Handbook and the Essentials rulebook Heroes of the Fallen Lands; the halfling appears in the fourth edition Monster Manual. The halfling was included as a player race in the 5th edition Player's Handbook. Two subraces were introduced with it: the lightfoot halfling and the stout halfling; the Player's Handbook suggests using the statistics of the lightfoot halflings to stand in for the hairfeet halflings and tallfellow halflings of the Greyhawk campaign setting, as well as using the stout halflings to represent the strongheart halflings of the Forgotten Realms. The Dragonlance campaign set has a different race that fills the niche held by halflings, known as kender, they are immune to fear if magically generated. Described as having a "communal" outlook on property ownership, they are known to wander off while still holding, looking at, or after pocketing an item that catches their fancy.
They do not consider this stealing, but rather only think of it as borrowing the item. Kender have a tendency to discard items for what they deem more valuable, at the time of acquiring a new item if they need more space in their pouches. In Eberron, introduced in 2004, halflings are more removed from the Tolkien versions. In this world, halflings are a wilderness-loving barbarian race that uses domesticated dinosaurs as mounts. Although they are nomadic and clannish and thus viewed as barbarians by other races, these halflings are still adept at fitting in with civilized peoples when they leave their prairie homes; some halflings give up their nomadic lifestyle to settle in human cities, but retain strong ties to their heritage. In the Dark Sun setting, the wiry halflings exceed 3½' in height and live in shaman-ruled settlements in the jungles beyond the mysterious Ringing Mountains. Halflings are the oldest race on Athas. Most of them became barbaric cannibals, while a handful of them inhabited the Pristine Tower
Jacob Franklin "Frank" Mentzer III is an American fantasy author and game designer who worked on early materials for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game. He was an employee of TSR, Inc. from 1980–1986, spending part of that time as Creative Advisor to the Chairman of the Board, Gary Gygax. He founded the Role-Playing Games Association during his time with TSR. After Gygax was ousted from TSR at the end of 1985, Mentzer left TSR as well and helped him to start New Infinities Productions Inc.. When this venture failed, Mentzer left the gaming industry becoming the manager of a bakery. In 2008, he closed down this business and, two years announced he was returning to the gaming industry as a founding partner of a new publishing company, Eldritch Enterprises. Frank Mentzer was born in the Philadelphia suburb of Springfield, the older of two children. While attending Springfield High School, he started to play folk music, he played his first paid folk music concert at the opening of the Visitors' Center for the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall in downtown Philadelphia at age sixteen.
After Mentzer graduated from high school in 1968, his father, who worked for the National Park Service, moved the family to Maryland in order to work at Catoctin Mountain Park. Mentzer enrolled at West Virginia Wesleyan College, but he was interested in furthering his folk music career. With his father's advice on who in the NPS to contact, Mentzer was able to arrange to play concerts at various NPS sites. In 1972, he was hired by NPS to play a public concert in the White House gardens for inner-city children. At one point during the concert Pat Nixon, followed by national news crews, came to listen, a clip of Mentzer singing "If I Had a Hammer" subsequently appeared on national newscasts that evening. Following college graduation, Mentzer enrolled at Northeastern University for further studies in mathematics and physics. However, he subsequently moved back to the Philadelphia area, for a short time during the 1970s, he worked as the manager of a pinball arcade. In the mid-1970s, Mentzer and a friend taught themselves how to play the new role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons, he became part of a group of eight to twelve players who played several times a week.
In 1979, TSR, the company that published D&D, advertised for an editor. Although Mentzer was uninterested since he had no editorial or design experience, fellow player David Axler, who would go on to write an article for the December 1981 issue of Dragon magazine about how to determine the weather in the World of Greyhawk campaign setting,—urged him to apply. Mentzer relented and after a phone interview with TSR, he was hired for the editorial position, Tom Moldvay was hired as the new designer, in January 1980, Mentzer moved to Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. Soon after joining TSR, he was invited to participate in TSR's first "DM Invitational", a contest to choose D&D's best overall dungeon master. At Gen Con 1980, it was announced that Mentzer was the winner, he was awarded a silver cup and a gold dragon chain of office. Mike Carr of TSR had been contemplating starting a TSR-sponsored D&D fan club. Shortly after Mentzer won the DM Invitational, Carr approached him about taking on that task. Mentzer agreed to form some sort of group but, rather than a simple fan club, he was interested in promoting better quality role-playing during scored D&D events at conventions.
Mentzer felt that the system as it stood rewarded those players that stayed quiet at the table, in effect punishing good role-players. He came up with a scoring system where the dungeon master and the players all voted on, the best role-player at the table. With this in place, Mentzer formed the Role Playing Game Association, an organization that would promote quality role-playing and allow fans of role-playing games to meet and play games with each other. Mentzer wrote four RPGA tournament adventures set in his home campaign setting of "Aquaria", which he had been running since 1976. Mentzer envisioned them as becoming a part of Gary Gygax's World of Greyhawk setting, the first part of a new "Aqua-Oeridian" campaign set somewhere on Oerth outside of the Flanaess. In his review of Egg of the Phoenix, Ken Rolston called Mentzer "a clever and original designer", said that of all of the better-known adventure designers of the time he: "comes closest to creating scenarios in which the protagonists behave as if the game's rule books were physics texts describing the laws governing the workings of the universe".
Mentzer became involved with the auction of hobby gaming materials at Gen Con in 1983, has been involved with what is now called the world's largest game auction every year since then. Mentzer was soon promoted to Creative Director at TSR, one of the tasks he was given was to collate and revise the various rules sets for Basic D&D in such a way that no rules, monsters, or other material, developed for Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, were borrowed. Mentzer's third edition of the D&D Basic Set was used as the launching point for a five-box series, which would take characters from first level to godhood itself; this resulted in the Expert, Companion and Immortals bo
An omnivore is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and animal matter, omnivores digest carbohydrates, protein and fiber, metabolize the nutrients and energy of the sources absorbed, they have the ability to incorporate food sources such as algae and bacteria into their diet. Omnivores come from diverse backgrounds that independently evolved sophisticated consumption capabilities. For instance, dogs evolved from carnivorous organisms while pigs evolved from herbivorous organisms. What this means is that physical characteristics are not reliable indicators of whether an animal has the ability to obtain energy and nutrients from both plant and animal matter. Owing to the wide range of unrelated organisms independently evolving the capability to obtain energy and nutrients from both plant and animal materials, no generalizations about the anatomical features of all omnivores can realistically be made; the variety of different animals that are classified as omnivores can be placed into further categories depending on their feeding behaviors.
Frugivores include maned orangutans. All of these animals are omnivores, yet still fall into special niches in terms of feeding behavior and preferred foods. Being omnivores gives these animals more food security in stressful times or makes possible living in less consistent environments; the word omnivore derives from the Latin omnis, vora, from vorare, having been coined by the French and adopted by the English in the 1800s. Traditionally the definition for omnivory was behavioral by means of "including both animal and vegetable tissue in the diet." In more recent times, with the advent of advanced technological capabilities in fields like gastroenterology, biologists have formulated a standardized variation of omnivore used for labeling a species' actual ability to obtain energy and nutrients from materials. This has subsequently conditioned two context specific definitions. Behavioral: This definition is used to specify if a species or individual is consuming both plant and animal materials.
Physiological: This definition is used in academia to specify species that have the capability to obtain energy and nutrients from both plant and animal matter. The taxonomic utility of omnivore's traditional and behavioral definition is limited, since the diet and phylogeny of one omnivorous species might be different from that of another: for instance, an omnivorous pig digging for roots and scavenging for fruit and carrion is taxonomically and ecologically quite distinct from an omnivorous chameleon that eats leaves and insects; the term "omnivory" is not always comprehensive because it does not deal with mineral foods such as salt licks and the consumption of plant and animal material for medical purposes which would not otherwise be consumed within non-omnivores. Though Carnivora is a taxon for species classification, no such equivalent exists for omnivores, as omnivores are widespread across multiple taxonomic clades; the Carnivora order does not include all carnivorous species, not all species within the Carnivora taxon are carnivorous.
It is common to find physiological carnivores consuming materials from plants or physiological herbivores consuming material from animals, e.g. felines eating grass and deer eating birds. From a behavioral aspect, this would make them omnivores, but from the physiological standpoint, this may be due to zoopharmacognosy. Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered omnivorous. Thus, such animals are still able to be classified as carnivores and herbivores when they are just obtaining nutrients from materials originating from sources that do not complement their classification. For instance, it is well documented that animals such as giraffes and cattle will gnaw on bones, preferably dry bones, for particular minerals and nutrients. Felines, which are regarded as obligate carnivores eat grass to regurgitate indigestibles, aid with hemoglobin production, as a laxative, it is found that animals classified as carnivorous may deliberately eat plant material.
For example, in 2013, it was considered that American alligators may be physiologically omnivorous once investigations had been conducted on why they eat fruits. It was suggested that alligators ate fruits both accidentally but deliberately."Life-history omnivores" is a specialized classification given to organisms that change their eating habits during their life cycle. Some species, such as grazing waterfowl like geese, are known to eat animal tissue at one stage of their lives, but plant matter at another; the same is true for many insects, such as beetles in the family Meloidae, which begin by eating animal tissue as larvae, but change to eating plant matter after they mature. Many mosquito species in early life eat plants or assorted detritus, but as they mature, males continue to eat plant matter and nectar whereas the females eat blood to reproduce effectively. Although cases exist of herbivores eating meat and carnivores eating plant matter, the classification "omnivore" re
Dungeons & Dragons Rules Cyclopedia
The Dungeons & Dragons Rules Cyclopedia is a 1991 book published by TSR, Inc. as a continuation of the basic edition of the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, which ran concurrently with Advanced Dungeons & Dragons. Its product designation was TSR 1071; the Rules Cyclopedia contained all the major rules and revised from the Dungeons & Dragons Basic Rules, as well as the Expert Rules, Companion Rules, Master Rules boxed sets. However, the book's introduction on page 5 states that it is "intended to be a reference volume for those who play the D&D game... this book is aimed at the experienced user... lacks many of the examples and patient explanation you'll find in the D&D box sets". The same year, a revised introductory Dungeons & Dragons set was released to introduce new players to the game; this was the second revision to the D&D rules. These guidelines allow a player to develop and play characters from levels 1-36, includes a special section on skills; the book contained an overview of the Known World and Hollow World campaign settings.
It has rules on how to convert characters between the Dungeons & Dragons game and the Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd Edition game. The Rules Cyclopedia includes two optional classes to the game: the mystic; the D&D Rules Cyclopedia was published by TSR, Inc.. This 304-page hardback book features cover artwork by interior art by Terry Dykstra. Rick Swan reviewed the D&D Rules Cyclopedia for Dragon magazine #184, he calls the book a "stunningly comprehensive volume", explaining that it "includes more detail than most GMs will use but if you want it, you can find it here". According to Swan, "Best of all, the material is a joy to read, thanks to the breezy style of Aaron Allston, who must've been genetically engineered to write RPG rules; this is a must for serious fans."Shannon Appelcline said that the book "was a nice compilation, appreciated by the fans". Steven E. Schend, "The grand old game–complete at last!" Dragon #177