Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
River Little Ouse
The River Little Ouse is a river in the east of England, a tributary of the River Great Ouse. For much of its length it defines the boundary between Suffolk, it rises east of Thelnetham close to the source of the River Waveney - which flows eastwards while the Little Ouse flows west. The village with the curious name of Blo' Norton owes this name to the river - it was earlier known as Norton Bell-'eau, from being situated near this'fair stream'. In this area the river creates a number of important wetland areas such as at Blo' Norton and Thelnetham Fen and areas managed by the Little Ouse Headwaters Project; the course continues through Rushford, Thetford and Hockwold before the river joins the Great Ouse north of Littleport in Cambridgeshire. The total length is about 37 miles; the river is navigable from the Great Ouse to a point 2 miles above Brandon. A distinctive feature of the headwaters of the Little Ouse and the Waveney is the valley in which they flow; the valley is broad, cutting through boulder clay to the north and to the south, but is crossed by a flat sandy feature at Lopham Ford, between South Lopham and Redgrave.
Here the two rivers rise 160 yards apart, at an altitude of around 85 feet. The B1113 road crosses the valley on the sandy bank, known as The Frith. To the east are the valley fens of Redgrave and Lopham Fen, while to the west is Hinderclay Fen; the whole area overlays a thick bed of chalk. The geological features of a large through valley, but no large river, are unusual, were first recorded by Rev. Osmond Fisher in 1868, a keen geologist who thought the features were related to glaciation, but failed to convince the geologists of the 1870s. More Prof Richard West carried out a detailed field study of the area between 2002 and 2007, his work was published by the Suffolk Naturalists' Society in 2009, he concluded that the valley was caused by the runoff from a large glacial lake, which melted, leaving the valley as it is today, with the sands of the lake bed becoming the sands of the Breckland, a large area of gorse-covered sandy heath that spans the border between Norfolk and Suffolk. The downstream end of the Little Ouse has changed much over the centuries.
In the Fens and Norfolk Marshland, it was quite possible for the course of a river to change as the result of a flooding episode so it is not surprising to find that the Great Ouse used to enter The Wash by way of the Old Croft River, the Wellstream and Wisbech. The modern lower Great Ouse was the lower part of the Little Ouse. On this occasion, the change was artificial; the 17th century drainers under Cornelius Vermuyden dug the Old Bedford River between the Great Ouse at Earith and what had hitherto been the Little Ouse at Denver. A link was made for the Great Ouse between Littleport and the Little Ouse at Brandon Creek, both the drainage and the navigation were directed towards King's Lynn rather than Wisbech. Rising near the B1113 from South Lopham to Redgrave, the fledgeling Little Ouse flows west, is joined by a stream flowing northwards from the hamlets of Rickinghall and Botesdale, before passing through Hinderclay Fen; this was once a flourishing valley fen, was a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest, but the fen dried out as a result of changes to the river, made to improve drainage from surrounding agricultural land.
Rare species died out, the designation was removed in 1983, but recent action by the Little Ouse Headwaters Project has resulted in areas of wet fen being extended and species being reintroduced. They have been assisted in this by funding from the European Union; the river crosses Thelnetham Road, Blo' Norton as a ford, near, Thelnetham windmill, a grade II* listed tower mill dating from 1819 and restored in the 1980s. The course turns to the north-west, is crossed by the B1111 road to the south of Garboldisham. To the north of the bridge is Garboldisham windmill, a post mill dating from 1780; this is a grade II* listed structure, although its sails and tiller beam are missing. Continuing westwards, the river passes to the south of Gasthorpe, with the ruined church of All Saints a little further to the south, it was abandoned before 1900, now has no roof. Passing along the northern edge of Knettishall Heath Country Park, there are two weirs, after which the Peddars Way and Norfolk Coast Path cross on a footbridge.
A minor road crosses at Rushford, where the bridge is a scheduled ancient monument, another bridge carries the A1088 into Thetford, beyond, a weir. The Black Bourn river joins from the south, the combined flow turns to the north to reach Thetford; the border between Norfolk and Suffolk has followed the river for most of its course, but skirts to the west of Thetford. As it approaches Thetford, the river passes through Nunnery Lakes Reserve, a nature reserve managed by the British Trust for Ornithology. A series of deep pools were created in the 1970s when gravel and sand were extracted, the site is now a haven for wildlife; the BTO have their main offices at the northern end of the site, near to Nuns Bridge Road, where there are three listed bridges, built on the line of Icknield Way, an ancient track thought to have been first used around 3000 BCE. The southernmost bridge, crossing the Little Ouse, dates from the late 18th century, has two elliptical arches with a central cutwater; the central bridge has a single semi-circular arch, was built of brick in the early 19th century.
The northernmost crosses the River Thet, dates from the late 18th century, has two elliptical arches, with splayed parapets and stone coping slabs. For many years there was an open-air swimming pool on the widen
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period and beyond, the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England. It is not used to refer to the whole period of the Tudor dynasty, but to the style used in buildings of some prestige in the period between 1500 and 1560, it followed the Late Gothic Perpendicular style and was superseded by Elizabethan architecture from about 1560 in domestic building of any pretensions to fashion. In the much more slow-moving styles of vernacular architecture "Tudor" has become a designation for styles like half-timbering that characterize the few buildings surviving from before 1485 and others from the Stuart period. In this form the Tudor style long retained its hold on English taste. Nevertheless,'Tudor style' is an awkward style-designation, with its implied suggestions of continuity through the period of the Tudor dynasty and the misleading impression that there was a style break at the accession of Stuart James I in 1603.
The low Tudor arch was a defining feature. Some of the most remarkable oriel windows belong to this period. Mouldings are more spread out and the foliage becomes more naturalistic. During the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, many Italian artists arrived in England. However, in the following reign of Elizabeth I, the influence of Northern Mannerism derived from books, was greater. Courtiers and other wealthy Elizabethans competed to build prodigy houses that proclaimed their status; the Dissolution of the Monasteries redistributed large amounts of land to the wealthy, resulting in a secular building boom, as well as a source of stone. The building of churches had slowed somewhat before the English Reformation, after a great boom in the previous century, but was brought to a nearly complete stop by the Reformation. Civic and university buildings became more numerous in the period, which saw general increasing prosperity. Brick was something of an exotic and expensive rarity at the beginning of the period, but during it became widely used in many parts of England for modest buildings restricting traditional methods such as wood framed daub and wattle and half-timbering to the lower classes by the end of the period.
Scotland was a different country throughout the period, is not covered here, but early Renaissance architecture in Scotland was influenced by close contacts between the French and Scottish courts, there are a number of buildings from before 1560 that show a more thorough adoption of continental Renaissance styles than their English equivalents. Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and 17th-century design. Though this period is better known for the luxuries and excesses of his son and granddaughter, it was under Henry VII that the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance began and it is underestimated how much effort the founder of the Tudor dynasty invested in making huge changes to the way things were done before versus the way they were being done by the time he died. Prior to 1485, many wealthy and noble landowners lived in homes that were not comfortable but built to withstand sieges, though manor houses that were only fortified, if at all, had been built.
Castles and smaller manor houses had moats and crenelations designed for archers to stand guard and pick off approaching enemies. However, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI, fortifications like castles became obsolete; the autumn of 1485 marked the ascension of Henry VII to the throne. Until Henry's accession, England had been engaged in the Wars of the Roses that had left the royal coffers in deep trouble-Yorkists had raided the treasury just after the death of Edward IV. Therefore, in 1487, Henry Tudor passed laws against livery and maintenance, which checked the nobility's ability to raise armies independent of the crown, raised taxes mightily on the nobility through a trusted advisor, John Morton. Henry Tudor was hellbent on repairing the damage done by so many years of war, that meant increasing financial security, it meant recentralising power in London with the crown alone and away from interrelated nobles, squabbling over scraps of power since the reign of Richard II, evidenced by the crown beginning to be fought over by different branches of the descendants of Edward III at that time.
From Henry's point of view, there were taxes to collect, bills of attainder to hand out to the disloyal, Yorkists to marry off to Lancastrians, the majesty of the monarchy to repair and restore, a metaphorical wrecking ball to be applied to the medieval ideal of the warrior king crouching in his fortress and his vassals in theirs. During the reign of Henry VII, he made some savvy business investments in the alum trade and made vast improvements to the waterborne infrastructure of the country: the site of his dry dock in Portsmouth still is used today, because of Henry's investments in alum records show a striking increase in the volume of ships and thus trade coming in and out of England. Portsmouth was an early pet project of Henry VII, one he paid £193 for the entire construction, a sum that for its time was enormous, it must be note that not all Tudor architecture was of a residential nature, this particular one is important as it laid the foundation for other civic projects done under Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.
Henry Tudor built the first dry dock in the wo
Church of England parish church
A parish church in the Church of England is the church which acts as the religious centre for the people within the smallest and most basic Church of England administrative region, the parish – since the 19th century called the ecclesiastical parish to avoid confusion with the civil parish which many towns and villages have. In England, there are parish churches for both the Church of the Roman Catholic Church. References to a "parish church", without mention of a denomination, however certainly be to those of the Church of England due to its status as the Established Church; this is true for Wales, although the Church in Wales is dis-established. The Church of England is made up of each one forming part of a diocese; every part of England is within both a parish and a diocese. These ecclesiastical parishes are no longer the same as the civil parishes in local government. Larger towns and cities those with cathedrals, still have ecclesiastical parishes and parish churches; each parish is ministered to by a parish priest called a vicar, rector or priest-in-charge.
More the parish priest is known as a "perpetual curate". In one instance only the priest is by historical custom known as an "archpriest"; each parish has one active parish church and more than one. A parish may be served by a number of chapels of ease. Unused'redundant' parish churches may exist in parishes formed by the merging of two or more parishes, or because of the cost of upkeep; these redundant churches may remain empty, or be converted for alternative uses. Church of England parish churches are the oldest churches to be found in England built before the 16th-century reformation, predating the division of Western Christianity. A number are of Anglo-Saxon date and all subsequent periods of architecture are represented in the country. Most parishes have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, though with many additions or alterations; the parish churches of the City of London are famous for their Baroque architecture. Each building reflects its status and there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches.
Some large former monastic or collegiate churches are now parish churches, not always in their complete original form. As well as their architecture, many Church of England parish churches are known for their interesting and beautiful church fittings which are remarkable survivals; these may include monuments, wall paintings, stained glass, floor tiles, carved pews, choir stalls and fonts, sometimes shrines or vestments. The Church of England parish church was always fundamental to the life of every community in rural areas. However, by the late 20th and early 21st century, with the decline in the number of worshippers and the shortage of Anglican priests, there has been a trend towards team or shared ministry and many parish churches no longer have a service every Sunday. Notable Church of England parish churches include: Ashmanhaugh, Norfolk, St. Swithin, The smallest round-tower church in the UK. Barton-upon-Humber, North Lincolnshire, St Peter's Church: good Saxon tower Bedford Bedfordshire, St Paul's church, on the site of a former ancient minster, the present medieval'hall church' was the BBC's wartime home of the Daily Service, now the county church with a fine Bodley screen and maintains a choral tradition.
Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, Beverley Minster: Perpendicular west front, continuous vault, Percy tomb, Hawksmoor font cover, the largest parish church in England by floor area. Bodmin, Cornwall, St Petroc's Church, the church building is late medieval and the largest parish church in Cornwall. Boston, Lincolnshire, St Botolph's Church: The Stump, lantern interior, 62 misericords. Brent, London, St Gabriel's, Cricklewood, a New Wine church, home to an historic organ used in BBC radio recitals. Bristol, St Mary Redcliffe Church: Twin porches, Perpendicular interior, 1,200 roof bosses. Brompton, London, Holy Trinity: Evangelical Anglican church where the Alpha course was first developed. Burford, Oxfordshire, St John's Church: Merchants' guild chapel, Red Indian memorial, Kempe glass. Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, St Mary’s Church: Burial place of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, sister of Henry VIII, second longest aisle for a Parish Church in England. Hammer beam roof with carved angels. Has a traditional robed choir which has existed for hundreds of years.
Canterbury, Kent, St Martin's: oldest surviving CofE parish church of English origin Christchurch, Christchurch Priory: Norman exterior, Decorated screen, Perpendicular tombs and chantries. Cirencester, Gloucestershire, St John the Baptist's Church: Perpendicular porch, fan vaults, merchants' tombs. City of London, St Magnus the Martyr, Wren church situated at the end of old London Bridge. Crediton, Crediton Parish Church, a former collegiate church, rebuilt in the 15th century and has some fine monuments. Culbone, Somerset, St Culbone's Church: smallest parish church in England. Doncaster, St George's Minster: "South Yorkshire's most majestic building". Earls Barton, All Saints' Church. Fairford, Gloucestershire, St Mary's Church: Complete set of medieval glass, stone carvings, misericords. Gawber, Barnsley, St Thomas the Apostle: a most beautiful small church in South Yorkshire Grantham, Lincolnshire, St Wulfram's Church: Steeple and
St Neots is a town and civil parish in the non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire, within the historic county of Huntingdonshire, next to the Bedfordshire county border. It lies on the banks of the River Great Ouse in the Huntingdonshire District, 15 miles west of Cambridge and 50 miles north of central London. St Neots is the largest town in Cambridgeshire with a population of 40,000 in 2014; the town is named after the Cornish monk Saint Neot, whose bones were subject to translation from the hamlet of St Neot on Bodmin Moor on consecration of the Priory of St Neots circa 980. Pilgrimage to St Neots brought prosperity for the town, it was granted a market charter in 1130. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the town enjoyed further prosperity through corn milling, stagecoach traffic, railways. After the Second World War, the town and its industry grew as London councils paid for new housing to be built in the town to rehouse families from London; the first London overspill housing was completed in the early 1960s.
In 2012, archaeological excavations discovered prehistoric Mesolithic, Early Neolithic era, Iron Age and Early Middle Saxon items at the new town centre cinema development. Some five years earlier, Cambridge University Archaeologists uncovered significant remains of an Iron Age settlement of Round Houses during eastern town excavations; these findings confirm settlements having existed for over 3,000 years. Roman and Medieval finds have been made in and around St Neots. Early Saxon developments were in Eynesbury, Eaton Socon and Eaton Ford, which still exist as part of the town today; the Anglo Saxon Chronicles record that in 917 the Danish King of East Anglia left Huntingdon to attack Saxon settlements but was defeated and killed at the Battle of Tempsford near St Neots. The Normans rebuilt the Priory near the river and, in 1113, the Priory of St Neots was given its own manor, separate from Eyenesbury, which it had been part of; the town formed was named St Neots, remained entwined with Eynesbury until 1204, when the two parishes were formally separated.
A castle was built in the 12th century on the riverbank at Eaton. The parish church was rebuilt in the 15th century, is one of the few extant churches of this period in England. A large part of the original church remains, including stained glass windows depicting the life of Christ; the Great Ouse was made navigable from St Ives to Bedford, via St Neots, in 1629, increasing river-borne trade in the town. The separate village of Eynesbury became re-incorporated into St Neots in 1876. Eaton Ford and Eaton Socon, two villages across the county boundary formed by the River Great Ouse in Bedfordshire, were merged into St Neots in 1965. Technology-based industries are located in some of the town's light industrial estates, there is a gas turbine power station at Little Barford on the edge of the town. Recent development has added Eynesbury Manor, Love's Farm, the Island, Little Paxton bringing the population above 40,000. An ambitious new development of 2,800 homes to the East of the town called Wintringham Park is set for completion in Winter 2019.
It is projected that the population of the town will be 65,000 by the end of the Huntingdonshire Local Plan period. St Neots is a civil parish, its lowest tier of governance is its town council, which consists of twenty-one elected councillors including a town mayor and a deputy town mayor; the second tier of local government is Huntingdonshire District Council, a non-metropolitan district of Cambridgeshire. St Neots is divided into four district wards; the highest tier of local government is Cambridgeshire County Council. St Neots is part of two electoral divisions. At Westminster, St Neots is in the parliamentary constituency of Huntingdon. Since 2001 it has been represented in the House of Commons by Jonathan Djanogly. St Neots was in the constituency of Cambridgeshire South West from 1983 until 1997 when it was transferred to Huntingdon. For the European Parliament St Neots is part of the East of England constituency. St Neots is 49 miles north of London, it is close to the south-western boundary of Huntingdonshire District, both the city of Cambridge and the county town of Bedford are nearby.
St Neots lies in the valley of the River Great Ouse on the flood plain and on higher ground a little further from the water. The Great Ouse is a mature river, once wide and shallow but now controlled by weirs and sluices and constrained in a well-defined channel. Tributaries entering the Great Ouse in the town are the River Kym, Hen Brook, Duloe Brook and Colmworth Brook; the area is low-lying. The Riverside Fields, an amenity area adjacent to St Neots Bridge, is designed as a flood buffer area, is under water at times of flood, protecting dwelling and commercial property from flood. St Neots developed at the site of a ford; this was replaced by a medieval bridge, today there are two further crossings just outside the town, one to the north and another to the south. The soil is light, overlying gravel beds, gravel extraction is one of the local industries. Older disused gravel pits form useful nature reserves and amenity areas at nearby Paxton Pits and at the Wybos
History of Anglo-Saxon England
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066. It consisted of various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 927 when it was united as the Kingdom of England by King Æthelstan, it became part of the short-lived North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway in the 11th century. The Anglo-Saxons were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the southern half of the island of Great Britain from nearby northwestern Europe and their cultural descendants. Anglo-Saxon history thus begins during the period of Sub-Roman Britain following the end of Roman control, traces the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th and 6th centuries, their Christianisation during the 7th century, the threat of Viking invasions and Danish settlers, the gradual unification of England under Wessex hegemony during the 9th and 10th centuries, ending with the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066.
Anglo-Saxon identity survived beyond the Norman conquest, came to be known as Englishry under Norman rule and through social and cultural integration with Celts and Anglo-Normans became the modern English people. Bede completed his book Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum in around 731, thus the term for English people was in use by to distinguish Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The term'Anglo-Saxon' came in practice in the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons; the historian James Campbell suggested that it was not until the late Anglo-Saxon period that England could be described as a nation state. It is certain that the concept of "Englishness" only developed slowly; as the Roman occupation of Britain was coming to an end, Constantine III withdrew the remains of the army in reaction to the Germanic invasion of Gaul with the Crossing of the Rhine in December 406. The Romano-British leaders were faced with an increasing security problem from seaborne raids by Picts on the east coast of England.
The expedient adopted by the Romano-British leaders was to enlist the help of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, to whom they ceded territory. In about 442 the Anglo-Saxons mutinied because they had not been paid; the Romano-British responded by appealing to the Roman commander of the Western empire, Aëtius, for help though Honorius, the Western Roman Emperor, had written to the British civitas in or about 410 telling them to look to their own defence. There followed several years of fighting between the British and the Anglo-Saxons; the fighting continued until around 500, when, at the Battle of Mount Badon, the Britons inflicted a severe defeat on the Anglo-Saxons. There are records of Germanic infiltration into Britain that date before the collapse of the Roman Empire, it is believed that the earliest Germanic visitors were eight cohorts of Batavians attached to the 14th Legion in the original invasion force under Aulus Plautius in AD 43. There is a recent hypothesis that some of the native tribes, identified as Britons by the Romans, may have been Germanic-language speakers, but most scholars disagree with this due to an insufficient record of local languages in Roman-period artefacts.
It was quite common for Rome to swell its legions with foederati recruited from the German homelands. This practice extended to the army serving in Britain, graves of these mercenaries, along with their families, can be identified in the Roman cemeteries of the period; the migration continued with the departure of the Roman army, when Anglo-Saxons were recruited to defend Britain. If the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is to be believed, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which merged to become England were founded when small fleets of three or five ships of invaders arrived at various points around the coast of England to fight the Sub-Roman British, conquered their lands; the language of the migrants, Old English, came over the next few centuries to predominate throughout what is now England, at the expense of British Celtic and British Latin. The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons into Britain can be seen in the context of a general movement of Germanic peoples around Europe between the years 300 and 700, known as the Migration period.
In the same period there were migrations of Britons to the Armorican peninsula: around 383 during Roman rule, but c. 460 and in the 540s and 550s. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain, he suggested a mass immigration and driving the Sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas. This view was influenced by sources such as Bede, where he talks about the Britons being slaughtered or going into "perpetual servitude". According to Härke the more modern view is of co-existence between the British and the Anglo-Saxons, he suggests that several modern archaeologists have no
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm