A bloomery is a type of furnace once used for smelting iron from its oxides. The bloomery was the earliest form of smelter capable of smelting iron. A bloomery's product is a porous mass of slag called a bloom; this mix of slag and iron in the bloom is termed sponge iron, consolidated and further forged into wrought iron. The bloomery has now been superseded by the blast furnace, which produces pig iron. A bloomery consists of a chimney with heat-resistant walls made of earth, clay, or stone. Near the bottom, one or more pipes enter through the side walls; these pipes, called tuyeres, allow air to enter the furnace, either by natural draught, or forced with bellows or a trompe. An opening at the bottom of the bloomery may be used to remove the bloom, or the bloomery can be tipped over and the bloom removed from the top; the first step taken before the bloomery can be used is the preparation of the charcoal and the iron ore. The charcoal is produced by heating wood to produce the nearly pure carbon fuel needed for the smelting process.
The ore is broken into small pieces and roasted in a fire to remove any moisture in the ore. Any large impurities in the ore can be removed. Since slag from previous blooms may have a high iron content, it can be broken up and recycled into the bloomery with the new ore. In operation, the bloomery is preheated by burning charcoal, once hot, iron ore and additional charcoal are introduced through the top, in a one-to-one ratio. Inside the furnace, carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of the charcoal reduces the iron oxides in the ore to metallic iron, without melting the ore; as the desired product of a bloomery is iron, forgeable, it requires a low carbon content. The temperature and ratio of charcoal to iron ore must be controlled to keep the iron from absorbing too much carbon and thus becoming unforgeable. Cast iron occurs when the iron absorbs 2 % to 4 % carbon; because the bloomery is self-fluxing the addition of limestone is not required to form a slag. The small particles of iron produced in this way fall to the bottom of the furnace, where they combine with molten slag consisting of fayalite, a compound of silicon and iron mixed with other impurities from the ore.
The mixed iron and slag cool to form a spongy mass referred to as the bloom. Because the bloom is porous, its open spaces are full of slag, the bloom must be reheated and beaten with a hammer to drive the molten slag out of it. Iron treated this way is said to be wrought, the resulting iron, with reduced amounts of slag is called wrought iron or bar iron, it is possible to produce blooms coated in steel by manipulating the charge of and air flow to the bloomery. As the era of modern commercial steelmaking began, the word bloom was extended to another sense referring to an intermediate-stage piece of steel, of a size comparable to many traditional iron blooms, ready to be further worked into billet; the onset of the Iron Age in most parts of the world coincides with the first widespread use of the bloomery. While earlier examples of iron are found, their high nickel content indicates that this is meteoric iron. Other early samples of iron may have been produced by accidental introduction of iron ore in bronze smelting operations.
Iron appears to have been smelted in the West as early as 3000 BC, but bronze smiths, not being familiar with iron, did not put it to use until much later. In the West, iron began to be used around 1200 BC. China has long been considered the exception to the general use of bloomeries, it was thought that the Chinese skipped the bloomery process starting with the blast furnace and the finery forge to produce wrought iron: by the 5th century BC, metalworkers in the southern state of Wu had invented the blast furnace and the means to both cast iron and to decarburize the carbon-rich pig iron produced in a blast furnace to a low-carbon, wrought iron-like material. Recent evidence, shows that bloomeries were used earlier in China, migrating in from the west as early as 800 BC, before being supplanted by the locally developed blast furnace. Supporting this theory was the discovery of'more than ten' iron digging implements found in the tomb of Duke Jing of Qin, whose tomb is located in Fengxiang County, Shaanxi.
Smelting in bloomery type furnaces in West Africa and forging of tools appeared in the Nok culture by 500 BC. The earliest records of bloomery-type furnaces in East Africa are discoveries of smelted iron and carbon in Nubia and Axum that dated to between 1,000–500 BC. In Meroe there are known to have been ancient bloomeries that produced metal tools for the Nubians and Kushites and produced a surplus for sale. Early European bloomeries were small, smelting less than 1 kg of iron with each firing. Progressively larger bloomeries were constructed in the late 14th century, with a capacity of about 15 kg on average, though exceptions did exist; the use of waterwheels to power the bellows allowed the bloomery to become hotter. European average bloom sizes rose to 300 kg, where they levelled off until the demise of the bloomery; as a bloomery's size is increased, the iron ore is exposed to burning charcoal for a longer time. When combined with the strong air blast required to penetrate the large ore and charcoal stack, this may cause part of the iron to melt and become saturated with carbon in the process, producing unforgeable pig iron which requires oxidation to be reduced into cast iron and iron.
This pig iron was considered
The Northwestern Turnpike is a historic road in West Virginia, important for being one of the major roads crossing the Appalachians, financed by the Virginia Board of Public Works in the 1830s. In modern times, west of Winchester, Virginia, U. S. Route 50 follows the path of the Northwestern Turnpike into West Virginia, whose major Corridor D project follows the western section of the original Northwestern Turnpike; the following description of the Northwestern Turnpike is taken from Dr. J. M. Callahan's Semi-Centennial History of West Virginia, pages 106-9, published in 1913: "The old Northwestern Turnpike, extending from Winchester, Virginia on a general westward course to Parkersburg, West Virginia on the Ohio, is a historic highway which deserves more mention than it has received as a factor related to the American westward movement and to the problem of communication between East and West, it was the inevitable result of the call of the West and the need of a Virginia state road." "Perhaps its first suggestion was recorded by George Washington, who in 1758 had been the champion of the Braddock road and who in 1784 sought a route located wholly in Virginia.
Returning from a visit to his western lands, after following McCulloch's Path, he crossed the North Branch Potomac River on the future route of the greater Virginia highway, realized in the'state road' authorized from Winchester via Romney to Morgantown before 1786, extended westward in 1786 by a branch road from near Cheat to Clarksburg, from which the first road was marked to the mouth of the Little Kanawha River between 1788 and 1790." "The turnpike was planned and constructed by Virginia as a result of the rival activities of New York and Maryland to secure the advantage in transportation facilities for the trade of the West. It was built across the Appalachian Divide with the hope of securing commercial superiority, was the main thoroughfare between East and West through northern Virginia." "The act in incorporation of 1827, authorizing subscriptions at Winchester, Moorefield, Kingwood, Pruntytown and Parkersburg made the mistake of arbitrarily locating the route through important towns without proper consideration of the physical features of the country.
After finding a way through Hampshire County via Mechanicsburg Gap in Mill Creek Mountain, pushing on into Preston County, the engineers encountered insurmountable obstacles to the Kingwood route, causing the stock to languish." "The enterprise was saved by the remarkable act of 1831 which organized a road company, with the Governor as President and one of the Board of Directors, with power to borrow money on the credit of the State to construct a turnpike road of a minimum width of twelve feet,'from Winchester to some point on the Ohio River to be situated by the principal engineer', with the right to erect bridges or to regulate ferries in existence and to establish toll-gates on each twenty-mile section completed." "The chief engineer was Col. Claudius Crozet, a French officer of artillery under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Russian campaign, professor of engineering in the United States Military Academy from 1816 to 1823, he was assisted by Charles B. Shaw." "The chosen route was through Hampshire County, West Virginia, Mineral County, West Virginia, Grant County, West Virginia, Garrett County, Preston County, West Virginia, Taylor County, West Virginia, Harrison County, West Virginia, Doddridge County, West Virginia, Ritchie County, West Virginia, Wood County, West Virginia.
In Hampshire County it was established via Capon Bridge, Hanging Rock, Pleasant Dale, Augusta to Romney, west of which it crossed the South Branch Potomac River. Through Mineral it passed via Burlington, thence westward across Patterson Creek, through Ridgeville on the divide to New Creek which it crossed at Rees' tannery. Turning toward the southwest, it crossed the North Branch Potomac River southwest of the present town of Gormania and entered the southwest corner of Maryland through which it passed for eight and three-fourths miles, crossing the Alleghenies and emerging into Preston east of the German settlement, it passed across the picturesque Cheat Valley south of Rowlesburg, via Fellowsville, Thornton, Grafton and Bridgeport to Clarksburg, thence over the summit via the head of Ten Mile Creek to Salem, thence across Middle Island Creek at West Union and via Tollgate, Ellenboro, the head of Goose Creek, Murphytown to Parkersburg. Much of the route passed through a vast wilderness interspersed here and there by a few old settlements and towns."
"No longer dependent on the larger towns for its success, the road was completed through the wilds of Preston south of Kingwood, in 1832, was opened westward to Clarksburg and Parkersburg by 1838. Its construction cost $400,000, it crossed the mountains by the larger streams by good bridges. It was macadamized from Tygart Valley River to Parkersburg in 1848. About 1852, it was further improved by construction of new bridges across several streams at important crossings. In 1840, facilities for travel and news were increased on the western end of the road by the establishment of a daily line of stages, a regular mail se
Berkeley County, West Virginia
Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. The county is part of MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the county population was 104,169, making it the second-most populous of West Virginia's 55 counties, behind Kanawha. The City of Martinsburg is the county seat. Created on May 15, 1772 by an act of House of Burgesses from the northern third of Frederick County when it was part of Virginia, Berkeley County became West Virginia's second oldest county after the Mountain State was admitted to the Union in 1863 during the American Civil War. At the time of the county's formation, Berkeley County comprised areas that now are part of present-day Jefferson and Morgan counties in West Virginia. Most historians believe the county was named for Norborne Berkeley, Baron de Botetourt, Colonial Governor of Virginia from 1768 to 1770. West Virginia's Blue Book, for example, indicates, he served as a colonel in England's North Gloucestershire militia in 1761, represented that division of the county in parliament until he was made a peer in 1764.
Having incurred heavy gambling debts, he solicited a government appointment and in July 1768, was made governor of Virginia. In 1769, he reluctantly dissolved the House of Burgesses after it adopted resolutions opposing parliament's replacement of requisitions with parliamentary taxes as a means of generating revenue and a requirement the colonists send accused criminals to England for trial. Despite his differences with the House of Burgesses, Berkeley was well respected by the colonists after he sent Parliament letters encouraging it to repeal the taxes; when Parliament refused to rescind them, Governor Berkeley requested to be recalled. In appreciation of his efforts, the colonists erected a monument to his memory which stands in Williamsburg, two counties were named in his honor: Berkeley in present-day West Virginia and Botetourt in Virginia. Other historians claim Berkeley County may have been named in honor of Sir William Berkeley, born near London, graduated from Oxford University in 1629 and was appointed Governor of Virginia in 1642.
He served as Governor until 1652 and was reappointed Governor in 1660. Berkeley presided over the colony during Bacon’s Rebellion of 1676, was called back to England the following year. According to missionary reports, several thousand Hurons occupied present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle region, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. During the 17th century, the Iroquois Confederacy drove the Hurons from the state; the Iroquois Confederacy was headquartered in New York and was not interested in occupying present-day West Virginia. Instead, they used it as a hunting ground during the summer months. During the early 18th century, West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle region was inhabited by the Tuscarora, they migrated northward into New York and, in 1712, became the sixth nation to be formally admitted into the Iroquois Confederacy. The Eastern Panhandle region was used as a hunting ground by several other Indian tribes, including the Shawnee who resided near present-day Winchester and Moorefield, West Virginia until 1754 when they migrated into Ohio.
The Mingo, who resided in the Tygart Valley and along the Ohio River in present-day West Virginia's Northern Panhandle region, the Delaware, who lived in present-day eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware, but had several autonomous settlements as far south as present-day Braxton County used the area as a hunting ground. Following the French and Indian War, the Mingo retreated to their homes along the banks of the Ohio River and were seen in the Eastern Panhandle region. Although the French and Indian War was over, many Indians continued to view the British as a threat to their sovereignty and continued to fight them. In the summer of 1763, Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, led raids on key British forts in the Great Lakes region. Shawnee chief Keigh-tugh-qua known as Cornstalk, led similar attacks on western Virginia settlements, starting with attacks in present-day Greenbrier County and extending northward to Berkeley Springs, into the northern Shenandoah Valley. By the end of July, Indians had destroyed or captured all British forts west of the Alleghenies except Fort Detroit, Fort Pitt, Fort Niagara.
The uprisings were ended on August 6, 1763 when British forces, under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet, defeated Delaware and Shawnee forces at Bushy Run in western Pennsylvania. During the American Revolutionary War, the Mingo and Shawnee, headquartered at Chillicothe, allied themselves with the British. In 1777, a party of 350 Wyandots and Mingos, armed by the British, attacked Fort Henry, near present-day Wheeling. Nearly half of the soldiers manning the fort were killed in the three-day assault; the Indians left the area celebrating their victory. For the remainder of the war, smaller raiding parties of Mingo and other Indian tribes terrorized settlers throughout northern and eastern West Virginia; as a result, European settlement throughout present-day West Virginia, including the Eastern Panhandle, came to a virtual standstill until the war's conclusion. Following the war, the Mingo and Shawnee, once again allied with the losing side, returned to their homes; as the number of settlers in present-day West Virginia began to grow, both the Mingo and Shawnee moved further inland, leaving their traditional hunting ground to the white settlers.
In 1670, John Lederer, a German physician and explorer employed by S
West Virginia Route 29
West Virginia Route 29 is a north–south state highway located in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. The southern terminus of the route is at West Virginia Route 55 and West Virginia Route 259 in Baker, Hardy County; the northern terminus is at West Virginia Route 9 three miles south of Paw Paw in Hampshire County. From Rio to Hanging Rock, WV 29 is named Delray Road for the community of Delray; this stretch was known as North River Road for the river it parallels. From Hanging Rock to the Augusta WV 29 wye fork, WV 29 runs concurrent with U. S. is referred to as the Northwestern Turnpike. From the Augusta WV 29 wye fork to the Forks of Cacapon West Virginia Route 127 wye fork, WV 29 is named the Bloomery Pike for Bloomery on WV 127; this route was known as the Martinsburg Grade. Rio Mall, Rio Richards-Mowery House, Delray Pin Oak Fountain, Pin Oak
Frederick County, Virginia
Frederick County is located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 78,305, its county seat is Winchester. The county was formed in 1743 by the splitting of Orange County, it is Virginia's northernmost county. Frederick County is included in the Winchester, VA-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Washington-Baltimore-Northern Virginia, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area; the area that would become Frederick County, Virginia was inhabited and transited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European colonization. The "Indian Road" refers to a historic pathway made by local tribes. Colonization efforts began with the Virginia Company of London, but European settlement did not flourish until after the company lost its charter and Virginia became a royal colony in 1624. In order to stimulate migration to the colony, the headright system was used. Under this system, those who funded an emigrant's transportation costs were compensated with land.
During the early 17th century, King Charles II granted several acres of colonial Virginia lands to “seven loyal supporters,” including Lord Fairfax. This passed to Thomas Fairfax, 5th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who married the daughter of Thomas Colepeper, who owned several acres of land. After their son, Lord Thomas Fairfax, inherited the combined grants, he controlled over 5,000,000 acres of land in Virginia, including much of the land that became Frederick County. Frederick County was created from Orange County in 1738, was organized in 1743; the Virginia Assembly named the new county for Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of King George II of Great Britain. At that time, "Old Frederick County" encompassed all or part of four counties in present-day Virginia and five in present-day West Virginia: Hampshire, created 1754 Dunmore, created 1772 and renamed Shenandoah in 1778 Berkeley, created 1772 Hardy, created 1786 Jefferson, created 1801 Morgan, created 1820 Page, created 1831 Clarke, created 1836 Warren, created 1836 As Commander-in-Chief of the new Colonial Virginia regiment in 1754, Colonel George Washington's headquarters were located in Winchester before and during the French and Indian War.
He resigned from military service in 1758. Meanwhile, Washington represented Frederick County in his first elective office, having been elected to the House of Burgesses in 1758 and 1761. Daniel Morgan was another famous General during the American Revolutionary War, from. Winchester changed hands between the Confederate and Union Armies on average once every three weeks during the war. Many battles were fought in Frederick County; some of those battles include: First Battle of Kernstown, March 1862 First Battle of Winchester, May 1862 Second Battle of Winchester, June 1863 Second Battle of Kernstown, July 1864 Third Battle of Winchester, September 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek, October 1864The first constitution of West Virginia provided for Frederick County to be added to the new state if approved by a local election. Unlike those of neighboring Berkeley and Jefferson counties, Frederick County residents voted to remain in Virginia despite being occupied by the Union Army at the time. Four types of mineral water springs occur on the land that would be named Rock Enon Springs.
The area was once called Capper Springs, named for area settler John Capper. William Marker bought the 942 acres in 1856 and built a hotel, the first building of the Rock Enon Springs Resort, that survived the American Civil War. On March 24, 1899 the Shenandoah Valley National Bank purchased the property for $3,500. During the summer of 1914 botanists found polypodium vulgare, phegopteris hexagonoptera, adiantum pedatum, pteris aquilina, cheilanthes lanosa on the property; the idea that soaking in the spring water had medical value was a large part of the tourism. In 1944, when that healing idea was no longer accepted as true, the Glaize family sold the property to the Shenandoah Area Council who turned what was once a resort into Camp Rock Enon. In 1944 the 5 acres Miller Lake was created by adding a 200 feet earth dam across Laruel Run using equipment owned by the Federal Fish Hatchery in Leestown. In 1958 "walnut and persimmon trees" were planted on the property. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 416 square miles, of which 414 square miles is land and 2 square miles is water.
This is the northernmost county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Cedar Creek and Belle Grove National Historical Park George Washington National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 59,209 people, 22,097 households, 16,727 families residing in the county; the population density was 143 people per square mile. There were 23,319 housing units at an average density of 56/square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.99% White, 2.62% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. 1.70 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 22,097 households out of which 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.30% were non-families. 19.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Bloomery, Hampshire County, West Virginia
Bloomery is an unincorporated community in Hampshire County in the U. S. state of West Virginia. Bloomery is located along the Bloomery Pike, northwest of Virginia. According to the 2000 census, the Bloomery community has a population of 321. Bloomery was named for its one-time importance as a center of bloomeries for iron smelting; the first of Bloomery's iron furnaces was constructed in 1770. In 1814, a post office was established here. With the exception of the past two decades, the majority of Bloomery's residences were constructed prior to the American Civil War. Bloomery Grist Mill, Bloomery Pike Bloomery Presbyterian Church, Bloomery Pike Bloomery School, Sandy Hollow Road Fawcett House, Bloomery Pike Hatch House, Smokey Hollow Road Old Bloomery Iron Furance, Bloomery Pike Media related to Bloomery, Hampshire County, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons Bloomery Was an Industrial Village