John Constantine Unitas, nicknamed "Johnny U" and "The Golden Arm", was an American football player in the National Football League. He spent the majority of his career playing for the Baltimore Colts, he was a record-setting quarterback, the NFL's most valuable player in 1959, 1964, 1967. For 52 years, he held the record for most consecutive games with a touchdown pass, until broken in 2012 by Drew Brees. Unitas was the prototype of the modern era marquee quarterback, with a strong passing game, media fanfare, widespread popularity, he has been listed as one of the greatest NFL players of all time. John Constantine Unitas was born in Pittsburgh in 1933 to Francis J. Unitas and Helen Superfisky, both of Lithuanian descent; when Unitas was five years old, his father died of cardiovascular renal disease complicated by pneumonia, leaving the young boy to be raised by his mother, who worked two jobs to support the family. His surname was a result of a phonetic transliteration of a common Lithuanian last name Jonaitis.
Attending St. Justin's High School in Pittsburgh, Unitas played quarterback. In his younger years, Unitas dreamed about being part of the Notre Dame Fighting Irish football team, but when he tried out for the team, coach Frank Leahy said that he was just too skinny and he would "get murdered" if he was put on the field. Instead, he attended the University of Louisville. In his four-year career as a Louisville Cardinal, Unitas completed 245 passes for 3,139 yards and 27 touchdowns; the 6 ft 1 in Unitas weighed 145 pounds pounds on his first day of practice. His first start was in the fifth game of the 1951 season against St. Bonaventure, where he threw 11 consecutive passes and three touchdowns to give the Cardinals a 21–19 lead. Louisville ended up losing the game 22–21 on a disputed field goal, but found a new starting quarterback. Unitas completed 12 of four touchdowns in a 35 -- 28 victory over Houston; the team finished the season 5 -- 4 -- 1 with Unitas starting. He completed 46 of 99 passes for nine touchdowns.
By the 1952 season, the university decided to de-emphasize sports. The new president at Louisville, Dr. Philip Grant Davidson, reduced the amount of athletic aid, tightened academic standards for athletes; as a result, 15 returning players lost their scholarships. But Unitas maintained his by taking on a new elective: square dancing. In 1952, coach Frank Camp switched the team to two-way football. Unitas not only played safety or linebacker on defense and quarterback on offense, but returned kicks and punts on special teams; the Cardinals won their first game against Wayne State, Florida State in the second game. Unitas completed 16 of 21 passes for 198 yards and three touchdowns, it was said that Unitas put on such a show at the Florida State game that he threw a pass under his legs for 15 yards. The rest of the season was a struggle for the Cardinals, who finished 3–5. Unitas completed 106 of 198 passes for 12 touchdowns; the team won their first game in 1953, against Murray State, lost the rest for a record of 1–7.
One of the most memorable games of the season came in a 59–6 loss against Tennessee. Unitas completed 9 out of 19 passes for 73 yards, rushed 9 times for 52 yards, returned six kickoffs for 85 yards, one punt for three yards, had 86 percent of the team's tackles; the only touchdown the team scored was in the fourth quarter when Unitas made a fake pitch to the running back and ran the ball 23 yards for a touchdown. Unitas was hurt in the fourth quarter while trying to run the ball. On his way off the field, he received a standing ovation; when he got to the locker room he was so worn that his jersey and shoulder pads had to be cut off because he could not lift his arms. Louisville ended the season with a 20–13 loss to Eastern Kentucky. Unitas completed 49 of 95 passes for three touchdowns. Unitas was elected captain for the 1954 season, but due to an early injury did not see much playing time, his first start was the third game of the season, against Florida State. Of the 34-man team, 21 were freshmen.
The 1954 Cardinals went 3–6, with their last win at home against Morehead State. Unitas was slowed by so many injuries his senior year his 527 passing yards ended second to Jim Houser's 560. After his collegiate career, the Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL drafted Unitas in the ninth round. However, he was released before the season began as the odd man out among four quarterbacks trying to fill three spots. Steelers' head coach Walt Kiesling had made up his mind about Unitas. Among those edging out Unitas was Ted Marchibroda, future longtime NFL head coach. Out of pro football, Unitas—by this time married—worked in construction in Pittsburgh to support his family. On the weekends, he played quarterback and punter on a local semi-professional team called the Bloomfield Rams for $6 a game. In 1956, Unitas joined the Baltimore Colts of the NFL under legendary coach Weeb Ewbank, after being asked at the last minute to join Bloomfield Rams lineman Jim Deglau, a Croatian steel worker with a life much like Unitas, at the latter's scheduled Colts tryout.
The pair borrowed money from friends to pay for the gas to make the trip. Deglau told a reporter after Unitas's death, " uncle told him not to come. Was worried that if he came down and the Colts passed on him, it would look bad." The Colts signed Unitas, much to the chagrin of the Cleveland Browns, who had h
Dyker Heights, Brooklyn
Dyker Heights is an affluent residential neighborhood in the southwest corner of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. It is on a hill between Bay Ridge, Borough Park, Gravesend Bay; the neighborhood is bounded by 7th and 14th Avenues, 65th Street, the Belt Parkway on the west, east and south, respectively. Dyker Heights has a suburban character with detached and semi-detached one-and two-family homes, many of which have driveways and private yards, which are uncommon in parts of New York City; the neighborhood contains tree-lined streets, there are few apartment buildings. Dyker Heights can be divided in three sections; the southernmost section, south of 86th Street and east of 7th Avenue, contains Dyker Beach Park and Golf Course. The central section between Bay Ridge Parkway and 86th Street, between 14th Avenue and Fort Hamilton Parkway, is more exclusive in character; the northern border of the neighborhood is more integrated with surrounding areas. The Dyker Heights Civic Association, founded in 1928, is a civic group that represents the community's interests.
The area as a whole is known for its Christmas lighting displays, which are elaborate. Dyker Heights originated as a speculative luxury housing development in October 1895 when Walter Loveridge Johnson developed a portion of woodland into a suburban community, it maintained its status as a wealthy neighborhood through the 20th century. During the height of his development, the boundaries were between Tenth Avenue and Thirteenth Avenue and from 79th Street to 86th Street; the finest homes of the development were situated along the top of the 110-foot hill, at about Eleventh Avenue and 82nd Street. Dyker Heights is part of Brooklyn Community District 10 and its primary ZIP Code is 11228, it is patrolled by the 68th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 43rd District; the neighborhood of Dyker Heights lies within the boundaries of the then-Dutch town of New Utrecht settled in 1657. The area, now known as Dyker Heights was not developed in the 17th or 18th centuries because the land was too sloped for farming.
The trees of this forest were used by the townsfolk as a source of firewood and construction material. When the agricultural industry of New Utrecht changed from the farming grains to the cultivation of market garden produce, the trees were cleared for tomatoes and potatoes, among other produce; the first house built at the top of the hill was built in the late 1820s by Brigadier General René Edward De Russy of the US Army. De Russy was a military engineer who built many forts in the US – from the Canada–US border and the eastern seaboard to the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific coast – including Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn. Since this was the tallest natural point in southwest Brooklyn, he built his homestead here – it afforded a clear view of the harbor and its defenses Fort Hamilton, complete by November 1831. De Russy died in 1865 and his wife, sold the property in 1888 to Jane Elisabeth Loveridge and Frederick Henry Johnson. According to the Brooklyn Eagle, Frederick Johnson did "much toward developing the locality in which he resided.
He was the author of the original New Utrecht Improvement Bill, an ardent advocate of the annexation of the Town to this City." The Town of New Utrecht was annexed to the City of Brooklyn on July 1, 1894. On January 1, 1898, the City of Brooklyn was annexed to the City of New York. Involved with real estate, Johnson was aware of the real estate pressures on and potential of the real estate in New Utrecht. With this in mind, he most purchased the De Russy estate with the intention of building an upscale residential neighborhood similar to Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea, built by James D. Lynch in 1880–1890 in the Bath Beach section of New Utrecht. At that time, the Real Estate Record claimed Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea was "the most developed suburb laid out around New York." The restrictions placed upon the property made Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea "a model settlement, where some of the most refined and cultured of New York City and Brooklyn's citizens have built their homes."Following Johnson's death on August 15, 1893 at the age of 52, his second son, Walter Loveridge Johnson, took over the real estate business and by October 1895 started Dyker Heights on his parents' property.
Johnson named his development "Dyker Heights" after the Dyker Meadow and Beach, which his development overlooks. The meadow and beach received their name from either the Van Dykes who built the dykes to drain the meadow, or for the dykes that the Van Dykes built. Johnson was able to develop this portion of New Utrecht woodland into a residential community by making necessary improvements to it. In 1890, the only roads present were Kings Highway, 86th Street, Denyse's Lane, a small unnamed road near Tenth Avenue – none of which were paved and only 86th Street was a thoroughfare planned as such; the remaining land was unimproved. Johnson continued Brooklyn's street grid south with macadam pavement, graded the properties, installed gas, water and electricity lines, planted sugar maple trees – seven on the avenues and twenty along the streets; this opened over two hundred more building sites between Tenth and 13th Avenues as well as between 79th and 86th Streets. In 1895, Johnson much aware of the successful Bensonhurst-by-the-Sea, built three homes.
His home was on the southwest corner of 11th Avenue and 82nd Street, Albert Edwar
Western Pennsylvania Hospital
The Western Pennsylvania Hospital referred to as "West Penn Hospital", is located at 4800 Friendship Avenue in the Bloomfield neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 317-bed hospital is part of the Allegheny Health Network, it serves as a Clinical Campus of Temple University School of Medicine, offering medical education, including a large number of residency and fellowship programs, as well as its own nursing program on campus. Founded on March 18, 1848, as Pittsburgh's first chartered public hospital, West Penn was built Pittsburgh’s 12th ward, on a hillside overlooking the city’s Strip District and adjacent to what is now Polish Hill; the four-story, 120-patient hospital opened in spring 1853, after five years of design and funding setbacks. During its early years, many of the patients were those injured by industrial accidents in Pittsburgh's mills and rail yards. Others had mental illness, in 1862, West Penn opened the Dixmont Hospital on a steep bluff overlooking the Ohio River, about eight miles downriver from West Penn.
That hospital, the first specialized mental health facility in Western Pennsylvania, remained under West Penn’s ownership until 1907. Eight years after the opening of West Penn Hospital, the American Civil War began, West Penn became a primary triage center serving Union Forces; because of its size, because it was a public hospital not bound by religious affiliations, the United States government commandeered West Penn Hospital in 1862, making alterations to it and turning it into a military hospital for the next three years.. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, some 3,000 soldiers had been treated at West Penn; the West Penn Medical College, founded by West Penn surgeons and doctors, opened in October 1885, with a class of 55 students. It was the region’s first medical school. By the turn of the 20th Century, the original hospital was outdated, the hospital’s board agreed to build a new hospital in Pittsburgh’s Bloomfield neighborhood, about a mile to the east; the cornerstone was laid in 1909, on New Year’s Day, 1912, the new West Penn Hospital opened, 219 patients in the hospital's care were moved to the new hospital.
The six-story, X-shaped hospital was able to accommodate up to 500 patients, featured modern operating rooms, X-ray machines. In 1919, the hospital purchased another property on Friendship Avenue and by 1923 had opened a "Residence and Training School", now the West Penn School of Nursing; the building houses nurse educators and students as well as the Simulation Teaching, Academic Research Center. In 1950, West Penn added a new obstetrical wing, an intensive care unit came in 1958, by the 1960s, another substantial expansion was underway. Both Mellon Pavilion and the hospital’s renowned Burn Care Unit opened in 1970, a heliport was added in 1971, the East Tower, which specialized in diagnostic and critical care, opened in 1981. A nine-story patient care tower was added in 1995, topped by a copper dome visible for miles; the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in several changes to West Penn’s governance structure. Following the fall of AHERF and its historic 1998 bond default, West Penn Hospital agreed to rescue AGH and its affiliates through a merger.
As alternative to bankruptcy liquidation, AGH, Allegheny Valley and Canonsburg “were transferred to the West Penn system in 1999 in exchange for a $25 million payment to the creditors, who agreed to release from liability for all claims.” That new system was known as the West Penn Allegheny Health System. In 2010, as parent company West Penn Allegheny Health System was experiencing severe cash shortages and financial difficulties, WPAHS leadership agreed to close West Penn’s emergency room as a cost-saving measure, it closed on Jan. 1, 2010, remained closed until February 2012, after WPAHS had reached an agreement in principle with Highmark Inc. regarding the acquisition of the hospital system. That agreement was announced in June 2011, without the affiliation and capital infusion from Highmark, had “another investor not materialized, WPAHS was preparing a budget that would have included the autumn closure of West Penn Hospital,” according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. West Penn became a part of Allegheny Health Network in 2013.
Today, West Penn Hospital is a 317-bed academic medical center. West Penn was the first hospital in southwestern Pennsylvania to receive the prestigious Magnet Recognition Program award for nursing excellence American Nurses Credentialing Center, in 2006, it is the first in the region to be re-designated for a third consecutive time. Allegheny General Hospital Allegheny Health Network Allegheny Health Network website West Penn School of Nursing website American Nurses Credentialing Center website STAR Center website WPH History at Pitt website
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Little Italy, Chicago
Little Italy, sometimes combined with University Village into one neighborhood, is on the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois. The current boundaries of Little Italy are Ashland Avenue on the west and Interstate 90/94 on the east, the Eisenhower Expressway on the north and Roosevelt to the south, it lies between the east side of the University of Illinois at Chicago campus in the Illinois Medical District and the west side of the University of Illinois at Chicago campus. The community was once predomanently Italian immigrants but now is made up of diverse ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds as a result of immigration, urban renewal and the growth of the resident student and faculty population of the University of Illinois at Chicago, its Italian-American heritage is evident in the Italian-American restaurants that once lined Taylor Street. The neighborhood is home to the National Italian American Sports Hall of Fame as well as the historic Roman Catholic churches Our Lady of Pompeii, Notre Dame de Chicago, Holy Family.
The recent history of the neighborhood waves of urban renewal, starting with the construction of expressways in the 1950s, the development of UIC in the 1960s, the demolition of public housing in the 1990s and 2000s, redevelopment of Maxwell Street in the 2000s. Along with these changes, housing prices in the area have risen. While there are several Italian-American communities that thrive within the Chicago metropolitan area, Taylor Street, the port-of-call for Chicago's Italian American immigrants, inherited the title of Chicago's "Little Italy." Taylor Street's Little Italy is part of a larger community area — Chicago's Near West Side. Dominant among the immigrant communities that comprised the Near West Side during the mass migration of Europeans around the start of the 20th century, were Italians and Jews. Other ethnic groups vacated the neighborhood beginning in the early 1900s, only the Italian-American enclave remained as a vibrant community. Other ethnicities have always been present in the area known as "Little Italy."
Nonetheless, the neighborhood was given its name due to the strong influence of Italians and Italian culture on the neighborhood throughout the 19th and 20th century. The Italian population, peaking during the decades of the 1950s and'60s, began declining shortly after the decision to build the University of Illinois in the area was finalized in 1963. However, several Italian restaurants and businesses remain in the prominent Taylor Street corridor. Italians began arriving in Chicago in the 1850s in small numbers. By 1880, there were 1,357 Italians in the city. By the 1920s, Italian cookery became one of the most popular ethnic cuisines in America, spawning many successful bakeries and restaurants—some of which prospered for generations and continue to influence the Chicago dining scene today. By 1927, Italians owned 500 grocery stores, 257 restaurants, 240 pastry shops, numerous other food related businesses that were concentrated in the Italian neighborhoods; the immigration of Italians accelerated throughout the late 19th century and into the early 20th century.
Chicago's foreign-born Italian population was 16,008 in 1900 and peaked at 73,960 in 1930. The largest area of settlement was the Taylor Street area, but there were 20 other significant Italian enclaves throughout the city and suburbs; this was the home of the Genna crime family. Jane Addams labeled the community as "The Hull House Neighborhood." One of the first newspaper articles written about Hull House acknowledges an invitation sent to the residents of the "Hull House Neighborhood." It begins with the salutation, "Mio Carissimo Amico," and is signed, "Le Signorine, Jane Addams and Ellen Starr." Bethlehem-Howard Neighborhood Center Records further substantiate that, as early as the 1890s, the inner core of "The Hull House Neighborhood" was overwhelmingly Italians. If those were the demographics as early as the 1890s, the flight of other ethnic groups, which began after the start of the 20th century, suggests that the entire community from the Chicago River on the east end out to the western ends of what came to be known as "Little Italy" and from Roosevelt Road on the south to the Harrison Street delta on the north — the inner core of the Hull House Neighborhood, was wall-to-wall Italian from the 1930s through the 1950s.
Little Italy used to encompass a much bigger area, but the construction of the University decimated the neighborhood. Many of the residents in the area were against the idea. Florence Scala, Chicago's legendary Taylor Street activist and longtime Hull House cohort, blamed the board of directors of Hull House for betraying the thriving, tight knit neighborhood. Scala accused them of encouraging Daley to destroy the neighborhood. In 1963, the trustees of Hull-House accepted an offer of $875,000 for the settlement building. Jessie Binford and Scala took the case to the Supreme Court; the court found in favor of the university and the settlement was closed on March 28, 1963. Some speculated the reason Daley chose Little Italy as the location for the University was payback, he was unhappy with the area politically and was moving UIC there to break up the Italian neighborhood and their power base. However, the area had voted overwhelmingly in favor of Daley. Following World War II, several developments hindered the cohesion of the community.
The construction of the Eisenhower Expressway and the University of Illinois at Chicago Medical district forced many to move. The establishment of the Circle Campus of UIC in the 1960s by Mayor Richard J. Daley further dispersed the community. During the construction of the 100-acre UIC campus, 200 businesses and 800 homes were bulldozed in Little Italy, with 5,000 residents displaced. University Village was former
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Oakland is the academic and healthcare center of Pittsburgh and one of the city's major cultural centers. The neighborhood is home to three universities and hospitals, as well as an abundance of shopping and recreational activities. Oakland is home to the Schenley Farms National Historic District which encompasses two city designated historic districts: the residential Schenley Farms Historic District and the predominantly institutional Oakland Civic Center Historic District, it is home to the locally designated Oakland Square Historic District. The Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire has Fire Station No. 14 on McKee Place and Fire Station No. 10 on Allequippa Street in Oakland. Oakland is divided into four neighborhoods: North Oakland, West Oakland, Central Oakland, South Oakland; each section has a unique identity, offers its own flavor of venues and housing. Oakland is Pittsburgh's second most populated neighborhood with 22,210 residents, a majority of these residents being students. North Oakland can be loosely defined as the area of Oakland between Neville and Bouquet Streets, encompassing all of Craig Street and running north to Polish Hill.
The Cathedral of Learning, the engineering or midsection of the University of Pittsburgh campus, the Craig Street business district are in North Oakland. RAND's Pittsburgh center is located in North Oakland as well as the long time RIDC business incubator on Henry Street; the Islamic Center of Pittsburgh, the largest mosque in the city, is located in North Oakland. This sector is home to the Schenley Farms Historic District and many mid-rise condominium and apartment buildings. Central Oakland is bordered by Schenley Park, the Boulevard of the Allies, Fifth Avenue, Halket Street. Many students at the University of Pittsburgh who decide to live off-campus reside in this neighborhood. Many of its homes are historic masonry structures dating from the turn of the century; the area is mistakenly called South Oakland. Its Main Business District runs along Forbes and Fifth Avenue, contains a diversity of restaurants and financial services; these businesses are organized by the Oakland Business Improvement District.
Smaller business districts in Central Oakland provide additional dining options along Atwood Street and Semple Street. It is the location of the isolated and historic neighborhood of Panther Hollow which runs along Boundary Street in Junction Hollow as well as the Oakland Square Historic District. South Oakland runs along the Monongahela River and forms a triangular shape between the Monongahela River, the Boulevard of the Allies, the western bank of Junction Hollow. Magee-Womens Hospital of UPMC and the Pittsburgh Technology Center are major landmarks of this neighborhood; the neighborhood is split between a riverfront flood plain to the southwest and a plateau to the northeast. The plateau is divided into two residential areas which are separated from one another by Bates Street, which runs up a valley from the flood plain to the plateau; the residents of the neighborhood on the north side of Bates Avenue call their neighborhood Oakcliffe. The flood plain was packed with industrial sites such as the Pittsburgh Works Consolidated Gas Co. and the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. but presently, the Pittsburgh Technology Center hosts facilities such as the Entertainment Technology Center of Carnegie Mellon University.
Some residents of Central Oakland think of their neighborhood as being part of South Oakland. However, the border between Central Oakland and South Oakland is further south; the area between Forbes Avenue and Boulevard of the Allies is part of Central Oakland. Articles in some news media have made this error. South Oakland is reputed to be a student neighborhood, but only 36.9% of its population is between the ages of 18 and 24, compared to Central Oakland's figure of 74.1%. The difference is because the area between Forbes Avenue and the Boulevard of the Allies houses many undergraduate students. While it is considered to be in South Oakland, it is the heart of Central Oakland. South Oakland was the childhood home of Andy Warhol, the residence of fellow pop artist Keith Haring. Haring had his first art show while living in Oakland. NFL Hall of Fame Quarterback Dan Marino was born in Oakland, not far from Warhol's home. Dan Marino Field on Frazier Street was named in honor of its native son. Although they were not contemporaries and Marino grew up on the same block with their former houses only a few doors apart.
West Oakland, the smallest of the four districts, is bordered by Fifth Avenue in the south, DeSoto Street in the east, the Birmingham Bridge to the west, Allequippa Street to the north. Carlow University and most of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center can be found there. Although the campus of Carnegie Mellon University and parts of Schenley Park, including Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens and Flagstaff Hill are popularly referred to as being in Oakland, are located with the 15213 zip code, they are part of the adjacent neighborhood of Squirrel Hill North; the border between Oakland and Squirrel Hill runs along Junction Hollow. The name first appeared in 1839 in Harris' Intelligencer; the area got its name from the abundance of oak trees found on the farm of William Eichenbaum, who settled there in 1840. Oakland developed following the Great Fire of 1845 in Downtown Pittsburgh, with many people moving out to suburban territory. By 1860, there was considerable commercial development along