Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Nathan Bedford Forrest was a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. Before the war, Forrest had amassed substantial wealth as a cotton planter and cattle trader, real estate broker and slave trader. In June 1861, he enlisted in the Confederate Army, one of the few officers during the war to enlist as a private and be promoted general without any military training. An expert cavalry leader, Forrest was given command of a corps and established new doctrines for mobile forces, earning the nickname "The Wizard of the Saddle", his methods influenced many future generations of military strategists, although the Confederate high command is seen to have underutilized his talents. In April 1864, in what has been called "one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history," troops under Forrest's command massacred Union troops who had surrendered, most of them black soldiers, along with some white Southern Tennesseans fighting for the Union, at the Battle of Fort Pillow.
Forrest was blamed for the massacre in the Union press, that news may have strengthened the North's resolve. Forrest joined the Ku Klux Klan in 1867, two years after its founding, was elected its first Grand Wizard; the group was a loose collection of local groups that used violence and the threat of violence to maintain white control over the newly-enfranchised slaves. While Forrest was a Klan leader, during the elections of 1868, the Klan suppressed voting rights of blacks and Republicans in the South through violence and intimidation. In 1869, Forrest expressed disillusionment with the lack of discipline among the various white supremacist groups across the South, issued a letter ordering the dissolution of the Ku Klux Klan and the destruction of its costumes. Lacking coordinated leadership and facing strong opposition from President Grant, this first incarnation of the Klan disappeared. In the last years of his life, Forrest publicly denounced the violence and racism of the Klan, insisted he had never been a member, made at least one public speech in favor of racial harmony.
He and his wife moved onto President's Island in late 1875, established a home and started a business venture that relied on the Convict Lease System enacted in 1866 by the state of Mississippi, to secure a labor force of 117 convicts whose sentence would be served in clearing and cultivating 800 acres of the 1300 that Forrest had leased. "Among those convicts in his employ were eighteen black and four white female prisoners along with thirty-five white and sixty black male convicts who worked the land on Forrest's island plantation."Although scholars admire Forrest as a military strategist, he has remained a controversial figure in Southern history for his role in the attack on Fort Pillow, his 1867–1869 leadership of the Ku Klux Klan, his political influence as a Tennessee delegate at the 1868 Democratic National Convention. Nathan Bedford Forrest was born on July 13, 1821 to a poor settler family in a secluded frontier cabin near Chapel Hill hamlet part of Bedford County, but now encompassed in Marshall County.
Forrest was the first son of Mariam Forrest. His father William was of English descent and most of his biographers state that his mother Mariam was of Scotch-Irish descent, but the Memphis Genealogical Society says that she was of English descent as well, he and his twin sister, were the two eldest of blacksmith William Forrest's 12 children with wife Miriam Beck. Forrest's great-grandfather, Shadrach Forrest of English birth, moved from Virginia to North Carolina, between 1730–1740, there his son and grandson were born. Forrest's family lived in a log house from 1830 to 1833. John Allan Wyeth, who served in an Alabama regiment under Forrest, described it as a one-room building with a loft and no windows. William Forrest worked as a blacksmith in Tennessee until 1834. William died in 1837 and Forrest became the primary caretaker of the family at the age of sixteen. In 1841 Forrest went into business with his uncle Jonathan Forrest in Mississippi, his uncle was killed there in 1845 during an argument with the Matlock brothers.
In retaliation, Forrest shot and killed two of them with his two-shot pistol and wounded two others with a knife, thrown to him. One of the wounded Matlock men served under Forrest during the Civil War. Forrest became a successful businessman and slaveholder, he acquired several cotton plantations in the Delta region of West Tennessee. He was a slave trader, at a time when demand was booming in the Deep South. In 1858, Forrest served two consecutive terms. By the time the American Civil War started in 1861, he had become one of the richest men in the South, having amassed a "personal fortune that he claimed was worth $1.5 million". Forrest was well known as Mississippi gambler. In 1859, he bought two large cotton plantations in Coahoma County, Mississippi and a half-interest in another plantation in Arkansas. Forrest had 12 sisters, he contracted the disease, but survived. His mother Miriam married James Horatio Luxton, of Marshall, Texas, in 1843 and gave birt
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
Guntersville is a city and the county seat of Marshall County, United States. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 8,197. Guntersville is located in a HUBZone as identified by the U. S. Small Business Administration; the 2014 Bassmaster Classic was held on Lake Guntersville, part of Guntersville. Guntersville is located at 34°20′54″N 86°17′40″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 42.4 square miles, of which 25.4 square miles is land and 17.0 square miles, or 40.14%, is water. Guntersville is located at the southernmost point of the Tennessee River on Lake Guntersville, formed by the Guntersville Dam. Geologically, the lake occupies a southern extension of Sequatchie Valley, which continues south as Browns Valley. Guntersville was founded by the great-grandfather of American humorist Will Rogers. John's own great-great-grandfather, of Welsh-English descent, had emigrated to the New World in 1644. John Gunter was the wealthy owner of a salt mine in the early 19th century.
In order to obtain more land to mine, John struck a deal with the Cherokee tribe that inhabited the area to use in his household as servants. As part of the deal, John married the daughter of the tribe's chief and agreed to give salt to the tribe. A town was named after Gunter; the town of Guntersville puts on a festival every July to celebrate Will Rogers, this festival involves many activities of interest to Will Rogers. Incorporated as Gunter's Landing in 1848, it won the contest to become county seat from Warrenton, it formally changed its name to Guntersville in 1854. For much of the 20th century, the economy of Guntersville revolved around cotton processing with the Saratoga Victory Mill. Guntersville sits on a 69,000 acre lake, Lake Guntersville, the biggest lake in Alabama; the lake is managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Bass anglers from around the country recognize this lake as one of the best in the country. Researchers have put this lake as the third best bass fishing lake in America.
Guntersville has one school system in the town, made up of four schools. In 2006 Guntersville High School won the 4A football state championship, the only football state championship recorded by a school in Marshall County, Alabama; the current mayor is Leigh Dollar, the daughter of a previous mayor, the first female to hold mayor's office in Guntersville. Guntersville was the last place in which Ricky Nelson performed as a singer, his last performance was at PJ's Alley in Guntersville on Monday, December 30, 1985. His private plane departed Guntersville the next day, New Year's Eve, crashed near DeKalb, Texas. In Hunting Mister Heartbreak: A Discovery of America, the British author Jonathan Raban becomes a temporary resident of the city, to which he takes a liking in his conservative persona as John Rayburn, he is aware, that were his real views known the people of Guntersville might have been less welcoming. Scratch John Rayburn, he'd confess my own thoughts on politics, religion − thoughts that wouldn't wash in Guntersville.
At the 2000 census, there were 7,395 people, 3,061 households and 1,971 families residing in the city. The population density was 312.7 per square mile. There were 3,518 housing units at an average density of 148.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.17% White, 8.53% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. 2.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,061 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.88. Age distribution was 22.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males. The median household income was $29,882, the median family income was $39,464. Males had a median income of $36,175 versus $20,480 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,503. About 11.2% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over. At the 2010 census, there were 8,197 people, 3,388 households and 2,167 families residing in the city; the population density was 347.3 per square mile. There were 3,872 housing units at an average density of 152.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.8% White, 7.8% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.5% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. 3.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,388 households of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband pr
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai