"Blowin' in the Wind" is a song written by Bob Dylan in 1962 and released as a single and on his album The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan in 1963. It has been described as a protest song, poses a series of rhetorical questions about peace and freedom; the refrain "The answer, my friend, is blowin' in the wind" has been described as "impenetrably ambiguous: either the answer is so obvious it is right in your face, or the answer is as intangible as the wind". In 1994, the song was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 2004, it was ranked number 14 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Dylan wrote and performed a two-verse version of the song. Shortly after this performance, he added the middle verse to the song; some published versions of the lyrics reverse the order of the second and third verses because Dylan appended the middle verse to his original manuscript, rather than writing out a new copy with the verses in proper order. The song was published for the first time in May 1962, in the sixth issue of Broadside, the magazine founded by Pete Seeger and devoted to topical songs.
The theme may have been taken from a passage in Woody Guthrie's autobiography, Bound for Glory, in which Guthrie compared his political sensibility to newspapers blowing in the winds of New York City streets and alleys. Dylan was familiar with Guthrie's work. In June 1962, the song was published in Sing Out!, accompanied by Dylan's comments: There ain't too much I can say about this song except that the answer is blowing in the wind. It ain't in TV show or discussion group. Man, it's in the wind — and it's blowing in the wind. Too many of these hip people are telling me. I still say it's in the wind and just like a restless piece of paper it's got to come down some... But the only trouble is that no one picks up the answer when it comes down so not too many people get to see and know... and it flies away. I still say that some of the biggest criminals are those that turn their heads away when they see wrong and know it's wrong. I'm only 21 years old and I know that there's been too many wars...
You people over 21, you're smarter. Dylan recorded "Blowin' in the Wind" on July 9, 1962, for inclusion on his second album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan, released in May 1963. In his sleeve notes for The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 1961–1991, John Bauldie wrote that Pete Seeger first identified the melody of "Blowin' in the Wind" as an adaptation of the old African-American spiritual "No More Auction Block/We Shall Overcome". According to Alan Lomax's The Folk Songs of North America, the song originated in Canada and was sung by former slaves who fled there after Britain abolished slavery in 1833. In 1978, Dylan acknowledged the source when he told journalist Marc Rowland: "'Blowin' in the Wind' has always been a spiritual. I took it off a song called'No More Auction Block' – that's a spiritual and'Blowin' in the Wind' follows the same feeling." Dylan's performance of "No More Auction Block" was recorded at the Gaslight Cafe in October 1962, appeared on The Bootleg Series Volumes 1–3 1961–1991.
The critic Michael Gray suggested that the lyric is an example of Dylan's incorporation of Biblical rhetoric into his own style. A particular rhetorical form deployed time and again in the New Testament and based on a text from the Old Testament book of Ezekiel is: "The word of the Lord came to me:'Oh mortal, you dwell among the rebellious breed, they see not. In "Blowin' in the Wind", Dylan transforms this into "Yes'n' how many ears must one man have...?" and "Yes' n' how many times must a man turn his head / Pretending he just doesn't see?""Blowin' in the Wind" has been described as an anthem of the civil rights movement. In Martin Scorsese's documentary on Dylan, No Direction Home, Mavis Staples expressed her astonishment on first hearing the song and said she could not understand how a young white man could write something that captured the frustration and aspirations of black people so powerfully. Sam Cooke was deeply impressed by the song, incorporating it into his repertoire soon after its release, being inspired by it to write "A Change Is Gonna Come"."Blowin' in the Wind" was first covered by The Chad Mitchell Trio, but their record company delayed release of the album containing it because the song included the word death, so the trio lost out to Peter and Mary, who were represented by Dylan's manager, Albert Grossman.
The single sold a phenomenal 300,000 copies in the first week of release and made the song world-famous. On August 17, 1963, it reached number two on the Billboard pop chart, with sales exceeding one million copies. Peter Yarrow recalled that, when he told Dylan he would make more than $5,000 from the publishing rights, Dylan was speechless. Peter and Mary's version of the song spent five weeks atop the easy listening chart; the critic Andy Gill wrote, "Blowin' in the Wind" marked a huge jump in Dylan's songwriting. Prior to this, efforts like "The Ballad of Donald White" and "The Death of Emmett Till" had been simplistic bouts of reportage songwriting. "Blowin' in the Wind" was different: for the first time, Dylan discovered the effectiveness of moving from the particular to the general. Whereas "The Ballad of Donald White" would become redundant as soon as the eponymous criminal was executed
Mohamed Sa'id Pasha was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863 owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence. He was the fourth son of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Sa'id was a Francophone, educated in Paris. Under Sa'id's rule there were several law and tax reforms; some modernization of Egyptian and Sudanese infrastructure occurred using western loans. In 1854 the first act of concession of land for the Suez Canal was granted, to a French businessman Ferdinand de Lesseps; the British opposed a Frenchman building the canal and persuaded the Ottoman Empire to deny its permission for two years. Sudan had been conquered by his father in 1821 and incorporated into his Egyptian realm in order to seize slaves for his army. Slave raids ventured beyond Sudan into Kordofan and Ethiopia. Facing European pressure to abolish official Egyptian slave raids in the Sudan, Sa'id issued a decree banning raids. Freelance slave traders ignored his decree; when the American Civil War brought a cotton famine, the export of Egyptian cotton surged during Sa'id's rule to become the main source for European mills.
At the behest of Napoleon III in 1863, Sa'id dispatched part of a Sudanese battalion to help put down a rebellion against the Second Mexican Empire. Under Sa'id's rule the influence of sheikhs was curbed and many Bedouin reverted to nomadic raiding. In 1854 he established the Bank of Egypt. In the same year Egypt's first standard gauge railway was opened, between Kafr el-Zayyat on the Rosetta branch of the Nile and Alexandria. In addition, he founded a precursor to the Khedivial Mail Line. Sa'id's heir presumptive, Ahmad Rifaat, drowned in 1858 at Kafr el-Zayyat when a railway train on which he was travelling fell off a car float into the Nile. Therefore, when Sa'id died in January 1863 he was succeeded by his nephew Ismail; the Mediterranean port of Port Said is named after him. He married twice, to a first wife Inji Hanimefendi without issue, to a second wife Melekber Hanimefendi with two sons, Mohamed Toussoun Pasha and Mahmoud Pasha, he is buried in Hosh al-Basha the Royal Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi'i, Egypt.
Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold in 1855. Order of Glory of the Ottoman Empire Special Class of the Order of the Osmans of the Ottoman Empire Special Class of the Order of Nobility of the Ottoman Empire - 1853 Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Joseph of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany - 1856 Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion - 1856 Grand Cross of the Legion d'Honneur of France - 1863 Descendants of Sa'id of Egypt Karabell, Zachary. Parting the desert: the creation of the Suez Canal. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40883-5
Trade unions in Ghana first emerged in the 1920s and played an important role in the country's economy and politics since. The first industrial action in Ghana - at the time still the British colony Gold Coast - was a strike by the country's miners in 1919; this led to a series of successful collective actions by workers. Permanent organizations were formed as well. Unions like the Gold and Silver Smith's Association, the Colony and Ashanti Motor Union, the Carpenters and Masons Union were all founded in the 1920s; the colonial government reacted by outlawing strikes. In 1941, the Trade Union Ordinance of 1941 was enacted, legalizing the formation of trade unions in the colony; the British government encouraged the establishment of a national trade union center as it sought to avoid the kind of labor struggles that had accompanied the industrial revolution in Europe and North America. On September 8, 1945 the Gold Coast Trades Union Congress was founded with an initial membership of 6,030 and fourteen affiliates at the offices of the Railway African Employees Union in Sekondi.
It was an appendage of the ruling Convention People's Party. The struggle for better working conditions was soon coupled with calls for independence. After the Big Six, several pro-independence politicians, were arrested in 1948, the TUC called for a nationwide strike, which led to the release of the politicians, but weakened the federation. In 1954, the TUC launched an attempt to re-group and re-organize along industrial lines as well as a campaign to make the public aware of this move; this change was met with opposition by the union of the United Africa Company the result of communist influence. By the time Ghana became independent in 1957 - leading the Gold Coast Trades Union Congress to become the Trades Union Congress of Ghana - there were splinter labor groups in all regions of the country. Many were much more militant than the TUC and violent demonstrations and strikes were no rarity in Ghana. Employers responded by creating yellow unions. In 1958, the Ghanaian government responded as well by passing the Industrial Relations Act of 1958 in order to strengthen the TUC.
It not only gave legal recognition to the TUC - the only national center to receive recognition - for the first time and provided it with buildings for headquarters for its unions, but made collective bargaining compulsory. The Industrial Relations Act of 1965, which replaced that of 1958, forced anyone wishing to register a trade union to do so via the TUC, a move many considered to contravene the ILO Convention No. 87. In 1960, a law making union membership compulsory for civil servants followed. At the time the TUC's relations to the CPP were close, sometimes at the cost of its autonomy, leading to some resentment among the workers. In 1966, the military overthrow of the CPP government was welcomed by many workers discontent with the TUC's loyalty to the government; the new government's repeal of compulsory TUC membership for civil servants led the TUC to shrink from 700,000 to 300,000 members. The years between 1966 and 1969 saw a large number of unauthorized strikes. Relations between the TUC and the National Liberation Council government were rocky.
In 1967, a government-appointed commission recommended an increase in wages, implemented by the government. In 1969, Kofi Abrefa Busia came to power replacing the military government, he expressed his support for the "existence of a free and independent labour movement" and promised the TUC he would help it in gaining power. Following heavy inflation, the TUC called on the Busia administration to raise salaries. Although it created a Salary Review Commission, the government did not implement the union's proposal; the Busia government introduced a new tax on all workers. These moves angered the country's workers and the TUC. Heavy criticism of the administration by the unions led it to amend the 1958 Industrial Relations Act in September 1971; the new Industrial Relations Act of 1971 froze all of its assets. The dissolution did not, last long. Following a coup led by Ignatius Kutu Acheampong, the National Redemption Council military government repealed the 1971 act and restored the TUC in February 1972.
After the Provisional National Defence Council came to power through a coup in 1981, it sought cooperation with the TUC, but failed to receive its full support. In 1982, it issued a decree for the formation of the People's/Workers' Defence Committees parallel to the existing union structures and in order to undermine the unions' power; the same year, several workers calling themselves the Association of Labour Unions backed by the government attacked the TUC headquarters and set up Interim Management Committees as heads of both the TUC and the trade unions within it to democratize them. From there on, relations between the government and the TUC were poor. After the return to democratic rule in Ghana in 1992, conditions for trade unions improved. Although the 1965 Industrial Relations Act requires TUC affiliation for the registration of a union, workers' association in the public sector were formed; these are not allowed to call out strikes. In 1985, the TUC and several public sector workers' associations founded the National Consultive Forum of Ghana Labour.
It does negotiate on behalf of its members, but provides a means of communication for the member organizations. In 1999, the Ghana Federation of Labour was established as an umbrella organization for several independent trade unions. In 2003 a tripartite National Labour Commission was created to help resolve disputes, it assumed responsibility for issuing bargaining certificates for unions seeking to est
The 43rd Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 21, 2001, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles, California. Several artists earned three awards on the night: Steely Dan's haul included Album of the Year for Two Against Nature. Madonna opened the show with "Music". Record of the Year"Beautiful Day" – U2 Brian Eno and Daniel Lanois, producers. Best Orchestral Performance Stephen Johns, Mike Clements, Sir Simon Rattle and the Berliner Philharmonic for Mahler: Sym. No. 10 Best Classical Vocal Performance Christopher Raeburn, Jonathan Stokes, Cecilia Bartoli and Il Giardino Armonico for The Vivaldi Album Best Opera Recording Martin Sauer, Jean Chatauret, Kent Nagano, Kim Begley, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich Henschel, Markus Hollop, Eva Jenis, Torsten Kerl and the Orchestre de l'Opera Nationale de Lyon for Busoni: Doktor Faust Best Choral Performance Karen Wilson, Don Harder, Helmuth Rilling and the Oregon Bach Festival Orchestra and Chorus for Penderecki: Credo Best Instrumental Soloist Performance Grace Row, Charles Harbutt, Roger Norrington, Joshua Bell and the London Philharmonic for Maw: Violin Concerto Best Instrumental Soloist Performance Tobias Lehmann, Jens Schünemann and Sharon Isbin for Dreams of a World Best Small Ensemble Performance Christian Gausch, Wolf-Dieter Karwatky and the Orpheus Chamber Orchestra for Shadow Dances Best Chamber Music Performance Da-Hong Seetoo, Max Wilcox and the Emerson String Quartet for Shostakovich: The String Quartets Best Classical Contemporary Composition George Crumb and Thomas Conlin for Crumb: Star-Child Best Classical Album Da-Hong Seetoo and Max Wilcox and the Emerson String Quartet for Shostakovich: The String Quartets Best Classical Crossover Album Steven Epstein, Richard King, Yo-Yo Ma, Edgar Meyer and Mark O'Connor for Appalachian Journey Best Instrumental Composition John Williams for "Theme From Angela's Ashes" Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Randy Newman for "When She Loved Me" performed by Sarah McLachlan Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media Bill Bernstein, Thomas Newman, Dennis Sands, Thomas Newman and Thomas Newman for American Beauty Best Instrumental Arrangement Chick Corea for "Spain for Sextet and Orchestra" Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist Vince Mendoza
The Tanzanian Second Division League is the third tier of league football in Tanzania. The league is divided with each group having six teams; the following teams are participating in the Tanzanian Second Division League during 2017/18: Abajalo F. C. Changanyikeni F. C. Cosmopolitans F. C. Green Warriors F. C. Reha F. C. Villa Squad F. C. African Sports F. C. Arusha F. C. Kilimanjaro Heroes F. C. known as Panone F. C. Kitayosce F. C. Madini S. C. Pepsi F. C. Boma F. C. Bukinafaso F. C. Ihefu F. C. Mighty Elephant F. C. Mkamba Rangers F. C. Namungo F. C. Area C United F. C. Bulyanhulu F. C. Mashujaa F. C. Mirambo S. C. Msange JKT F. C. Nyanza F. C; the following teams participated in the 2016/17 Tanzanian Second Division League: Bulyanhulu F. C. Geita Gold S. C. Mashujaa F. C. Mirambo S. C. Polisi Tabora S. C. Transit Camp F. C. Arusha F. C. Green Warriors F. C. JKT Oljoro F. C. Kitayosce F. C. Madini S. C. Pepsi F. C. Abajalo F. C. Bukinafaso F. C. Changanyikeni F. C. Cosmopolitans F. C. Kariakoo F. C. Mji Mkuu F. C. Mawenzi Market F. C. Mighty Elephant F.
C. Mkamba Rangers F. C. Namungo F. C. Sabasaba F. C. Wenda F. C; the following teams participated in the 2015/16 Tanzanian Second Division League: Abajalo S. C. Green Warriors F. C. Mirambo S. C. Mvuvumwa F. C. Singida United F. C. Transit Camp F. C. Alliance Schools F. C. Arusha F. C. Bulyanhulu F. C. JKT Rwamkoma F. C. Madini S. C. Pamba S. C. Abajalo F. C. Changanyikeni F. C. Cosmopolitans F. C. Kariakoo F. C. Mshikamano F. C. Villa Squad F. C. African Wanderers F. C. Mbeya Warriors F. C. Mighty Elephant F. C. Mkamba Rangers F. C. Sabasaba F. C. Wenda F. C. Tanzania Football Federation
David Jewett is known for his role in the sovereignty dispute between the United Kingdom and Argentina. He was an American naval commander in the Quasi-War with France and following the end of that conflict he offered his services as a Mercenary in both Argentina and Brazil. Licensed as a privateer by the United Provinces of the River Plate to seize Spanish ships, he was accused of piracy following the seizure of US and Portuguese flagged vessels, he finished his career in the Brazilian Navy, serving under Lord Cochrane and died in Rio de Janeiro in 1842. Jewett was born in New London, in what was the Connecticut Colony, on 17 June 1772, son of Patience Bulkley and captain David Hibbard Jewett, he studied for a career in law, but after the experience of a sailing trip to Europe he changed his mind. Jewett joined the United States Navy in 1791, at age 19. Jewett, with the rank of Master Commandant, commanded the 18 gun sloop-of-war USS Trumbull in the Quasi-War with France. Following fitting out, Trumbull departed New Connecticut in March 1800 under his command.
Its first mission was to escort the provisions ship Charlotte from New York to the West Indies, replenishing the American Squadron operating against the French. Trumbull joined the American Squadron commanded by Silas Talbot in the USS Constitution, where the main duties in the area were protection of American shipping and the interception of French privateers and merchantmen. Jewett was authorized as commander of the Trumbull to capture any vessel sailing under the flag of France. On April 24, 1800, it captured it; the Peggy was returned to Connecticut where the local courts ruled her a prize of war in September 1800. The owners of the Peggy appealed for her return in the US Supreme Court case United States v. Schooner Peggy. On August 3, while off Jérémie in Haiti, Trumbull captured the French schooner Vengeance, armed with eight or ten guns; the ship had fled Haiti with 130 people aboard and refugees together, as Toussaint's troops took possession of the island. Talbot ordered Jewett home with Vengeance as a prize, Trumbull arriving back at New London in late summer.
The Vengeance was condemned as a national vessel and was returned to France under the treaty soon afterwards concluded with that country. Trumbull returned to patrol off Santo Domingo, before transporting Navy Agent Thomas T. Gantt to St. Kitts to relieve Thomas Clarkson. Following the end of hostilities with France as a result of the Treaty of Mortefontaine, Trumbull returned to the United States in the spring of 1801, was sold that year and her crew discharged. Jewett left the Navy but rejoined during the War of 1812 against Britain, when he acted as a privateer. Jewett had earlier crossed the line between privateer and pirate after taking the Portuguese ship Carlota as a prize. On June 22, 1815, Jewett arrived aboard his own ship the Invincible, he offered his services to the newly independent United Provinces of the River Plate, which accepted his proposal and authorized his corsair activities against the Spanish. From 1815 to 1817 the Invincible made use of the letter of marque issued for her and Jewett, four ships were captured: the polacca Tita, the frigate Santander, the brigantines Jupiter and San Antonio, all of them deemed lawful prize by the Government of the United Provinces.
In January 1820 he was appointed a Colonel in the Argentine Navy. He was given command of a ship owned by Patrick Lynch, acting as a privateer. Jewett's activities were licensed by letter of marque that Lynch obtained from the Buenos Aires Supreme Director José Rondeau. In March 1820 he set out on a voyage marked by misfortune, a mutiny and piracy against Portuguese and American ships; some 80 of his crew of 200 were either sick or dead by the time he arrived on 27 October 1820 at Puerto Soledad. At anchor there he found some 50 British and US sealing ships. Captain Jewett chose to rest and recover in the islands seeking assistance from the British explorer James Weddell of the British brig Jane. Weddell reports only 30 seamen and 40 soldiers out of a crew of 200 fit for duty, how Jewett slept with pistols over his head following an attempted mutiny for which he had executed 6 members of his crew. On November 6, 1820, Col Jewett raised the flag of the United Provinces of the River Plate and claimed possession of the islands.
Weddell reports the letter he received from Jewett as: Sir, I have the honour to inform you of the circumstance of my arrival at this port, commissioned by the supreme government of the United Provinces of South America to take possession of these islands in the name of the country to which they appertain. In the performance of this duty, it is my desire to act towards all friendly flags with the most distinguished justice and politeness. A principal object is to prevent the wanton destruction of the sources of supply to those whose necessities compel or invite them to visit the islands, to aid and assist such as require it to obtain a supply with the least trouble and expense; as your views do not enter into contravention or competition with these orders, as I think mutual advantage may result from a personal interview, I invite you to pay me a visit on board my ship, where I shall be happy to accommodate you during your pleasure. I would beg you, so far