Northern Dancer was a Canadian-bred Thoroughbred racehorse that won the 1964 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes and became one of the most successful sires of the 20th century. He is considered a Canadian icon, was inducted into the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame in 1965. Induction into the Racing Hall of Fame in both Canada and the United States followed in 1976; as a competitor, The Blood-Horse ranks him as one of the top 100 U. S. Thoroughbred champions of the 20th century. A sire of sires, he has been called the leading male-line progenitor of modern Thoroughbreds worldwide. At age two, Northern Dancer won the Summer Stakes and the Coronation Futurity in Canada and the Remsen Stakes in New York, was named the Canadian Champion Two-Year-Old Colt. At three, he started the year with wins in the Flamingo Stakes, Florida Derby, Blue Grass Stakes. Northern Dancer became the first Canadian-bred to win the Kentucky Derby, following up with a win in the Preakness Stakes. With a chance at the American Triple Crown, he finished third in the Belmont Stakes.
Returning to Canada for a hero's welcome, he won the Queen's Plate in his last race. Northern Dancer retired to stud in 1965 at Windfields Farm in Canada, he was an immediate success when his first crop reached racing age in 1968, but the success of his second crop, led by English Triple Crown winner Nijinsky II, brought his name to the international stage. Northern Dancer was relocated to the Maryland branch of Windfields Farm, where he became the most sought sire of his time. Northern Dancer was a bay stallion, sired by Nearctic and out of the mare Natalma, whose sire was Native Dancer. Northern Dancer's paternal grandsire was the Italian-bred horse Nearco, two-time Leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland. In 1952, Edward P. Taylor, Canadian business magnate and owner of Windfields Farm, attended the December sale at Newmarket, where he purchased Lady Angela, a daughter of six-time leading sire Hyperion. In 1953, Taylor had Lady Angela bred to Nearco before bringing her to his farm in Canada, where she foaled Nearctic in early 1954.
Nearctic was Canadian Horse of the Year in 1958, a feat that Northern Dancer matched in 1964. Despite his strong pedigree, Northern Dancer was a diminutive horse and did not find a buyer at his $25,000 reserve price at the yearling sales; as a result, Northern Dancer stayed in the Windfields Farm racing stable. Northern Dancer had plus excellent balance and agility. While listed at 15.2 hands, most horsemen familiar with Northern Dancer estimated his height as between 15 hands and 15.1 hands. Like Nearctic and Nearco before him, Northern Dancer had a dominant and sometimes unruly temperament. "He wasn't mean, but he would wheel and do some tricks," said Joe Thomas, who managed the Dancer's stud career. Trainer Horatio Luro wanted to geld the colt but Taylor refused. Sportswriter Jim Murray of the Los Angeles Times wrote: "Northern Dancer is the kind of colt who, if you saw him in your living room, you'd send for a trap and put cheese in it. He's so little, a cat would chase him, but he's so plucky there's room in him for his heart.
His legs are long enough to keep his tail off the ground. He takes a hundred more strides than anyone else, but he's harder to pass than a third martini." On August 2, 1963, Northern Dancer made his debut at Fort Erie Race Track in a 5 1⁄2 furlong maiden race for Canadian foaled horses. He was ridden by apprentice jockey Ron Turcotte, instructed not to use the whip but gave the colt a tap at the sixteenth pole anyway, whereupon Northern Dancer "exploded", he beat seven 2-year-olds for a purse of $2,100. Turcotte recalled, "We won that race by eight lengths, he was a bold horse. Brave, he could handle anything. The grass; the mud. Anything."His next start was on August 17 in the Vandal Stakes, for which Paul Bohenko was his jockey since Turcotte was committed to another horse, Ramblin' Man. Northern Dancer entered into a speed duel at the start of the race, setting up the race for Ramblin' Man to win. After the race, Turcotte is quoted as having told Luro, "the Dancer was the best two year old in Canada, maybe in the world."
He next entered the Summer Stakes on August 24 at a distance of 1 mile on the turf at Fort Erie. The track condition was described as'bog-like', the horse is said to have fallen. Despite struggling with the ground, Northern Dancer hung on for the win, his next start was in the 1 1⁄16 mile Cup and Saucer Stakes on September 28 on the Woodbine turf course, where he was assigned the top weight of 124 pounds. Ron Turcotte was back as his jockey and took him to an early lead, but Northern Dancer tired and fell second to long-shot Grand Carcon by 3⁄4 of a length. On October 7, he returned in the Bloordale Purse at 1 1⁄16 miles where he was again the top weight at 122 pounds, his main rival Northern Flight carried 117 pounds while other horses carried as little as 112 pounds. Northern Dancer allowed Northern Flight to take a commanding lead. At the halfway mark, Northern Dancer was third on the rail, 15 lengths back, but closed the gap on the far turn. Down the stretch, the two battled for the lead before Northern Dancer pulled away to win by 1 1⁄2 lengths, with the rest of the field some twenty-five plus lengths behind Northern Flight.
On October 12, Northern Dancer faced a field of 14 rivals in the Coronation Futurity, the richest race for Canadian two-year-olds. He settled in fourth at the start took over the lead at the halfway point, drawing away to win by 6 1⁄4 lengths, it was Turcotte's last ride on Northern Dancer, as Luro feared he could not maintain suf
Citation was an American Triple Crown-winning Thoroughbred racehorse who won 16 consecutive races in major stakes race competition. He was the first horse in history to win one million dollars. Owned and bred by Calumet Farm in Lexington, Citation was a bay colt by Bull Lea from the imported mare Hydroplane, by the leading sire Hyperion. Although Citation was bred in Kentucky, his pedigree was European: of the sixteen horses in the fourth generation of his pedigree, fourteen were bred in Britain and one was bred in France; as a descendant of the broodmare Glasalt, Citation was related to the 2000 Guineas winner Colorado: the same branch of Thoroughbred "Family" 3-l produced the Preakness Stakes winner Gate Dancer. Citation was trained by the Hall of Fame inductee Ben Jones and his son, Hall of Famer Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones. The horse was ridden by Al Snider and by Eddie Arcaro and Steve Brooks. Citation won his first start as a two-year-old at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, he broke the Arlington Park track record over five furlongs in his third start.
For the year, he raced nine times, winning eight starts and earning $155,680. His only loss came at the heels of his stablemate, Bewitch, in the Washington Park Futurity, which the filly won in stakes record time for six furlongs. Citation racked up victories in the Elementary Stakes, Futurity Trial, Futurity Stakes, Pimlico Futurity, he was named champion two-year-old. Citation started the 1948 racing season with two victories over older horse Armed, named Thoroughbred racing's 1947 Horse of the Year, in an allowance race and the Seminole Handicap, it is rare for a three-year-old to defeat older horses so early in the year, let alone a top handicap star such as Armed. After Citation won the Everglades Stakes and the Flamingo Stakes at Hialeah Park, Snider drowned while fishing off the Florida Keys. Calumet Farm hired one of Snider's friends. In Arcaro's first start on Citation, they lost to Saggy in the Chesapeake Trial Stakes; this was the last race that Citation lost for two years. Citation reversed the loss to Saggy in the Chesapeake Stakes, which he won over Bovard by 4½ lengths, with Saggy well back.
Citation followed with a win in the Derby Trial Stakes. In the Kentucky Derby, ridden by Arcaro, Citation won by 3½ lengths over his stablemate, eventual 1949 Horse of the Year Coaltown, Arcaro gave the widow of former jockey Al Snider a share of his Derby purse money. Citation was sent to Baltimore where he won the Preakness Stakes by 5½ lengths. From there he won the Jersey Stakes before going to Belmont, New York, becoming the 8th Triple Crown winner by capturing the Belmont Stakes, tying the stakes record of 2:28⅕ set by the 6th Triple Crown winner, Count Fleet. Citation won the Stars and Stripes Handicap, equalling Armed's track record, he next won the Sysonby Mile. After that came the Jockey Club Gold Cup at 2 miles, which he won by seven lengths over 1947 Preakness winner Phalanx, he won the Empire City Gold Cup. In Citation's next start, he deterred potential challengers and won the Pimlico Special in a rare walkover. Citation traveled to California, where he finished the year with two wins, including in the Tanforan Handicap at Tanforan Racecourse.
By the end of his three-year-old season, Citation had a record of 20 starts, 19 wins and $709,470, for a new single season record. His total career record now stood at 27 victories and two seconds in 29 starts and earnings of $865,150, he had amassed a 15-race winning streak. For his performances, Citation was named Horse of the Year, gaining 161 of a possible 163 votes in the poll conducted by Turf and Sport Digest magazine. Toward the end of his three-year-old season, he developed an osselet; the osselet injury kept Citation from racing in 1949, but he came back to race in 1950, winning his 16th race in a row at Santa Anita Park. His owner, Calumet Farm, had brought Citation back from his injury in 1950 with the intention of making him the first horse to earn $1 million, but he came against the English import Noor, who defeated Citation four times, in the Santa Anita Handicap at 1¼ miles, the San Juan Capistrano Handicap at 1¾ miles in world record time, the Forty Niners Handicap at 1⅛ miles in track record time, the Golden Gate Handicap.
In the latter event, Noor conceded weight to Citation and set a world record of 1:58⅕ which stood as an American record on a dirt track until Spectacular Bid broke it 30 years later. Citation's times in these races would have been records. Citation himself set a world record in winning the Golden Gate Mile Handicap in 1:33⅗ in a race that Noor sat out. Citation was brought back by his owners one more time at age six in 1951 in an attempt to become the first racehorse to win a record one million dollars. After two third-place finishes, Citation finished out of the money for the first time in the Hollywood Premiere Handicap. After another loss in the Argonaut Handicap, he returned to form with victories in the Century Handicap, American Handicap, Hollywood Gold Cup, winning over his stablemate, the mare Bewitch; the Gold Cup victory put him over $1 million in career earnings, he was then
Man o' War
Man o' War was an American Thoroughbred, considered one of the greatest racehorses of all time. Several sports publications, including The Blood-Horse, Sports Illustrated, ESPN, the Associated Press, voted Man o' War as the outstanding horse of the 20th century. During his racing career just after World War I, Man o' War won 20 of 21 races and $249,465 in purses, he was the unofficial 1920 American horse of the year and was honored with Babe Ruth as the outstanding athlete of the year by The New York Times. He was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1957. On March 29, 2017, the museum opened a special exhibit in his honor, "Man o' War at 100". In 1919, Man o' War won 9 of 10 starts including the Hopeful Stakes and Belmont Futurity the most important races for two-year-old horses in the United States, his only loss came at Saratoga Race Course nicknamed the Graveyard of Champions, where he lost by a neck to a colt fittingly named Upset. Man o' War was not entered in the 1920 Kentucky Derby because his owner, Samuel Riddle, did not believe in racing at the distance of 10 furlongs so early in a young horse's career.
Instead, Man o' War made his three-year-old debut in the Preakness Stakes where he defeated Upset by 1 1⁄2 lengths. Man o' War won the Belmont Stakes by 20 lengths while setting a world record. Throughout the summer and fall, he continued to dominate his fellow three-year-olds, setting multiple records while conceding large amounts of weight to his rivals; the only time he faced older horses was in the final race of his career in a match race against Sir Barton, who had won what would be known as the American Triple Crown in 1919. Man o' War won by seven lengths in the first horserace to be filmed in its entirety. Riddle intended to race Man o' War in 1921 but decided against it because Man o' War would have been assigned record weights in the handicap format used in all races for older horses. Instead, Man o' War was retired to stud, where he became a leading sire whose multiple champions included Triple Crown winner War Admiral, he was the grandsire of Seabiscuit and his sire line continues today through horses such as In Reality, Tiznow, Da' Tara and Tourist.
Successful as a broodmare sire, Man o' War is found in all modern American pedigrees. Man o' War was a chestnut horse with a white stripe on his forehead, he was foaled at Nursery Stud near Kentucky. He was bred by August Belmont Jr. whose father's accomplishments were recognized through the naming of the Belmont Stakes in 1867. Belmont Jr. was an notable horseman who served as the chairman of The Jockey Club from 1895 until his death in 1924. Belmont Park was named in the family's honor when it opened in 1905. Man o' War was sired by Fair Play, a multiple stakes winner who finished second in the 1908 Belmont Stakes to the undefeated Colin. Man o' War was the second foal out of Mahubah, a raced mare by English Triple Crown Champion Rock Sand. Not long after the colt was foaled on March 29, 1917, Belmont Jr. joined the United States Army at age 65 to serve in France during World War I. While he was overseas, his wife named the foal "Man o' War" in honor of her husband; the Belmonts intended to race Man o' War themselves.
However, in the summer of 1918 with the ongoing war effort, they decided to liquidate their racing stable. At the Saratoga yearling sale, Man o' War was sold at a final bid of $5,000 to Samuel D. Riddle, who brought him to his Glen Riddle Farm near Berlin, Maryland; the underbidder at the auction was Robert L. Gerry, Sr., reported to have said to his wife, "Forty-five hundred is enough to spend for any yearling." Two years in 1920, Riddle declined an offer of $400,000 for the horse. At maturity, Man o' War stood 16.2 1⁄2 hands, with prominent withers and a high croup, but was sometimes faulted for a dipped back that grew more pronounced with age. He had flawless legs and solid bone, traits he passed on to his offspring, he had a Roman nose and notably high head carriage. His nickname was "Big Red", though his coat had tinges of gold. An energetic, spirited horse, he is pictured standing still and gazing off into the distance, described as the "look of eagles", his stride was measured at 28 feet, believed to be the longest of all time.
Man o' War was the odds-on favorite in every start of his career and justified that faith in his sole defeat. He won in front-running fashion and was only pushed in two of his starts, he won the Belmont Stakes by the Lawrence Realization by a hundred. He set record times in both of those races plus many more at distances ranging from six to 13 furlongs. In many of his starts, he won under heavy restraint and conceded his rivals large amounts of weight, he retired as the then-leading money-earner in American history. Developing this talent was not easy for trainer Louis Feustel due to Man o' War's wild temperament. In his early days, Man o' War would dump his exercise riders, once getting free for over 15 minutes after a morning workout. "He fought like a tiger," Riddle recalled. "He screamed with rage and fought us so hard that it took several days before he could be handled with safety." Feustel brought the colt along and settled him into a regular routine. Man o' War developed a strong bond with his groom Frank Loftus, who taught the horse to fetch and carry his hat.
Oranges were Man o' War's favorite treat. Man o' War made his debut at Belmont Park on June 1919 in a maiden race over five furlongs. At the time, horses had to race clockwise at Be
New York Daily News
The New York Daily News titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most circulated daily newspaper in the United States, it was founded in 1919, was the first U. S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation at 2.4 million copies a day. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. Patterson and his cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune Company founder Joseph Medill; when Patterson and McCormick could not agree on the editorial content of the Chicago paper, the two cousins decided at a meeting in Paris that Patterson would work on the project of launching a Tribune-owned newspaper in New York. On his way back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 26, 1919; the Daily News was not an immediate success, by August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625.
Still, New York's many subway commuters found the tabloid format easier to handle, readership grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over 100,000 and by 1925, over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. The Daily News carried the slogan "New York's Picture Newspaper" from 1920 to 1991, for its emphasis on photographs, a camera has been part of the newspaper's logo from day one; the paper's slogan, developed from a 1985 ad campaign, is "New York's Hometown Newspaper", while another has been "The Eyes, the Ears, the Honest Voice of New York". The Daily News continues to include large and prominent photographs, for news and sports, as well as intense city news coverage, celebrity gossip, classified ads, comics, a sports section, an opinion section. News-gathering operations were, for a time, organized using two-way radios operating on 173.3250 MHz, allowing the assignment desk to communicate with its personnel who utilized a fleet of "radio cars".
Prominent sports cartoonists have included Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor; the paper published a Monday-Friday afternoon counterpart, Daily News Tonight, between August 19, 1980 and August 28, 1981. Occasional "P. M. Editions" were published as extras in 1991, during the brief tenure of Robert Maxwell as publisher. In 1982, again in the early 1990s during a newspaper strike, the Daily News went out of business. In the 1982 instance, the parent Tribune Company offered the tabloid up for sale. In 1991, millionaire Robert Maxwell offered financial assistance to the News to help it stay in business; when Maxwell died shortly thereafter, the News seceded from his publishing empire, which splintered under questions about whether Maxwell had the financial backing to sustain it. After Maxwell's death in 1991, the paper was held together in bankruptcy by existing management, led by editor James Willse, who became interim publisher after buying the paper from Tribune.
Mort Zuckerman bought the paper in 1993. From its founding until 1991, the Daily News was owned by the Tribune Company. In 1948, the News established WPIX, whose call letters were based on the News's nickname of "New York's Picture Newspaper"; the television station became a Tribune property outright in 1991, remains in the former Daily News Building. The News maintains local bureaux in the Bronx and Queens, at City Hall, within One Police Plaza, at the various state and federal courthouses in the city. In January 2012, former News of the World and New York Post editor Colin Myler was appointed editor-in-chief of the Daily News. Myler was replaced by his deputy Jim Rich in September 2015. On September 4, 2017, the publishing operations of the former Tribune Company, announced that it had acquired the Daily News. Tronc had bought the Daily News for $1, assuming "operational and pension liabilities". By the time of purchase, circulation had dropped to 200,000 on 260,000 on Sundays. In July 2018, tronc fired half of the paper's editorial staff, including the editor-in-chief, Jim Rich.
Rich was replaced by Robert York and Editor-in-Chief of tronc-owned The Morning Call in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The paper's social media staff were included in the cut. New York Times journalist Alan Feuer said the Daily News focuses on "deep sourcing and doorstep reporting", providing city-centered "crime reportage and hard-hitting coverage of public issues rather than portraying New York through the partisan divide between liberals and conservatives". According to Feuer, the paper is known for "speaking to and for the city’s working class" and for "its crusades against municipal misconduct"; the New York Times has described the Daily News's editorial stance as "flexibly centrist" with a "high-minded, if populist, legacy". The News endorsed Rep
ESPN on ABC
ESPN on ABC is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised on the American Broadcasting Company in the United States. The broadcast network retains its own sports division. ABC broadcasts use ESPN's production and announcing staff, incorporate elements such as ESPN-branded on-screen graphics, SportsCenter in-game updates, the BottomLine ticker; the ABC logo is used for identification purposes as a digital on-screen graphic during sports broadcasts on the network, in promotions to disambiguate events airing the broadcast network from those shown on the ESPN cable channel. The broadcast network's sports event coverage carried the ABC Sports brand prior to September 2, 2006; when ABC acquired a controlling interest in ESPN in 1984, it operated the cable network separately from its network sports division. The integration of ABC Sports with ESPN began after The Walt Disney Company bought ABC in 1996; the branding change to ESPN on ABC was made to better orient ESPN viewers with event telecasts on ABC and provide consistent branding for all sports broadcasts on Disney-owned channels.
Despite its name, ABC's sports coverage is supplemental to ESPN and not a simulcast of programs aired by the network, although ESPN and ESPN2 will carry ABC's regional broadcasts that otherwise would not air in certain markets. Like its longtime competitors CBS Sports and NBC Sports, ABC Sports was part of the news division of the ABC network, after 1961, was spun off into its own independent division; when Roone Arledge came to ABC Sports as a producer of NCAA football games in 1960, the network was in financial shambles. The International Olympic Committee wanted a bank to guarantee ABC's contract to broadcast the 1960 Olympics. At the time, Edgar Scherick served as the de facto head of ABC Sports. Scherick had joined the fledgling ABC television network when he persuaded it to purchase Sports Programs, Inc. in exchange for the network acquiring shares in the company. Scherick had formed the company after he left CBS, when the network would not make him the head of its sports programming unit.
Before ABC Sports became a formal division of the network, Scherick and ABC programming chief Tom Moore pulled off many programming deals involving the most popular American sporting events. While Scherick was not interested in "For Men Only," he recognized the talent. Arledge realized; the lack of a formal organization would offer him the opportunity to claim real power when the network matured. With this, he signed on with Scherick as an assistant producer, with Arledge ascending to a role as executive producer of its sports telecasts. Several months before ABC began broadcasting NCAA college football games, Arledge sent Scherick a remarkable memo, filled with youthful exuberance, television production concepts which sports broadcasts have adhered to since. Network broadcasts of sporting events had consisted of simple set-ups and focused on the game itself. In his memo, Arledge not only offered another way to broadcast the game to the sports fan, but recognized that television had to take fans to the game.
In addition, he had the forethought to realize that the broadcasts needed to attract, hold the attention of female viewers, as well as males. On September 17, 1960, the then-29-year-old Arledge put his vision into reality with ABC's first NCAA college football broadcast from Birmingham, between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Georgia Bulldogs which Alabama won, 21–6. Despite the production values he brought to NCAA college football, Scherick wanted low-budget sports programming that could attract and retain an audience, he hit upon the idea of broadcasting field events sponsored by the Amateur Athletic Union. While Americans were not fans of track and field events, Scherick figured that Americans understood games. In January 1961, Scherick called Arledge into his office, asked him to attend the annual AAU board of governors meeting. While he was shaking hands, Scherick said, "if the mood seemed right, might he cut a deal to broadcast AAU events on ABC?" It seemed like a tall assignment, however as Scherick said years "Roone was a gentile and I was not."
Arledge came back with a deal for ABC to broadcast all AAU events for $50,000 per year. Next and Arledge divided up their NCAA college football sponsor list, they telephoned their sponsors and said in so many words, "Advertise on our new sports show coming up in April, or forget about buying commercials on NCAA college football this fall." The two persuaded enough sponsors to advertise on the broadcasts, though it took them to the last day of a deadline imposed by ABC's programming operations to do it. Wide World of Sports – an anthology series featuring a different sporting event each broadcast, which premiered on the network on April 29, 1961 – suited Scherick's plans exactly. By exploiting the speed of jet transportation and flexibility of videotape, Scherick was able to undercut NBC and CBS's advantages in broadcasting live sporting events. In that era, with communications nowhere near as universal as they are in the present day, ABC was able to safely record events on
Ruffian was an American champion thoroughbred racehorse who won 10 consecutive races by wide margins. In July 1975, she entered a anticipated match race with Kentucky Derby winner Foolish Pleasure, in which she broke down. Surgery was attempted but Ruffian reacted poorly and exacerbated the injuries while coming out of anesthesia; as a result, she was humanely euthanized. Ruffian was ranked among the top U. S. racehorses of the 20th century by The Blood-Horse magazine. Her story was told in numerous books. Ruffian was foaled near Paris, Kentucky, she was bred by Stuart S. Janney Jr. and Barbara Phipps Janney, owners of Locust Hill Farm in Glyndon, Maryland. Janney, a cousin of prominent horseman Ogden Mills Phipps became the chairman of the Bessemer Trust. Ruffian was sired by the Phipps family's Bold Ruler stallion and out of the Native Dancer mare Shenanigans, she was trained by Frank Y. Whiteley, Jr.. Ruffian was a nearly black filly standing 16.1 hands high as a two-year-old. Sportswriter Joe Hirsch called her the most imposing juvenile filly he'd seen.
William Nack, author of Ruffian: A Racetrack Romance, wrote, "She looked like an outside linebacker." Ruffian used her size and strength to intimidate other fillies before they started to race. Ruffian made her debut at Belmont Park on May 22, 1974 in a 5 1⁄2-furlong maiden special weight race, she went straight to the front and set fast fractions while pulling away from her rivals. She won by 15 lengths and tied the track record, a noteworthy feat for so young a horse, it was a sign of things to come: Ruffian was on the lead at every point of call in every race she ran. She set a new stakes record in each of the eight stakes races, she equaled two track records. Ruffian's jockey Jacinto Vasquez was asked in an interview if it was hard to get to the lead at the beginning of races, he replied, "No, Ruffian sets her own pace and gets there on her own". In her second start in the 5 1⁄2-furlong Fashion Stakes, Ruffian faced stiffer company but still won by nearly seven lengths while equaling her own track record.
She next won this time by nine lengths. Her next start at Monmouth Park on July 27 in the Grade I Sorority Stakes would prove a greater challenge as she faced another top class filly called Hot n Nasty, who like Ruffian had earned multiple stakes wins. Ruffian went to the early lead, setting a "torrid" pace but Hot n Nasty was just a length behind; as they turned into the stretch, Hot n Nasty moved alongside Ruffian and for a moment seemed to be leading. For the first and last time, Vasquez hit Ruffian with the whip. Ruffian responded by inching back into the lead finally drew away to win in a stakes record by 2 1⁄2 lengths – the third place horse was 22 lengths behind; the day after the race, Ruffian came down with a heavy cough. Vasquez believed she had popped a splint in the race, although not a serious injury, was painful and enough to take the edge off of most horses. On August 23 at Saratoga Race Course, Ruffian won the Spinaway Stakes by 12 3⁄4 lengths in a track record time of 1:083⁄5.
The morning after the race, a stable hand found. Whiteley examined the filly and noticed that her right hind leg was sensitive, so he had a veterinarian perform scans on her leg, it was discovered. Whiteley was interviewed about the fracture and asked if it were true that it happened during the race, he answered, "It did happen during the race, she was just a couple of strides from the wire." When asked why he thought Ruffian was not showing any signs of being hurt until the next day, he replied, "She is a tough filly, doesn't like to show any weaknesses." Ruffian missed the rest of the two-year-old season but her five wins were sufficient to earn her the Eclipse Award for American Champion Two-Year-Old Filly. Ruffian was voted 2 year old "Horse Of The Year" by Turf & Sport Digest as well as 1974 "Filly 2 year old Champion" Ruffian started her three-year-old campaign with an allowance race win, followed by a victory in the Comely Stakes at Aqueduct on April 30. In the latter, she set a stakes record of 1:211⁄5 for 7 furlongs.
Ruffian swept the New York Triple Tiara, which at that time consisted of the Acorn Stakes, Mother Goose Stakes and Coaching Club American Oaks. In the Acorn Stakes on May 10 at Aqueduct, Ruffian was the 1-10 favorite and won by 8 1⁄2 lengths in a stakes record time of 1:342⁄5 for one mile, she followed up with another win in the Mother Goose Stakes on May 31, again at Aqueduct, breaking the previous stakes record by 4⁄5 of a second while winning by 13 1⁄2 lengths without urging from her jockey. In the Coaching Club American Oaks on June 21 at Belmont Park, she was again made the 1-10 favorite, she opened up a 6 length lead on the backstretch but the field closed on her during the far turn, getting as close as 1 length. In the stretch, Ruffian again pulled away to win by 2 3⁄4 lengths while tying the stakes record of 2:274⁄5 for 1 1⁄2 miles. Ruffian was undefeated in her first ten races, covering distances from 5.5 furlongs to 1.5 miles, with an average winning margin of 81⁄3 lengths.
She set stakes records in each stakes race she entered. Ruffian's eleventh race was run at Belmont Park on July 6, 1975, it was that year's Kentucky Derby winner, Foolish Pleasure. In the past, the horses had shared the same jockey: Jacinto Vasquez. Vasquez chose believing her to be the better of the horses.
Secretariat was an American Thoroughbred racehorse who, in 1973, became the first Triple Crown winner in 25 years. His record-breaking victory in the Belmont Stakes, which he won by 31 lengths, is regarded as one of the greatest races of all time. During his racing career, he won five Eclipse Awards, including Horse of the Year honors at ages two and three, he was elected to the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1974. In the List of the Top 100 U. S. Racehorses of the 20th Century, Secretariat is second only to Man o' War, a large chestnut colt given the nickname "Big Red". At age two, Secretariat finished fourth in his 1972 debut in a maiden race, but won seven of his remaining eight starts, including five stakes victories, his only loss during this period was in the Champagne Stakes, where he finished first but was disqualified to second for interference. He received the Eclipse Award for champion two-year-old colt, was the 1972 Horse of the Year, a rare honor for a horse so young.
At age three, Secretariat not only won the Triple Crown, he set speed records in all three races. His time in the Kentucky Derby still stands as the Churchill Downs track record for 1 1⁄4 miles, his time in the Belmont Stakes stands as the American record for 1 1⁄2 miles on the dirt, his controversial time in the Preakness Stakes was recognized as a stakes record in 2012. Secretariat's win in the Gotham Stakes tied the track record for 1 mile, he set a world record in the Marlboro Cup at 1 1⁄8 miles, further proved his versatility by winning two major stakes races on turf, he lost three times that year: in the Wood Memorial and Woodward Stakes, but the brilliance of his nine wins made him an American icon. He won his second Horse of the Year title, plus Eclipse Awards for champion three-year-old colt and champion turf horse. At the beginning of his three-year-old year, Secretariat was syndicated for a record-breaking $6.08 million on condition that he be retired from racing by the end of the year.
Although he sired several successful racehorses, he was most influential through his daughters' offspring, becoming the leading broodmare sire in North America in 1992. His daughters produced several notable sires, including Storm Cat, A. P. Indy, Gone West and Chief's Crown, through them Secretariat appears in the pedigree of many modern champions. Secretariat died in 1989 due to laminitis at age 19, he is recognized as one of the greatest horses in American racing history. Secretariat was bred by Christopher Chenery's Meadow Stud, but the breeding was arranged by Penny Chenery, who had taken over the running of the stable in 1968 when her father became ill. Secretariat was sired by Bold Ruler and his dam was Somethingroyal, a daughter of Princequillo. Bold Ruler was the leading sire in North America from 1963 to 1969 and again in 1973. Owned by the Phipps family, Bold Ruler possessed both speed and stamina, having won the Preakness Stakes and Horse of the Year honors in 1957, American Champion Sprint Horse honors in 1958.
Bold Ruler was retired to stud at Claiborne Farm, but the Phippses owned most of the mares to which Bold Ruler was bred, few of his offspring were sold at public auction. To bring new blood into their breeding program, the Phippses sometimes negotiated a foal-sharing agreement with other mare owners: Instead of charging a stud fee for Bold Ruler, they would arrange for multiple matings with Bold Ruler, either with two mares in one year or one mare over a two-year period. Assuming two foals were produced, the Phipps family would keep one and the mare's owner would keep the other, with a coin toss determining who received first pick. Under such an arrangement, Chenery sent two mares to be bred to Bold Ruler in 1968, Hasty Matelda and Somethingroyal, she sent Cicada and Somethingroyal in 1969. The foal-sharing agreement stated that the winner of the coin toss would get first pick of the foals produced in 1969, while the loser of the toss would get first pick of the foals due in 1970. In the spring of 1969, a colt and filly were produced.
In the 1969 breeding season, Cicada did not conceive, leaving only one foal due in the spring of 1970. Thus, the winner of the coin toss would get only one foal, the loser would get two. Chenery said that both owners hoped they would lose the coin toss, held in the fall of 1969 in the office of New York Racing Association Chairman Alfred G. Vanderbilt II, with Arthur "Bull" Hancock of Claiborne Farm as witness. Ogden Phipps took the 1969 weanling filly out of Somethingroyal; the filly was named The Bride and never won a race, though she did become a stakes producer. Chenery received the Hasty Matelda colt in 1969 and the as-yet-unborn 1970 foal of Somethingroyal, which turned out to be Secretariat. On March 30, 1970, at 12:10 a.m. at the Meadow Stud in Caroline County, Somethingroyal foaled a bright-red chestnut colt with three white socks and a star with a narrow stripe. The foal nursed 30 minutes later. Howard Gentry, the manager of Meadow Stud, was at the foaling and said, "He was a well-made foal.
He was as perfect a foal that I delivered." The colt soon distinguished himself from the others. "He was always the leader in the crowd," said Gentry's nephew, who worked at the farm. "To us, he was Big Red, he had a personality. He was a clown and was always cutting up, always into some devilment." Some time Chenery got her first look at the foal and made a one word entry in her notebook: "Wow!"That fall and Elizabeth Ham, the Me