MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Primal Rock Therapy
Primal Rock Therapy was the only studio album by Seattle grunge band Blood Circus. Sub Pop released it as an EP in 1988, but it was reissued in 1992 with seven extra tracks, including the band's first non-album single and five unreleased tracks from 1989, it was produced by Skin Yard guitarist Jack Endino. Although Blood Circus were one of the original bands on the grunge scene in the late 1980s, Primal Rock Therapy has since been recognized for its historic status as one of the first grunge albums released, at the time of the album's release it was panned by critics and became one of the poorest-selling albums released on Sub Pop. 1. "Road to Hell" 2. "Part of the Crowd" 3. "My Dad's Dead" 4. "Lime Green" 5. "Gnarly" "Two Way Street" - 2:53 "Six Foot Under" - 3:52 "My Dad's Dead" - 2:27 "Lime Green" - 3:00 "Gnarly" - 3:26 "Road to Hell" - 5:10 "Part of the Crowd" - 3:17 "White Dress" - 1:53 "Green Room" - 2:10 "Electric Johnny" - 4:34 "Sea Chanty" - 4:42 "Bloodman" - 3:16 Rolling Stone review of Primal Rock Therapy by Grant Alden Official Blood Circus website
Sludge metal is an extreme style of music that originated through combining elements of doom metal and hardcore punk. It is harsh and abrasive featuring shouted vocals distorted instruments and contrasting tempos. While the Melvins from the US state of Washington laid the groundwork for both sludge metal and grunge in the 1980s, sludge as a distinct genre emerged after 1990 through the work of Louisiana bands such as Eyehategod and Acid Bath, who borrowed from Southern rock. Bands border on stoner rock or post-metal. Sludge metal combines the slow tempos, heavy rhythms and dark, pessimistic atmosphere of doom metal with the aggression, shouted vocals and occasional fast tempos of hardcore punk; as The New York Times put it, "The shorthand term for the kind of rock descending from early Black Sabbath and late Black Flag is sludge, because it's so slow and dense." According to Metal Hammer, sludge metal "pawned from a messy collision of Black Sabbath’s downcast metal, Black Flag’s tortured hardcore and the sub/dom grind of early Swans, shaken up with lashings of cheap whisky and bad pharmaceuticals".
Many sludge bands compose slow-paced songs. Mike Williams, a founder of the sludge style and member of Eyehategod, suggests that "the moniker of sludge has to do with the slowness, the dirtiness, the filth and general feel of decadence the tunes convey". However, some bands emphasize fast tempos throughout their music; the string instruments are down-tuned and distorted and are played with large amounts of feedback to produce a thick yet abrasive sound. Additionally, guitar solos are absent. Drumming is performed in typical doom metal fashion. Drummers may employ hardcore d-beat or double-kick drumming during faster passages, or through the thick breakdowns. Vocals are shouted or screamed, lyrics are pessimistic in nature. Suffering, drug abuse and anger towards society are common lyrical themes. Many sludge metal bands from the Southern United States incorporate Southern rock influences, although not all sludge bands share this style. There is some controversy as to whether the term refers to only the style emerging from New Orleans and the American South more broadly, or to "a complete consciousness in the heads of like-minded Black Flag/Black Sabbath influenced scenes and individuals all over the world".
So-called "atmospheric" sludge bands adopt a more experimental approach and compose music with an ambient atmosphere, reduced aggression and philosophical lyrics. Due to the similarities between sludge and stoner metal, there is a crossover between the two genres, but sludge metal avoids stoner metal's usage of psychedelia. Sludge metal bears some musical and lyrical resemblance to crust punk, due to the usage of political lyrics and thick, "dirty" guitar sounds. Along with Black Sabbath and Black Flag, musicians cited by pioneers of the style as influential include Lynyrd Skynyrd, Celtic Frost, Greg Ginn, Carnivore, Saint Vitus, Righteous Pigs and Swans. Early sludge metal groups borrowed from the industrial music of SPK, Throbbing Gristle and Swans; the beginnings of sludge have been traced to the "slow punk" of Flipper, Swans' 1984 album Cop, Black Flag's album My War, the latter cited as one of the first works in the genre. The most significant influence was Melvins, a band from the state of Washington.
Their earliest releases, Six Songs and Gluey Porch Treatments, are regarded as the first sludge records. At this time, the band was an important member of the Washington grunge scene. Another prominent band from the Washington grunge scene, Alice in Chains have been influential to early sludge metal with their second album Dirt. Neurosis, from Oakland, were significant early practitioners. At the beginning of the 1990s, a number of bands from Louisiana took these influences and developed the style that would be known as sludge Eyehategod and Acid Bath. On the East Coast, Buzzov*en, 16 and Grief adopted a slower-paced approach to the emerging genre. According to Phil Anselmo Back in those days, everything in the underground was fast, fast, it was the rule of the day. But when the Melvins came out with their first record, Gluey Porch Treatments, it broke the mold in New Orleans. People began to appreciate playing slower. With that, all the old Black Sabbath came back around and you start digging and you come to your Saint Vitus, your Witchfinder General, your Pentagram, etc.
Sludge metal subsequently spread throughout Eastern United States. Jose Carlos Santos notes a focus shift as a result of the impact of the British group Iron Monkey's first album in 1997: Coincidence or not, it seemed like the sludge floodgates opened to the rest of the world, in the past decade small pockets, or mini-scenes, can be spotted in just about any country you'd care to mention; these include the Japanese group Corrupted and contemporary American groups such as Dumb Numbers, Lair of the Minotaur, Old Man Gloom and Kylesa. In addition, the U. S. state of Georgia has been identified as a major source of new sludge groups such as Mastodon, Black Tusk, Kylesa. During the late 1990s, many sludge metal bands began to incorporate post-rock elements
The Crocodile is a music club at 2200 2nd Avenue at Blanchard Street in the neighborhood of Belltown in Seattle, United States. Opened as the "Crocodile Cafe" on April 30, 1991 by Stephanie Dorgan, it became a fixture on the local music scene, it closed on December 15, 2007, reopened on March 19, 2009. The venue's first show featured The Posies and Love Battery. During its initial 16-year run, the Croc hosted numerous well-known acts including Mudhoney, Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Sunny Day Real Estate, Mad Season, Green Day, The Strokes, Joanna Newsom, Cheap Trick, Indigo Girls, Robyn Hitchcock, Porcupine Tree, Glenn Tilbrook, Rhonda Vincent, Death Cab for Cutie, Yoko Ono, Ann Wilson, Sleater-Kinney, R. E. M. Soft Boys, Built to Spill, Neutral Milk Hotel, Dinosaur Jr. Beastie Boys, Corinne Bailey Rae, Rachael Yamagata, Kevn Kinney of Drivin N Cryin, Chris Knox, The Presidents of the United States of America, Harvey Danger, who chose the Cafe for their final performance. Mad Season played their first concert at the Crocodile Cafe on October 12, 1994 under the name The Gacy Bunch.
In February 1996, Seattle's Popllama Records released the compilation album Bite Back: Live at the Crocodile Cafe, which featured bands such as The Walkabouts, Girl Trouble and Gas Huffer. After opening the Crocodile Cafe, owner Stephanie Dorgan married R. E. M. Guitarist Peter Buck, who became a partner in the Crocodile. Buck played there with his other band, The Minus 5. Dorgan and Buck divorced in 2006 and the Croc closed unexpectedly in December 2007. Re-openingThe closing of the Crocodile Cafe, a fixture of the local music scene, caused widespread speculation in regard to the future of the establishment. After months of speculation, a group of business people and musicians including Alice in Chains' drummer Sean Kinney, Alice in Chains manager Susan Silver, Peggy Curtis, Portugal; the Man guitarist Eric Howk, Capitol Hill Block Party co-founder Marcus Charles purchased the establishment. The new owners renamed it "The Crocodile" and reopened it on March 19, 2009 after much-needed renovation.
The venue was re-open to the public with two consecutive nights featuring all local bands. In March 2013, Rolling Stone named The Crocodile as one of the best clubs in America, ranked at No. 7. On October 9, 2013, R&B singer JoJo performed "Smells Like Teen Spirit" during the final stop of her West Coast promotional tour, it was a little more than 21 years since Nirvana last performed at the club on October 4, 1992 billed as a "secret opening act" though they did not play "Teen Spirit" despite getting requests to do so, making this one of the few performances of the song at the Crocodile. On August 22, 2018, Alice in Chains sent fans on a Scavenger Hunt to access a secret gig that the band would be performing in Seattle on August 24. Ten signed copies of their latest album Rainier Fog were hidden around the city as a ticket into the show, the band asked the fans to keep an eye on their Instagram story for details on these 10 hidden locations. Once all 10 albums were found, the band revealed that the secret gig would be at The Crocodile with limited tickets available with the purchase of their new album at a pop-up event at the same venue the next day.
On August 23 and 24, 2018, The Crocodile hosted a pop-up shop and retrospective for Alice in Chains featuring rare photos, limited-edition merchandise and music gear that showcased the band's 30+ year career. The admission was free; the Crocodile Cafe is referenced by Canadian singer-songwriter Mae Moore in the song "Fine" from her 1995 Dragonfly LP. Scenes from the 1995 film Georgia starring Jennifer Jason Leigh were shot at the venue. Official website
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Sub Pop 200
Sub Pop 200 is a compilation released in the early days of the Seattle grunge scene. It features songs from Tad, The Fluid, Steven "Jesse" Bernstein, The Walkabouts, Terry Lee Hale, Green River, Blood Circus, Chemistry Set, Girl Trouble, The Nights and Days, Cat Butt, Beat Happening, Screaming Trees, Steve Fisk, The Thrown Ups. Many of these bands went on to be influential in the early 1990s and onwards. Most notable of these were Nirvana, Green River, Screaming Trees, Mudhoney; the cover is an illustration by comics artist Charles Burns, used by Sub Pop for covers and posters around this period. "Sex God Missy" - Tad "Is It Day I'm Seeing?" - The Fluid "Spank Thru" - Nirvana "Come Out Tonight" - Steven J. Bernstein "The Rose" - Mudhoney "Got No Chains" - The Walkabouts "Dead Is Dead" - Terry Lee Hale "Sub Pop Rock City" - Soundgarden "Hangin' Tree" - Green River "Swallow My Pride" - Fastbacks "The Outback" - Blood Circus "Zoo" - Swallow "Underground" - Chemistry Set "Gonna Find a Cave" - Girl Trouble "Split" - The Nights and Days "Big Cigar" - Cat Butt "Pajama Party in a Haunted Hive" - Beat Happening "Love or Confusion" - Screaming Trees "Untitled" - Steve Fisk "You Lost It" - The Thrown Ups Sub Pop 200 was pressed on vinyl as a 3-LP box, but a CD reissue is available and in print.
Sub Pop 100 Sub Pop 1000