History of printing
The history of printing starts as early as 3500 BCE, when the Persian and Mesopotamian civilizations used cylinder seals to certify documents written in clay. Other early forms include pottery imprints and cloth printing. Woodblock printing on paper originated in China around 200 CE, it led to the development of movable type in the eleventh century and the spread of book production in East Asia. Woodblock printing was used in Europe, but it was in the fifteenth century that European printers combined movable type and alphabetic scripts to create an economical book publishing industry; this industry enabled the communication of ideas and sharing of knowledge on an unprecedented scale. Alongside the development of text printing and lower-cost methods of image reproduction were developed, including lithography, screen printing and photocopying. Hand stencils, made by blowing pigment over a hand held against a wall, have been found in Asia and Europe dating from over 35,000 years ago, prehistoric dates in other continents.
After that stencilling has been used as a historic painting technique on all kinds of materials. Stencils may have been used to colour cloth for a long time. In Europe, from about 1450 they were used to colour old master prints printed in black and white woodcuts; this was the case with playing-cards, which continued to be coloured by stencil long after most other subjects for prints were left in black and white. Stencils were used for mass publications. In China seals were used since at least the Shang dynasty. In the Western Zhou, sets of seal stamps were encased in blocks of type and used on clay moulds for casting bronzes. By the end of the 3rd century BC seals were used for printing on pottery. In the Northern dynasties textual sources contain references to wooden seals with up to 120 characters; the seals had a religious element to them. Daoists used seals as healing devices by impressing therapeutic characters onto the flesh of sick people, they were used to stamp food, creating a talismanic character to ward off disease.
The first evidence of these practices appeared under a Buddhist context in the mid 5th century. Centuries seals were used to create hundreds of Buddha images. Stone and bronze blocks have been used to print fabric. Archaeological evidence of them have been unearthed at Mawangdui and in the tomb of the King of Nanyue, while block printed fabrics have been discovered at Mashan zhuanchang in Jiangling, Hubei. In the 4th century the practice of creating paper rubbings of stone carvings such as calligraphic models and texts took hold. Among the earliest evidence of this is a stone inscription cut in mirror image from the early 6th century. Woodblock printing, known as xylography today, was the first method of printing applied to a paper medium, it became used throughout East Asia both as a method for printing on textiles and under the influence of Buddhism, on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to about 220. Ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print.
Most European uses of the technique on paper are covered by the term woodcut, except for the block-books produced in the fifteenth century. According to southern Chinese histories, in the 480s, a man named Gong Xuanxuan styled himself Gong the Sage and'said that a supernatural being had given him a "jade seal jade block writing," which did not require a brush: one blew on the paper and characters formed.' He used his powers to mystify a local governor. He was dealt with by the governor's successor, who executed Gong. Timothy Hugh Barrett postulates that Gong's magical jade block was a printing device, Gong was one of the first, if not the first printer; the semi-mythical record of him therefore describes his usage of the printing process to deliberately bewilder onlookers and create an image of mysticism around himself. The rise of printing was influenced by Mahayana Buddhism. According to Mahayana beliefs, religious texts hold intrinsic value for carrying the Buddha's word and act as talismanic objects containing sacred power capable of warding off evil spirits.
By copying and preserving these texts, Buddhists could accrue personal merit. As a consequence the idea of printing and its advantages in replicating texts became apparent to Buddhists, who by the 7th century, were using woodblocks to create apotropaic documents; these Buddhist texts were printed as ritual items and were not circulated or meant for public consumption. Instead they were buried in consecrated ground; the earliest extant example of this type of printed matter is a fragment of a dhāraṇī miniature scroll written in Sanskrit unearthed in a tomb in Xi'an. It is called the Great spell of unsullied pure light and was printed using woodblock during the Tang dynasty, c. 650-670. A similar piece, the Saddharma pundarika sutra, was discovered and dated to 690 to 699; this coincides with the reign of Wu Zetian, under which the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, which advocates the practice of printing apotropaic and merit making texts and images, was translated by Chinese monks. Evidence of woodblock printing appeared in Japan soon afterward.
The Great Dharani Sutra was discovered at Bulguksa, South Korea in 1966 and dated between 704 and 751 in the era of Later Silla. The document is printed on a 8 cm × 630 cm (3.1 in ×
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work; the editing process begins with the author's idea for the work itself, continuing as a collaboration between the author and the editor as the work is created. Editing can involve human relations and a precise set of methods. There are various editorial positions in publishing. One finds editorial assistants reporting to the senior-level editorial staff and directors who report to senior executive editors. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release; the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, executive editor, or the editor. A frequent and regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor.
Mid-level newspaper editors manage or help to manage sections, such as business and features. In U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is the managing editor. In the book publishing industry, editors may organize anthologies and other compilations, produce definitive editions of a classic author's works, organize and manage contributions to a multi-author book. Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an acquisitions editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor. Copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the publishing industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on more substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy and taste. In some positions, they select news stories for inclusion.
At U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may communicate with the printer; these editors may have the title of makeup editor. Within the publishing environment, editors of scholarly books are of three main types, each with particular responsibilities: Acquisitions editor, who contracts with the author to produce the copy Project editor or production editor, who sees the copy through its stages from manuscript to bound book and assumes most of the budget and schedule responsibilities Copy editor or manuscript editor, who prepares the copy for conversion into printed form. In the case of multi-author edited volumes, before the manuscript is delivered to the publisher it has undergone substantive and linguistic editing by the volume's editor, who works independently of the publisher; as for scholarly journals, where spontaneous submissions are more common than commissioned works, the position of journal editor or editor-in-chief replaces the acquisitions editor of the book publishing environment, while the roles of production editor and copy editor remain.
However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of scholarly research articles. Called the authors' editor, this editor works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication; the primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. Most scholarly publishers have a preferred style that specifies a particular dictionary and style manual—for example, the Chicago Manual of Style, the MLA Style Manual or the APA Publication Manual in the US, or the New Hart's Rules in the U. K. Technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Technical editing may include the correction of grammatical mistakes, mistyping, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in usage, poorly structured sentences, wrong scientific terms, wrong units and dimensions, inconsistency in significant figures, technical ambivalence, technical disambiguation, statements conflicting with general scientific knowledge, correction of synopsis, index and subheadings, correcting data and chart presentation in a research paper or report, correcting errors in citations.
Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the technical editing function. Organizations that cannot afford dedicated editors have experienced writers peer-edit text produced by less experienced colleagues, it helps. The "technical" knowledge that an editor gains over time while working on a particular product or technology does give the editor an edge over another who has just started editing content related to that product or technology, but essential general skills are attention to detail, the ability to sustain focus while working through lengthy pieces of text on complex topics, tact in dealing with writers, excellent communication skills. Editing is a growing field of work in the service industry. Paid editing services may be provided by self-employed editors. Editing firms may employ a team of in-house editors, rely on a network of individual contractors or both; such firms are able to handle editing in a wide range of topics and genres, depending on the skills of individual editors
Book censorship is the act of some authority, government or otherwise, taking measures to prevent access to a book or to part of its contents. It can be enacted at the national or subnational level, can carry legal penalties. Books may be challenged at a local community level, although successful bans do not extend outside that area. Religions may issue lists of banned books—a historical example being the Roman Catholic Church's Index Librorum Prohibitorum—which do not always carry legal force. "Almost every country places some restrictions on what may be published, although the emphasis and the degree of control differ from country to country and at different periods." There are a variety of reasons. Materials are suppressed due to the perceived notion of obscenity; this obscenity can apply to materials that are about sexuality, drugs, or social standing. The censorship of literature on the charge of obscenity appears to have begun in the early 19th century; the rise of the middle class, who had evangelical backgrounds, brought about this concern with obscenity.
Governments have sought to ban certain books which they perceive to contain material that could threaten, embarrass, or criticize them. Throughout history, societies practiced various forms of censorship in the belief that the community, as represented by the government, was responsible for molding the individual. Other leaders outside the government have banned books, including religious authorities. Church leaders who prohibit members of their faith from reading the banned books may want to shelter them from perceived obscene, immoral, or profane ideas or situations or from ideas that may challenge the teaching of that religion, but religious materials have been subject to censorship. For example, various scriptures have been banned; the Bible, other religious scriptures have all been subjected to censorship and have been banned by various governments. Books based on the scriptures have been banned, such as Leo Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God Is Within You, banned in the Russian Empire for being anti-establishment.
Banning of a book has the effect of making people seek the book. The action of banning the book creates an interest in the book which has the opposite effect of making the work more popular. Book burning is the practice of destroying ceremonially, books or other written material, it is carried out in public, is motivated by moral, religious, or political objections to the material, with a desire to censor it. Book burning is one of the original types of censorship dating all the way back to 213 BCE. Book burning is another right, protected by the first amendment as a freedom of expression. School boards can not censor books. “The special characteristics of the school library make that environment appropriate for the recognition of First Amendment rights of students.", wrote Justice William Brennan. The case of Board of Education v. Pico is and example of how the school boards can decide which books to not allow in the libraries because of obscenity or otherwise. Burning of books and burying of scholars List of authors and works on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum Freedom of the press Nazi book burnings Bowdlerization Haight, Anne.
Banned books informal notes on some books banned for various reasons at various times and in various places. New York: R. R. Bowker. ISBN 978-0-8352-0204-6. Robert Darnton Censors at Work: How States Shaped Literature W. W. Norton & Company, 2014 ISBN 0393242293 Edwards, M. J.. Christianity, Book-Burning and Censorship in Late Antiquity; the Journal Of Ecclesiastical History, 68, 825-827. Neilson, W. A.. Is Official Censorship of Books Desirable? CON. Congressional Digest, 9, 56-57
The illustration of manuscript books was well established in ancient times, the tradition of the illuminated manuscript thrived in the West until the invention of printing. Other parts of the world had comparable traditions, such as the Persian miniature. Modern book illustration comes from the 15th-century woodcut illustrations that were rapidly included in early printed books, block books. Other techniques such as engraving, etching and various kinds of colour printing were to expand the possibilities and were exploited by such masters as Daumier, Doré or Gavarni. Book illustration as we now know. In the early 15th century, playing cards were created using block printing, the first use of prints in a sequenced and logical order. "The first known European block printings with a communications function were devotional prints of saints." As printing took off and books became common, printers began to use woodcuts to illustrate them. Hence, "centers for woodblock playing-card and religious-print production became centers for illustrated books.
Printers of large early books reused several times, had detachable "plugs" of figures, or the attributes of saints, which they could rearrange within a larger image to make several variations. Luxury books were for a few decades printed with blank spaces for manual illumination in the old way. Unlike techniques, woodcut uses relief printing just as metal moveable type does, so that pages including both text and illustration can be set up and printed together; however the technique either gives rather crude results or was expensive if a high-quality block-cutter was used, could only manage fine detail on atypically large pages. It was not suitable for the level of detail required for maps, for example, the 1477 Bolognese edition of Ptolemy's Cosmographia was both the first book to contain printed maps and the first to be illustrated by engravings rather than woodcuts; however hardly any further engraved illustrations were produced for several decades after about 1490, instead a style of expensive books decorated in metalcut religious and produced in Paris, was a popular luxury product between about 1480 and 1540.
In the middle of the 16th century woodcut was overtaken by the intaglio printing techniques of engraving and etching which became dominant by about 1560-90, first in Antwerp Germany and Italy, the important publishing centres. They remained so until the 19th century, they required the illustrations to be printed separately, on a different type of printing press, so encouraging illustrations that took a whole page, which became the norm. Engraving and etching gave sharper definition and finer detail to the illustrations, became dominant by the late 15th century with the two techniques mixed together in a single plate. A wide range of books were now illustrated mostly on a few pages, but with the number of illustrations rising over the period, tending to use more etching than engraving. Particular kinds of books such as scientific and technical works, children's books, atlases now became heavily illustrated, from the mid-18th century many of the new form of the novel had a small number of illustrations.
Luxury books on geographical topics and natural history, some children's books, had printed illustrations which were coloured by hand, but in Europe none of the experimental techniques for true colour printing became used before the mid-19th century, when several different techniques became successful. In East Asia colour printing with many different woodblocks was increasing used. Lithography allowed for more textual accuracy; this is. New techniques developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries revolutionized book illustrations and put new resources at the disposal of artists and designers. In the early nineteenth century, the photogravure process allowed for photographs to be reproduced in books. In this process, light-sensitive gelatin was used to transfer the image to a metal plate, which would be etched. Another process, chromolithography, developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century, permitted color printing; the process was labor-intensive and expensive though as the artist would have to prepare a separate plate for each color used.
In the late twentieth century, the process known as offset lithography made color printing cheaper and less-time consuming for the artist. The process used a chemical process to transfer a photographic negative to a rubber surface before printing. There were various artistic movements and their proponents in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that took an interest in the enrichment of book design and illustration. For example, Aubrey Beardsley, a proponent of both Art Nouveau and Aestheticism, had a great influence over book illustrations. Beardsley specialized in erotica and some of the best examples of his drawings were for the first English edition of Oscar Wilde's Salomé. Douglas Martin, The Telling Line Essays On Fifteen Contemporary Book Illustrators Edward Hodnett, Five Centuries of English Book Illustration Maurice Sendak, Caldecott & Co.: Notes on Books and Pictures Joyce Irene Whalley and Tessa Rose Chester, A History of Children's Book Illustration Elaine Moss, Part of the Pattern John Lewis, The Twentieth Century Book: Its Illustration and Design (new ed
Jeff Jarvis is an American journalist, public speaker and former television critic. He advocates the Open Web and argues that there are many social and personal benefits to living a more public life on the internet. Jarvis began his career in journalism in 1972 writing for the Addison Herald-Register, a local weekly newspaper at which he was the sole journalist. In 1974 Jarvis was an undergraduate in the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University when he was hired by the Chicago Tribune, he holds a BSJ from Northwestern. In the mid-1980s Jarvis worked as a television critic for People magazines. In 1984, while still at People, Jarvis proposed the idea for Entertainment Weekly, a magazine which he hoped would feature "tough reviews and offbeat subjects" pertaining to the entertainment industry; the first issue was published in February 1990, with Jarvis as creator and managing editor. On June 12 of the same year, Jarvis left the publication. Jarvis is former Sunday editor and associate publisher of the New York Daily News and a former columnist for the San Francisco Examiner.
He was president and creative director of Advance Internet—the online arm of Advance Publications—until 2005. He has consulted for numerous other media companies. In 2005 he became an associate professor at City University of New York's Graduate School of Journalism, directing its new media program. Jarvis is the creator of the popular weblog BuzzMachine, which tracks developments in new media and chronicles some of the author's personal obsessions, such as the fortunes of radio host Howard Stern, he gained national notoriety when he wrote about his negative experiences in dealing with Dell Computer's customer support system on the website. Along with Leo Laporte, Jarvis is a co-host on This Week in Google, a live-streamed podcast show on the TWiT Network which covers Google and cloud computing. In 2009, Jarvis wrote a book called, What Would Google Do? In the book, he argues that companies and individuals should study and copy Google's methods for succeeding at internet entrepreneurship. Jarvis said of the book, "Just as I try to look admiringly from a distance at Google, I include anecdotes and examples from Mark Zuckerberg at Facebook and Craig Newmark at craigslist and Jeff Bezos at Amazon."In 2011, Jarvis published, Public Parts: How Sharing in the Digital Age Improves the Way We Work and Live, in which he defends the openness of the Internet, discusses ways in which the Internet has made modern life public, argues against regulations to protect privacy.
"Public Parts" was reviewed scathingly by fellow Internet scholar, Evgeny Morozov, in the November 3, 2011, issue of The New Republic. In 2012, Jarvis published Gutenberg the Geek, a Kindle Single, in which he suggests that Johannes Gutenberg was "the world's first technology entrepreneur" and was comparable to Steve Jobs because they both "accomplished greatness through trial and error and determination." Jarvis describes himself as "a liberal: a centrist leaning left" and his espoused philosophy falls solidly left. A Democrat, he claims to have voted party-line in most elections. Nonetheless, he notes that he upsets some Democrats for not always agreeing with them and for linking to those with whom they disagree. Jarvis says, why he likes the blogosphere so much: because it allows him to talk with people whose opinions do not align with his views. Jarvis describes himself as "a post-9/11 hawk." Jarvis disapproves of "white-on-white empathy" and "white smugness". On Monday, August 10, 2009, Jarvis announced on his blog that he had been diagnosed with prostate cancer.
The cancer was subsequently treated by robotic surgery. He was pronounced "cured" as the cancer was contained in the prostate and had not spread to other organs, his public revelation and reporting of his condition was motivated by, in his words, the hope "to be one more guy to convince you men to get your PSA checked: a small mitzvah in return for my luck."He is married to Tammy. Jarvis has gephyrophobia, which he was diagnosed with in this twenties. Jarvis is the subject of a popular Twitter parody account, @ProfJeffJarvis, curated by Rurik Bradbury; the parody account has been enthusiastically received among many in media circles with over 30,000 followers. "I chose Jarvis because he epitomizes a certain type of'thinkfluencer,' " Bradbury explains, "someone with an online influence massively greater than the thoughtfulness of his positions. It's all style and rhetorical flourishes which don't stand up to scrutiny—but do grab attention." Jarvis is not a fan of @ProfJeffJarvis, calling Bradbury, "my minor tormentor, my idiot imposter, my personal troll."
He declined to pursue further action. BuzzMachine.com Jeff Jarvis on Twitter Jarvis' audio account of his personal experience of the attack on the World Trade Center The World Trade Center Tragedy: An eyewitness account, Jarvis' written account of 9/11 BusinessWeek podcast with Jarvis, about Recovery 2.0, September 2005 Jeff Jarvis, On the Inside, Blogging Out, Washington Post article, May 2005 Corante.com interview with Jarvis in The Future of Digital Media series, November 2004 Criticism of Jeff Jarvis' credentials as "Web Guru," by Ron Rosenbaum, Nov. 11, 2008 Cover story about Jeff Jarvis as a "Web Guru," by John Koblin, The New York Observer, Nov. 25, 2008 Conversation with Jeff Jarvis, Intruders tv, May 5, 2009 Video Interview in Italian, Il Sole 24 Ore Interview with Jeff Jarvis: Social Media Challenges International Organizations by Joerg Wolf, Atlantic Community
Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either attached to stiff boards. An attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can greatly enhance a book's content by creating book-like objects with artistic merit of exceptional quality. Before the computer age, the bookbinding trade involved two divisions. First, there was Stationery binding that deals with books intended for handwritten entries such as accounting ledgers, business journals, blank books, guest log books, along with other general office stationery such as note books, manifold books, day books, portfolios, etc.
Computers have now replaced the pen and paper based accounting that constituted most of the stationery binding industry. Second was Letterpress binding which deals with making books intended for reading, including library binding, fine binding, edition binding, publisher's bindings. A third division deals with the repair and conservation of old used bindings. Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions; the size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, to large-run publisher's binding. There are cases where binding jobs are combined in one shop. For the largest numbers of copies, commercial binding is effected by production runs of ten thousand copies or more in a factory.
Bookbinding is a specialized trade that relies on basic operations of measuring and gluing. A finished book might need dozens of operations to complete, according to the specific style and materials. Bookbinding combines skills from other trades such as paper and fabric crafts, leather work, model making, graphic arts, it requires knowledge about numerous varieties of book structures along with all the internal and external details of assembly. A working knowledge of the materials involved is required. A book craftsman needs a minimum set of hand tools but with experience will find an extensive collection of secondary hand tools and items of heavy equipment that are valuable for greater speed and efficiency. Bookbinding is an artistic craft of great antiquity, at the same time, a mechanized industry; the division between craft and industry is not so wide. It is interesting to observe that the main problems faced by the mass-production bookbinder are the same as those that confronted the medieval craftsman or the modern hand binder.
The first problem is still. The craft of bookbinding originated in India, where religious sutras were copied on to palm leaves with a metal stylus; the leaf was dried and rubbed with ink, which would form a stain in the wound. The finished leaves were given numbers, two long twines were threaded through each end through wooden boards, making a palm-leaf book; when the book was closed, the excess twine would be wrapped around the boards to protect the manuscript leaves. Buddhist monks took the idea through Afghanistan to China in the first century BC. Similar techniques can be found in ancient Egypt where priestly texts were compiled on scrolls and books of papyrus. Another version of bookmaking can be seen through the ancient Mayan codex. Writers in the Hellenistic-Roman culture wrote longer texts as scrolls. Court records and notes were written on wax tablets, while important documents were written on papyrus or parchment; the modern English word book comes from the Proto-Germanic *bokiz, referring to the beechwood on which early written works were recorded.
The book was not needed in ancient times, as many early Greek texts—scrolls—were 30 pages long, which were customarily folded accordion-fashion to fit into the hand. Roman works were longer, running to hundreds of pages; the Greeks used to call their books tome, meaning "to cut". The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a massive 200 pages long and was used in funerary services for the deceased. Torah scrolls, editions of the Jewish holy book, were—and still are—also held in special holders when read. Scrolls can be rolled in one of two ways; the first method is to wrap the scroll around a single core, similar to a modern roll of paper towels. While simple to construct, a single core scroll has a major disadvantage: in order to read text at the end of the scroll, the entire scroll must be unwound; this is overcome in the second method, to wrap the scroll around two cores, as in a Torah. With a double scroll, the text can be accessed from both beginning and end, th