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Bloody Sunday (1905)

Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday is the name given to the events of Sunday, 22 January 1905 in St Petersburg, when unarmed demonstrators, led by Father Georgy Gapon, were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. Bloody Sunday caused grave consequences for the Tsarist autocracy governing Imperial Russia: the events in St. Petersburg provoked public outrage and a series of massive strikes that spread to the industrial centres of the Russian Empire; the massacre on Bloody Sunday is considered to be the start of the active phase of the Revolution of 1905. In addition to beginning the 1905 Revolution, historians such as Lionel Kochan in his book Russia in Revolution 1890–1918 view the events of Bloody Sunday to be one of the key events which led to the Russian Revolution of 1917. After the emancipation of the serfs in 1861 by Tsar Alexander II of Russia, there emerged a new peasant working class in Russia's industrializing cities.

Prior to emancipation, no working class could be established because serfs working in the cities to supplement their incomes retained their ties to the land and their masters. Although the working conditions in the cities were horrific, they were only employed for short periods of time and returned to their village when their work was complete or it was time to resume agricultural work; the emancipation of the serfs resulted in the establishment of a permanent working class in urban areas, which created a strain on traditional Russian society. Peasants “were confronted by unfamiliar social relationships, a frustrating regime of factory discipline, the distressing conditions of urban life.” This new group of peasant workers made up the majority of workers in urban areas. Unskilled, these peasants received low wages, were employed in unsafe working environments, worked up to fifteen hours a day. Although some workers still had a paternalistic relationship with their employer, factory employers were more present and active than the noble landowners that had ownership of the serfs.

Under serfdom, peasants had little, if any, contact with their landowner. In the new urban setting, factory employers used their absolute authority in abusive and arbitrary manners, their abuse of power, made evident by the long working hours, low wages, lack of safety precautions, led to strikes in Russia. “The Russian term for strike, was derived from an old colloquial term, stakat’sia- to conspire for a criminal act.” As such, Russian laws viewed strikes as criminal acts of conspiracy and potential catalysts for rebellion. The governmental response to strikes, supported the efforts of the workers and promoted strikes as an effective tool that could be used by the workers to help improve their working conditions. Tsarist authorities intervened with harsh punishment for the leaders and spokesmen of the strike, but the complaints of the strikers were reviewed and seen as justified and the employers were required to correct the abuses about which the strikers protested; these corrections did not address a grossly unbalanced system that favoured the employers.

This caused the continuation of strikes and the first major industrial strike in Russia, which occurred in the year 1870 in St. Petersburg; this new phenomenon was a catalyst to many more strikes in Russia, which increased until they reached a peak between 1884 and 1885 when 4,000 workers went on strike at Morozov's cotton mill. This large strike prompted officials to consider regulations that would restrain the abuses of employers and ensure safety in the workplace. A new law was passed in 1886 that required employers to specify working conditions in their factories in writing; this included the treatment of the workers, the workers' hours, the safety precautions that were taken by the employer. This new law created factory inspectors who were charged with preserving industrial peace. Despite these changes, strike activity again reached high proportions during the 1890s, resulting in the restriction of the workday to eleven and a half hours in 1897. A leading role in these events was played by a priest Father Georgy Gapon.

Fr. Gapon was a charismatic speaker and effective organizer who took an interest in the working and lower classes of the Russian cities; the "Assembly of the Russian Factory and Mill Workers of the City of St. Petersburg", otherwise known as “the Assembly”, had been headed by Fr. Gapon since 1903; the Assembly was patronized by the Department of the St. Petersburg Okhrana; the Assembly's objectives were to defend workers' rights and to elevate their moral and religious status. In the words of Fr. Gapon, this organization served as: …a noble endeavor, under the guidance of Russian educated laymen and clergy, to foster among the workers a sober, Christian view of life and to instill the principle of mutual aid, thereby helping to improve the lives and working conditions of laborers without violent disruption of law and order in their relations with employers and the government; the Assembly served as a type of union for the workers of St. Petersburg. Depicted as conservative in its support of the autocracy, the Assembly was a means of preventing revolutionary influences and appeasing the workers by striving for better conditions and pay.

The Assembly would act as one of the catalysts for what would be known as Bloody Sunday. In December 1904, four workers at the Put

Deutsche Hospitality

Deutsche Hospitality is a German luxury hotel company founded by Albert Steigenberger in 1930. As of 2017, the company owned 116 hotels worldwide. Many of its hotels are located in Germany, however has three hotels in Austria and two in Switzerland. Over the past few years, several hotels were opened or rebranded in Egypt and other Arabic states, such as Dubai, Qatar or Oman. In mid-2009, the Egyptian travel and tourism company Travco Group acquired Steigenberger Hotels. In 2016, the company was rebranded as Deutsche Hospitality. Deutsche Hospitality manages hotels under four brands: Steigenberger Hotels & Resorts MAXX by Steigenberger IntercityHotel Jaz in the CityOn November 5, 2019 it was announced that the Chinese Huazhu Hotels Group through one of their subsidiaries has purchased Deutsche Hospitality, the holding company for the Steigenberger Hotels and include IntercityHotel, Jaz and MAXX. Purchase price was 700 Mill. Euro. Deutsche Hospitality Steigenberger Hotels and Resorts

Stålboga Summer Opera

Stålboga Summer Opera is an annual event staged at the owned Stålboga Manor House on a small peninsula in the lake Eklången 35 kilometers from Eskilstuna and 100 kilometers from Stockholm, Sweden. Stålboga was a well known farm back in the 15th century. In 1560, the farm is included on the road map commissioned by king Gustav I of Sweden. On the earliest known detailed map of the province of Södermanland from 1625 Stålboga is indicated as an iron mill. Stålboga Mill was founded in 1641 and the mansion was erected around this time. On 17 September 1650 Christina, Queen of Sweden issued a nobility letter for Stålboga Mill, which included tax exemption; the preserved document is issued on parchment with a large royal seal. From the late 17th century the land area of the property was 5,000 hectares, with its own blast furnace and iron mine; the mansion burned down in 1870 and was not rebuilt until 1984-85. The mill operation included rod iron forging, Lancashire pig iron and cannonballs, carriages.

A rolling mill was erected in the 19th century, a railway station on the Stockholm to Eskilstuna line was built in the 1890s to promote goods transport from the mill. Mill operations stopped in the 1890s; the forest company Holmen bought Stålboga in 1910. Dr. Juto and his wife Dr. Maria Juto, who died in 2011, bought the central part of the estate with 500 hectares in 1979, they bought and moved the 1680s Tunafors mansion house from Eskilstuna and placed it on the old Stålboga foundation. Dr. Juto, ophthalmologist and an avid classical music fan, decided in 2005 to build a music pavilion on the Stålboga premises with the idea of staging intimate music events of the highest possible standard; as a starting point Dr. Juto was able to acquire the late 18th century state room interiors of the De Geer family's great city palace in Stockholm, razed in 1926 to make way for the new headquarters of Swedish industrialist Ivar Kreuger's match business, the predecessor of Swedish Match; the interiors were designed by the same interior designers that were at the same time designing the interior of the Royal Palace in Stockholm: Jean Eric Rehn, Jean Baptiste Masreliez, Adrien Masreliez, Christoffer Gjörwell and Nicodemus Tessin the Elder.

At the time of construction of the music pavilion the interior decorations had been stored for 80 years at the De Geer family's estate at Lövstabruk. The exterior of the music pavilion is inspired by the orangerie at the Ulriksdal Palace and Gustav III's Pavilion, both near Stockholm; the pavilion was built by the same carpenters who rebuilt the dome of Katarina Church in Stockholm after the fire in 1990, with Swedish timber from Dalarna using 18th century methods, including hand forged nails. The pavilion was developed with advice from the company responsible for the acoustics of the Gothenburg Opera; the Summer Opera started in 2013 as an independent project sponsored by Dr. Juto, the owner of the Stålboga Manor House; the opera concept includes dinner and wine in the ticket price. Given the limited size of the music pavilion, the total number of singers cannot exceed ten at the most; the space available for the orchestra is limited. Management has therefore chosen a repertoire with limited cast and orchestra requirements, has strived to find plots that harmonize with the intimate character of the 17th century interior.

For the first seasons the orchestral part has been played on piano and cembalo, with the piano confined to arias and the cembalo used for the recitative. The productions at Stålboga have included opera singers such as soprano Hillevi Martinpelto, mezzo Katarina Karnéus, the 1995 winner of the biennial BBC Cardiff Singer of the World competition, the young rising star baritone Luthando Qave who made his Metropolitan debut at age 25; the director for the first productions was the former Opera Director of Drottningholm Palace Theatre, Per-Erik Öhrn. In 2016 the Director was Mattias Ermedahl, a soloist baryton at GöteborgsOperan. Official website Swedish Facebook site

Eros and Civilization

Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud is a book by the German philosopher and social critic Herbert Marcuse, in which the author proposes a non-repressive society, attempts a synthesis of the theories of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, explores the potential of collective memory to be a source of disobedience and revolt and point the way to an alternative future. Its title alludes to Its Discontents; the 1966 edition has an added "political preface". One of Marcuse's best known works, the book brought him international fame. Both Marcuse and many commentators have considered it his most important book, it was seen by some as an improvement over the previous attempt to synthesize Marxist and psychoanalytic theory by the psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich. Eros and Civilization helped shape the subcultures of the 1960s and influenced the gay liberation movement, with other books on Freud, such as the classicist Norman O. Brown's Life Against Death and the philosopher Paul Ricœur's Freud and Philosophy, placed Freud at the center of moral and philosophical inquiry.

Some have evaluated Eros and Civilization as superior to Life Against Death, while others have found the latter work superior. It has been suggested that Eros and Civilization reveals the influence of the philosopher Martin Heidegger. Marcuse has been credited with offering a convincing critique of Neo-Freudianism, but critics have accused him of being utopian in his objectives and of misinterpreting Freud's theories. Critics have suggested that his objective of synthesizing Marxist and psychoanalytic theory is impossible. In the "Political Preface" that opens the work, Marcuse writes that the title Eros and Civilization expresses the optimistic view that the achievements of modern industrial society would make it possible to use society's resources to shape "man's world in accordance with the Life Instincts, in the concerted struggle against the purveyors of Death." He concludes the preface with the words, "Today the fight for life, the fight for Eros, is the political fight." Marcuse questions the view of Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, that "civilization is based on the permanent subjugation of the human instincts".

He discusses the social meaning of biology — history seen not as a class struggle, but a fight against repression of our instincts. He argues that "advanced industrial society" is preventing us from reaching a non-repressive society "based on a fundamentally different experience of being, a fundamentally different relation between man and nature, fundamentally different existential relations". Marcuse discusses the views of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Schiller, criticizes the psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose psychology he describes as an "obscurantist neo-mythology", he criticizes the neo-Freudians Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Harry Stack Sullivan, Clara Thompson. Eros and Civilization was first published in 1955 by Beacon Press. In 1974, it was published as a Beacon Paperback. Eros and Civilization received positive reviews from the philosopher Abraham Edel in The Nation and the historian of science Robert M. Young in the New Statesman; the book was reviewed by the anthropologist Clyde Kluckhohn in The New York Times Book Review and discussed by Susan Sontag in The Supplement to the Columbia Spectator.

Discussions include those in Choice by H. N. Tuttle, R. J. Howell, M. A. Bertman; the art critic Roger Kimball discussed the book in The New Criterion. Edel credited Marcuse distinguishing between what portion of the burden repressive civilization places on the fundamental drives is made necessary by survival needs and what serves the interests of domination and is now unnecessary because of the advanced science of the modern world, with suggesting what changes in cultural attitudes would result from relaxation of the repressive outlook. Young called the book important and honest, as well as "serious sophisticated and elegant", he wrote that Marcuse's conclusions about "surplus repression" converted Freud into an "eroticised Marx", credited Marcuse with convincingly criticizing the neo-Freudians Fromm and Sullivan. Though maintaining that both they and Marcuse confused "ideology with reality" and minimized "the biological sphere", he welcomed Marcuse's view that "the distinction between psychological and political categories has been made obsolete by the condition of man in the present era."

Sontag wrote that together with Brown's Life Against Death and Civilization represented a "new seriousness about Freudian ideas" and exposed most previous writing on Freud in the United States as irrelevant or superficial. Tuttle suggested that Eros and Civilization could not be properly understood without reading Marcuse's earlier work Hegel's Ontology and the Theory of Historicity. Howell wrote that the book had been improved upon by C. Fred Alford's Critical Social Theory. Bertman helped make Marcuse influential. Kimball identified Eros and Civilization and One-Dimensional Man as Marcuse's most influential books, wrote that Marcuse's views parallel those of Norman O. Brown, despite the difference of tone between the two thinkers, he dismissed the ideas of both Marcuse and Brown as harmful. Eros and Civilization received a mixed review from the Marxist writer Paul Mattick in Western Socialist; the book was discussed by Stephen J. Whitfield in Dissent. Mattick credited Marcuse with renewing "the endeavor to read Marx into Freud", following the unsuccessful attempts of Wilhelm Reich, agreed with Marcuse that Freudian revisionism is "reformist or non-revolutionary".

However, he wrote that Freud would have

Air War

"Air War" is a single by Crystal Castles. It was released on 17 December 2007 by Trouble Records as a 7" vinyl. An earlier version of the song was released in July 2006 as the B-Side to "Alice Practice" on Merok Records; the lyrics are from the James Joyce book Ulysses in Chapter 11: Sirens. The cover art gathered public interest because of the odd picture of Ethan Kath and Alice Glass with ice cream cones as heads. An official video was released in November 2008 as advertisement of "Toshiba Product Technology: Time Sculpture"; the video was direction by Mitch Stratten with 1 minute duration. The video show an empty room; the advertisement is released for promote Toshiba's high-definition television upscaling technology in the United Kingdom. An original music video was not release; the video was done in 2006 and the producer thrown out the video due to internet leak about the cover art. The video show Ethan Kath & Alice Glass of Crystal Castles walking in the street with ice cream cones head and give people melting ice cream.

The video ends with Ethan and Alice enter the dimension portal and they turn into ice cream cones. The video features a demo version of the song "Air War". Another version of the video, a video mix created by unknown was released on YouTube; the video is a visual mix showing dancing robots, a kid playing game, an 8-bit home computer Commodore VIC-20, a Canadian actor William Shatner, many more. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Air War on YouTube

Peter Adam (filmmaker)

Peter Adam was a British filmmaker and author. Born in Berlin, his work included Eileen Gray: Her Life and Work: The Biography, Outlines: David Hockney, Art of the Third Reich. Adam was born in 1929 in Berlin, the son of Luise and Walter Adam, his family was middle-class. His father was his mother Protestant. In 1944, he moved to Austria, he became a British citizen in 1965 before taking up a career in broadcasting. Adam was an executive producer with the BBC for 22 years, he was the editor of the arts magazines Arena. He was made an Officier des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government. An autobiography, Mémoires à contre-vent, was published in French by Edition La Différence in April 2010 issued in English as Not Drowning But Waving. An Autobiography, his memoirs detailed his friendships with writers. Adam was a close friend of the painters Prunella Clough and Keith Vaughan, contributed much to work on both artists, he was the author of the biography of the architect and designer Eileen Gray, published in England, USA, France and Russia.

He wrote a book on David Hockney titled David Hockney and his Friends. His other books included Kertesz by Eisenstaedt by Eisenstaedt. Adam lived in France, he made over 100 documentaries for BBC Current Affairs and for the Music and Arts Department, among them many prize-winning films: Lawrence Durrell's Spirit of Place: nominated for a British Academy Award for Best Factual Programme of 1976 Richard Strauss Remembered: Golden Award Houston Film Festival for Best Full Length Documentary of 1985 Lotte Lenya and Kurt Weill: Prix Italia selection George Gershwin Remembered: British Academy Nomination for Best Arts Program, 1987. He staged Stravinsky's The Soldier's Tale and Kurt Weill's The Little Mahagonny and Happy End