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Blockbuster (entertainment)

A blockbuster is a work of entertainment—especially a feature film, but other media—that is popular and financially successful. The term has come to refer to any large-budget production intended for "blockbuster" status, aimed at mass markets with associated merchandising, sometimes on a scale that meant the financial fortunes of a film studio or a distributor could depend on it; the term began to appear in the American press in the early 1940s, referring to aerial bombs capable of destroying a whole block of buildings. Its first known use in reference to films was in May 1943, when advertisements in Variety and Motion Picture Herald described the RKO film, Bombardier, as "The block-buster of all action-thrill-service shows!" Another trade advertisement in 1944 boasted that the war documentary, With the Marines at Tarawa, "hits the heart like a two ton blockbuster". Several theories have been put forward for the origin of the term in a film context. One explanation pertains to the practice of "block booking" whereby a studio would sell a package of films to theaters, rather than permitting them to select which films they wanted to exhibit.

However, this practice was outlawed in 1948. Another explanation is that trade publications would advertise the popularity of a film by including illustrations showing long queues extending around the block, but in reality the term was never used in this way; the term was first coined by publicists who drew on readers' familiarity with the blockbuster bombs, drawing an analogy with the bomb's huge impact. The trade press subsequently appropriated the term as short-hand for a film's commercial potential. Throughout 1943 and 1944 the term was applied to films such as No Time for Love and Brazil; the term fell out of usage in the aftermath of World War II but was revived in 1948 by Variety in an article about big budget films. By the early 1950s the term had become standardised within the film industry and the trade press to denote a film, large in spectacle and cost, that would go on to achieve a high gross. In December 1950 the Daily Mirror predicted that Samson and Delilah would be "a box office block buster", in November 1951 Variety described Quo Vadis as "a b.o. blockbuster right up there with Birth of a Nation and Gone With the Wind for boxoffice performance a super-spectacle in all its meaning".

In 1975, the usage of "blockbuster" for films coalesced around Steven Spielberg's Jaws. It was perceived as a new cultural phenomenon: a fast-paced, exciting entertainment, inspiring interest and conversation beyond the theatre, repeated viewings; the film is regarded as the first film of the "blockbuster era", founded the blockbuster film genre. Two years Star Wars expanded on the success of Jaws, setting box office records and enjoying a theatrical run that lasted more than a year. After the success of Jaws and Star Wars, many Hollywood producers attempted to create similar "event" films with wide commercial appeal, film companies began green-lighting large-budget films, relying extensively on massive advertising blitzes leading up to their theatrical release; these two films were the prototypes for the "summer blockbuster" trend, in which major film studios and distributors planned their annual marketing strategy around a big release by July 4. The next fifteen years saw a number of high-quality blockbusters released including the likes of Alien and its sequel, the first three Indiana Jones films, E.

T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Beverly Hills Cop, the Back to the Future trilogy, Top Gun, Die Hard and its sequel Batman Returns, The Hunt for Red October. The focus on creating blockbusters grew so intense that a backlash occurred, with some critics and film-makers decrying the prevalence of a "blockbuster mentality" lamenting the death of the author-driven, "more artistic" small-scale films of the New Hollywood era; this view is taken, for example, by film journalist Peter Biskind, who wrote that all studios wanted was another Jaws, as production costs rose, they were less willing to take risks, therefore based blockbusters on the "lowest common denominators" of the mass market. In his book The Long Tail, Chris Anderson talks about blockbuster films, stating that a society, hit-driven, makes way and room for only those films that are expected to be a hit, is in fact a limited society. Box office bomb Four-quadrant movie List of highest-grossing openings for films List of highest-grossing films Oscar season Sleeper hit AAA game, equivalent term in the videogame industry Megamusical, equivalent term in the musical theatre industry New Hollywood Classical Hollywood cinema All Time Box Office Domestic Grosses at Box Office Mojo

Katsuo Tokashiki

Katsuo Tokashiki is a Japanese former WBA Light flyweight champion. He works as an actor and television persona, runs own boxing gym in Tokyo, Japan. Tokashiki was raised in Takarazuka, Hyogo, he caused all sorts of trouble from an early age, was infamous in his local town by the time he reached high school. He dropped out of school to begin training as a professional boxer, traveled to Tokyo, where he entered the Kyoei boxing gym; the WBA Light flyweight champion Yoko Gushiken trained at the Kyoei gym during the same period. Tokashiki made his professional debut in December, 1972. Tokashiki was a short and quick fighter, emerged as one of Japan's best youngest boxers, he did not mark a KO victory until his 12th professional fight in 1980. Tokashiki compiled a record of 13-1-1 before challenging Hwan Jin Kim for the WBA Light flyweight title in December, 1981. Yoko Gushiken had lost the WBA title to Kim, after defending it 13 times, Tokashiki set out to avenge his gymmate's loss. Tokashiki won the world title with by unanimous decision, but a scandal involving the Kyoei gym's management was revealed the same day, Tokashiki's victory was marred by controversy, since he and the previous champion, both trained with the gym.

Regardless, Tokashiki compiled 5 straight defenses, but lost his title to Lupe Madera, after he was injured in the 4th round. Tokashiki lost a close unanimous decision in 15 rounds; the WBA would have allowed another rematch, but Tokashiki did not want to fight Madera for a fifth time, decided to challenge Korean boxer Jung Koo Chang for the WBC Light flyweight title instead. The match took place in Korea, where Chang was a national hero; this was the only time Tokashiki fought outside Japan in his career, he knew he had to win by KO to capture the title. Tokashiki was aggressive from the first round, pinned the champion against the corner, when he was knocked down for the first time in his career with a counter left hook. However, Tokashiki managed to tire out the champion by the 5th round, Chang showed fatigue and slipping in the 8th round. Chang's corner bought time by having to retape the champion's gloves twice during rounds, in the 9th round, Chang surprised Tokashiki with a sudden flurry of punches.

Tokashiki was unscathed, but the referee stopped the fight to declare Chang the victory, despite the fact that Tokashiki had shown no signs of being hurt, remained standing as Chang collapsed to the canvas after hearing that he had won. Chang was only 21 years old at the time, rebounded after this disappointing finish to defend the WBC title 15 times. Tokashiki announced his retirement shortly after this fight, his record was 19-4-2. Like many other Japanese boxers, Tokashiki became a television persona after retiring from boxing, has appeared on several variety television shows, he has worked as an actor, took the role of boxer Fighting Harada in a television drama series in 1990. His appearances on television have decreased but he created the Tokashiki Boxing Gym in Tokyo, works as a trainer there, he petitioned the court to order Iwao Hakamada's retrial. List of WBA world champions List of Japanese boxing world champions Boxing in Japan Katsuo Tokashiki on IMDb Professional boxing record for Katsuo Tokashiki from BoxRec Tokashiki Boxing Gym

The Man Without Gravity

The Man Without Gravity is a 2019 Italian modern fairy tale with magic realism style. Directed and written by Marco Bonfanti and starring Elio Germano, Michela Cescon and Elena Cotta, the film was released on November 1, 2019 on Netflix; the plot of the film revolves around the child Oscar who, when being born, flies away lighter than a balloon. Elio Germano as Oscar Michela Cescon as Natalia Elena Cotta as Alina Silvia D'Amico as Agata Vincent Scarito as David Pietro Pescara as Young Oscar Jennifer Brokshi as Young Agata Andrea Pennacchi as Andrea Cristina Donadio as Lucy Dieter-Michael Grohmann as Lukas Dominique Lombardo as Piero Francesco Procopio as Marshal Salvio Simeoli as TV Presenter Agnieszka Jania as Vlady Balkissa Souley Maiga as Sissy The Man Without Gravity was released on November 1, 2019 on Netflix; the Man Without Gravity on Netflix The Man Without Gravity on IMDb