Venetian-style shoes are mid-heel slippers with an upper or top part, open to the kick of the foot and the ankle bone. The venetian-style shoe and its lack of ornamentation contrasts with the loafer which may have slotted straps and tassels; the term came from Great Britain. Loafers are "slip-on shoes with a moccasin toe construction and slotted straps stitched across vamps". A loafer may be "decorated with metal chains or tassels". A penny-loafer has a "tongue and strap". By the 20th century, the slip-on loafers were common male footwear. During this period other popular shoes included low, laced oxfords in various leathers, ankle boots, specialized sport shoes. During the 1950s, the loafer became fashionable. Crackowes or Poulaine Shoe Slipper Chopine Loafers List of shoe styles OQLF. "Chausure montante." Def. Tige montante: Chaussure. Le Grand dictionnaire terminologique, Office de la langue française, 1989. Accessed 3 February 2008. OQLF. "Malléole." Def. Chaussure. Le Grand dictionnaire terminologique, Office de la langue française, 1989.
Accessed 3 February 2008
Sandals are an open type of footwear, consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps going over the instep and, around the ankle. Sandals can have a heel. While the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry, the common understanding is that a sandal leaves all or most of the foot exposed. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons, among them comfort in warm weather, as a fashion choice. People wear sandals in warmer climates or during warmer parts of the year in order to keep their feet cool and dry; the risk of developing athlete's foot is lower than with enclosed shoes, the wearing of sandals may be part of the treatment regimen for such an infection. The oldest known sandals were discovered in Fort Rock Cave in the U. S. state of Oregon. The word sandal is of Greek origin; the ancient Greeks distinguished between baxeae, a sandal made of willow leaves, twigs, or fibres worn by comic actors and philosophers. The sole of the latter was sometimes made much thicker than usual by the insertion of slices of cork, so as to add to the stature of the wearer.
The ancient Egyptians wore sandals made of papyrus. They are sometimes observable on the feet of Egyptian statues and in reliefs, being carried by sandal-bearers. According to Herodotus, sandals of papyrus were a part of the required and characteristic dress of the Egyptian priests. In ancient Greece sandals were the most common type of footwear that women wore and spent most of their time at home; the Greek sandals featured a multitude of straps. The top of the sandals were of colored leather; the soles were made of cattle skin, of better quality and made up of several layers. In ancient Rome residents used to carve their sandals with elaborate designs. In Ancient Levant sandals were made from non-processed leather and dry grass, had strings or ropes made of simple, cheap materials. Though, sometimes golden or silver beads and gems were added. In his autobiography Edward Carpenter told how sandals came to be made in England: While in India Harold Cox went in'85 or'86 for a tour in Cashmere, from Cashmere he sent me a pair of Indian sandals.
I had asked him, before he went out, to send some pattern of sandals, as I felt anxious to try some myself. I soon found the joy of wearing them, and after a little time I set about making them. I got two or three lessons from W. Lill, a bootmaker friend in Sheffield, soon succeeded in making a good many pairs for myself and various friends. Since the trade has grown into quite a substantial one. G. Adams took it up at Millthorpe in 1889. A sandal may have a sole made from rubber, wood, tatami or rope, it may be held to the foot by a narrow thong that passes between the first and second toe, or by a strap or lace, variously called a latchet, sabot strap or sandal, that passes over the arch of the foot or around the ankle. A sandal may not have a heel or heel strap. Caligae, a heavy-soled classical Roman military shoe or sandal for marching, worn by all ranks up to and including centurion Clog can be formed as a heavy sandal, having a thick wooden sole. Crochet sandals Fisherman sandal is a type of T-bar sandal for men and boys.
The toes are enclosed by a number of leather bands interwoven with the central length-wise strap that lies along the instep. An adjustable cross strap or bar is fastened with a buckle; the heel may be enclosed or secured by a single strap joined to the cross strap. The style appears to have originated in France. Flip-flops are cheap and suitable for beach, pool, or locker room wear geta, a classical Japanese form of elevated thong, traditionally of cryptomeria wood. A similar style is sometimes called gladiator sandal High-heeled sandal, a type of sandal with an elevated heel, they allow the wearer to have an open shoe while being less casual or more formal, depending on the style of the sandal. Hiking and trekking sandals are designed for hiking or trekking in hot and tropical climates using robust rubber outsole, suitable for any terrain, softer EVA or Super EVA foam insole; these sandals are shaped to support the arched contour of the foot. The straps are made of polyester or nylon webbing for quick drying after exposure to water and to minimize perspiration.
Suitable for many other adventure sports and activities where quick drying and reduced perspiration is required, including rafting, paragliding, skydiving. Ho Chi Minh sandals is one name for a homemade or cottage industry footwear, the soles cut from an old automobile tire and the straps cut from an inner tube. Made and worn in many countries, they became wider known in the US as worn by the rural people of Indochina during the Vietnam War, leading to the name. Huarache, a Mexican
Brothel creepers are a style of shoe which has thick crepe soles in combination with suede uppers. This style of footwear became fashionable in the years following World War II, seeing resurgences of popularity at various times since. A version of this style of shoe became popular with World War II soldiers in North Africa, who adopted suede boots with hard-wearing crepe rubber. Writing in The Observer in 1991, John Ayto put the origin of the name'brothel creeper' to the wartime years; the Smithsonian suggests. It may be associated with a Ken Mackintosh dance tune popular in 1953 and called "The Creep"; this style of thick soled shoe was first developed commercially in 1949 by George Cox Limited of Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, UK, marketed under the "Hamilton" name, based on George Cox Jr.'s middle name. They came in shades of blue, ranging from pastel shades to electric blue, were made of suede or polished leather. More extravagant patterned versions were created; the shoes were taken up by the Teddy Boys– along with drainpipe trousers worn with exposed socks and drape jackets.
The shoes were widely worn by the Ton-Up boys of the 1950s and on the rockers of the'60s, who wore them as an alternative shoe when not riding their motorbikes. The stilyagi youth subculture in the Soviet Union of the mid 1950s adopted home-made brothel creepers as footwear, dubbing them "shoes on semolina" alluding to the sponginess of the thick crepe sole; the brothel creeper regained popularity in the early 1970s when Malcolm McLaren sold them from his "Let it Rock" shop in London's King's Road later in the early 1980's when NaNa's of Los Angeles manufactured and sold them from their shop in Santa Monica. Teddy Boys were the obvious customers, but the brothel creeper still proved to be popular among regular customers when McLaren and his partner Vivienne Westwood changed the shop to more rocker-oriented fashion; the shoe has since been adopted by subcultures such as indie, punk, new wavers, psychobilly and goth, Japanese Visual Kei, was worn by Bananarama, Saffron, singer of Republica. A resurgence in popularity of grunge culture in 2011 saw popular artists such as Miley Cyrus and Carly Rae Jepsen wearing them.
In November 2017, Jefferson Hack teamed up with British brand Underground to launch a limited edition collection of Apollo brothel creepers taken from its archives spanning the last thirty years. The collection comprised seven classic all gender styles. In 2015, Puma and Rihanna launched; the shoes have been a major success for the brand, won an award for Shoe of the Year in 2016. Since the initial launch, there have been new styles and colorways of the shoe released each year
A shoe is an item of footwear intended to protect and comfort the human foot while the wearer is doing various activities. Shoes are used as an item of decoration and fashion; the design of shoes has varied enormously through time and from culture to culture, with appearance being tied to function. Additionally, fashion has dictated many design elements, such as whether shoes have high heels or flat ones. Contemporary footwear in the 2010s varies in style and cost. Basic sandals may be sold for a low cost. High fashion shoes made by famous designers may be made of expensive materials, use complex construction and sell for hundreds or thousands of dollars a pair; some shoes are designed for specific purposes, such as boots designed for mountaineering or skiing. Traditionally, shoes have been made from leather, wood or canvas, but in the 2010s, they are made from rubber and other petrochemical-derived materials. Though the human foot is adapted to varied terrain and climate conditions, it is still vulnerable to environmental hazards such as sharp rocks and temperature extremes, which shoes protect against.
Some shoes are worn as safety equipment, such as steel-soled boots which are required on construction sites. The earliest known shoes are sagebrush bark sandals dating from 7000 or 8000 BC, found in the Fort Rock Cave in the US state of Oregon in 1938; the world's oldest leather shoe, made from a single piece of cowhide laced with a leather cord along seams at the front and back, was found in the Areni-1 cave complex in Armenia in 2008 and is believed to date to 3500 BC. Ötzi the Iceman's shoes, dating to 3300 BC, featured brown bearskin bases, deerskin side panels, a bark-string net, which pulled tight around the foot. The Jotunheimen shoe was discovered in August 2006. Archaeologists estimate that the leather shoe was made between 1800 and 1100 BC, making it the oldest article of clothing discovered in Scandinavia, it is thought that shoes may have been used long before this, but because the materials used were perishable, it is difficult to find evidence of the earliest footwear. By studying the bones of the smaller toes, it was observed that their thickness decreased 40,000 to 26,000 years ago.
This led archaeologists to deduce that wearing shoes resulted in less bone growth, resulting in shorter, thinner toes. These earliest designs were simple in design mere "foot bags" of leather to protect the feet from rocks and cold, they were more found in colder climates. Many early natives in North America wore a similar type of footwear, known as the moccasin; these are tight-fitting, soft-soled shoes made out of leather or bison hides. Many moccasins were decorated with various beads and other adornments. Moccasins were not designed to be waterproof, in wet weather and warm summer months, most Native Americans went barefoot; as civilizations began to develop, thong sandals were worn. This practice dates back to pictures of them in ancient Egyptian murals from 4000 BC. One pair found in Europe was made of papyrus leaves and dated to be 1,500 years old, they were worn in Jerusalem during the first century of the Common Era. Thong sandals were made from a wide variety of materials. Ancient Egyptian sandals were made from papyrus and palm leaves.
The Masai of Africa made them out of rawhide. In India they were made from wood. In China and Japan, rice straw was used; the leaves of the sisal plant were used to make twine for sandals in South America while the natives of Mexico used the Yucca plant. While thong sandals were worn, many people in ancient times, such as the Egyptians and Greeks, saw little need for footwear, most of the time, preferred being barefoot; the Egyptians and Hindus made some use of ornamental footwear, such as a soleless sandal known as a "Cleopatra", which did not provide any practical protection for the foot. The ancient Greeks viewed footwear as self-indulgent and unnecessary. Shoes were worn in the theater, as a means of increasing stature, many preferred to go barefoot. Athletes in the Ancient Olympic Games participated barefoot – and naked; the gods and heroes were depicted barefoot, the hoplite warriors fought battles in bare feet and Alexander the Great conquered his vast empire with barefoot armies. The runners of Ancient Greece are believed to have run barefoot.
Pheidippides, the first marathoner, ran from Athens to Sparta in less than 36 hours. After the Battle of Marathon, he ran straight from the battlefield to Athens to inform the Athenians of the news; the Romans, who conquered the Greeks and adopted many aspects of their culture, did not adopt the Greek perception of footwear and clothing. Roman clothing was seen as a sign of power, footwear was seen as a necessity of living in a civilized world, although the slaves and paupers went barefoot. Roman soldiers were issued with chiral footwear. There are references to shoes being worn in the Bible. A common casual shoe in the Pyrenees during the Middle Ages was the espadrille; this is a sandal with braided jute soles and a fabric upper portion, includes fabric laces that tie around the ankle. The term comes from the esparto grass; the shoe originated in the Catalonian region of Spain as early as the 13th century, was worn by peasants in the farming communities in the area. Many medieval shoes were made using the turnshoe method of construction, in which the upper was turned flesh side out, was lasted onto t
A slider is a form of footwear. They are backless and open-toed an open-toed mule. Slides can be high-heeled, flat-heeled or somewhere in between, may cover nearly the entire foot from ankle to toe, or may have only one or two narrow straps, they include a single strap or a sequence of straps across the toes and the lower half of the foot to hold the shoe on the foot. The term is descriptive in that this shoe is easy to'slide' on and off the foot when the wearer wants to do so. Slides are trending because of the desire for a more comfortable shoe that still allows participation in activities and sports. Slides can be traced back to Ancient Rome. Though they are thought to come from as far back as Ancient Egypt or Ancient Greece, there is a lack of documentation to further prove that; the popularity of slides in the United States started in the late 1960s, when vibrant, colorful aesthetics, such as cheery flower motifs, were followed. Across the world in Germany the brand Birkenstock created the first fitness slide, a simple design made from contoured cork with a single buckled leather strap.
Another German company, Adidas invented the well-known Adilette pool slide. Slides are well known for their sporty look, they are functional so they are great for casual outfits. For example going out to the beach, walking in parks, summer barbecues. However, high fashion designers such as Prada and Marc Jacobs have included them in their collection; the different designs and ideas that come from the designers are including everything imaginable. Things from feathers to floral to faux fur and regal pearls are being attached or used as the main design behind slides
Shoelaces called shoestrings or bootlaces, are a system used to secure shoes and other footwear. They consist of a pair of strings or cords, one for each shoe, finished off at both ends with stiff sections, known as aglets; each shoelace passes through a series of holes, loops or hooks on either side of the shoe. Loosening the lacing allows the shoe to open wide enough for the foot to be inserted or removed. Tightening the lacing and tying off the ends secures the foot within the shoe. Traditional shoelaces were made of leather, jute, hemp, or other materials used in the manufacture of rope. Modern shoelaces incorporate various synthetic fibers, which are more slippery and thus more prone to coming undone than those made from traditional fibers. On the other hand, smooth synthetic shoelaces have a less rough appearance, suffer less wear from friction, are less susceptible to rotting from moisture. Specialized fibers like flame resistant nomex are applied in safety boots for firefighters. There are various elasticized shoelaces: Traditional "elastic" laces look identical to normal laces, can be tied and untied as normal.
They may come with a permanent clip so they can be fastened invisibly. "Knotty" laces have a series of "fat" sections. These can be used to adjust tension throughout the lacing area; these laces can be tied or the ends can be left loose. "Twirly" laces are like a tight elastic helix, which can be pulled tight without requiring a knot. Elastic laces both make the lacing more comfortable, as well as allowing the shoe to be slipped on and off without tying or untying, which makes them a popular choice for children, the elderly and athletes; the stiff section at each end of the shoelace, which both keeps the twine from unraveling and makes it easier to hold the lace and feed it through the eyelets, is called an aglet spelled aiglet. Shoelaces with a flat cross-section are easier to hold and stay tied more securely than those with a round cross-section due to the increased surface area for friction. Wide flat laces are called "fat laces". Leather shoelaces with a square cross-section, which are common on boat shoes, are notoriously prone to coming undone.
Shoelaces can be coated, either in the factory or with aftermarket products, to increase friction and help them stay tied. When a shoelace is secured with a knot, the lace is squashed; this is what stops the lace from coming undone. In effect, the lace is narrower inside the knot than it is on the loose end, the loose end cannot make itself smaller and slide though the knot. A flat tubular lace will stay tied more than a round lace with a core because the flat lace can be more crimped within the knot. Most laces, are round and have core of cotton yarn boot laces. For these to stay tied securely, the core on the inside of the lace must be compressible. A secondary factor of laces coming undone is the knot itself slipping; this is due to a lack of friction. Cotton laces will make a more reliable knot compared to polyester. In addition, a lace can be smooth or have a coarse surface, which will affect performance. Finishing processes are available, including waxing and silicone treatments, which enhance friction and stop knot slippage.
These are important design factors in the manufacture of hiking-boot laces. Shoelaces are tied off at the top of the shoe using a simple bow knot. Besides securing the shoe, this takes up the length of shoelace exposed after tightening; the common bow consists of two half-knots tied one on top of the other, with the second half-knot looped in order to allow quick untying. When required, the knot can be loosened by pulling one or both of the loose ends; when tying the half-knots, a right-over-left half-knot followed by a left-over-right half-knot forms a square or reef knot, a effective knot for the purpose of tying shoelaces. However, tying two consecutive right-over-left half-knots forms the infamous granny knot, much less secure. Most people who use it will find themselves retying their shoelaces. If the loops lie across the shoe, the knot is a square knot. If they lie along the shoe, the knot is a granny knot. There are several more secure alternatives to the common shoelace bow, with names such as Turquoise Turtle Shoelace Knot, or Shoemaker's Knot, Better Bow Shoelace Knot, Surgeon's Shoelace Knot, Ian's Secure Shoelace Knot, or double slip knot.
One such knot has been patented in 1999 under the title "Shoelace tying system". These are all variations of the same concept of looping the top part of the knot twice instead of once, which results in a finished bow of identical appearance but with the laces wrapped twice around the middle; this double-wrap holds the shoelaces more securely tied while still allowing them to be untied with a pull on the loose end. The proper length of a shoelace, fitting it to a shoe, varies according to the type of lacing used, as well as the type of lace. However, at a rough reference the following guide can be used; this is the process of running the shoelaces through the holes, loops, or hooks to hold together the sides of the shoe with many common lacing methods. There are, in fact two trillion ways to lace a shoe with six pairs of eyelets. Straight-bar lacing appears parallel when viewed from the exterior. Formal shoes demand straight-bar lacing to preserve their clean, nea
Pattens are protective overshoes that were worn in Europe from the Middle Ages until the early 20th century. Pattens were worn outdoors over a normal shoe, had a wooden or wood and metal sole, were held in place by leather or cloth bands. Pattens functioned to elevate the foot above the mud and dirt of the street, in a period when road and urban paving was minimal; the word patten derives from the Old French pate meaning hoof or paw. Women continued to wear pattens in muddy conditions until the nineteenth or early 20th century. In appearance, they may resemble contemporary clogs or sandals, but though historical usage was not always consistent, the term now is used only to describe protective overshoes worn over another pair of shoes. Pattens were worn during the Middle Ages outdoors and in public places over the thin soled shoes of that era. Pattens were worn by both men and women during the Middle Ages, are seen in art from the 15th century: a time when poulaines, shoes with long pointed toes, were in fashion.
Medieval pattens were known in English by the terms:'patyns','clogges', and'galoches', but the original shades of meaning and distinction between these terms is now unclear. Medieval and Early Modern overshoes are now all referred to as'pattens' for convenience. There were three main types of pattens: one with a wooden'platform' sole raised from the ground by either with wooden wedges or iron stands; the second variant had a flat wooden sole hinged. The third type had a flat sole made from stacked layers of leather; some European varieties of these pattens had a laminated sole: light wooden inner sections with leather above and below. In earlier varieties of pattens, dating from the 12th century on, the stilt or wedge variety were more common. From the late 14th century, the flat variety became common. Leather pattens became fashionable in the 14th and 15th centuries, in London appear to have begun to be worn as shoes over hose in the 15th century, spreading to a much wider section of the public.
Most London patten soles were constructed of willow or poplar woods. In 1390, the Diocese of York forbade clergy from wearing pattens and clogs in both church and in processions, considering them to be indecorous: "contra honestatem ecclesiae". Conversely, the famous Spanish rabbi Solomon ben Abraham Ibn Adret, "the Rashba", was asked if it was permissible to wear "patines" on Shabbat, to which he replied that it was the custom of "all the wise in the land" to wear them, permitted. Since shoes of the period had thin soles, pattens were used because of unpaved roads and that indoor stone floors were cold in winter. Furthermore, refuse in cities – animal horse dung and human effluent – was thrown directly into the street. Making full foot contact with such an unpleasant surface was, understandably undesirable. Thus, pattens tended to only make contact with the ground through two or three strips of wood and raised the wearer up sometimes by four inches or more in contrast to clogs which have a low, flat-bottomed sole integral to the shoe.
A pattern of patten which seems to date from the 17th century, became the most common, had a flat metal ring which made contact with the ground, attached to a metal plate nailed into the wooden sole via connecting metal creating a platform of by several inches. By this time men's shoes had thicker soles and the wealthier males wore high riding boots, thus pattens seem only to have been worn by women and working-class men in outdoor occupations. Since dress hems extended down to the feet for most of this period, it was necessary to raise the hem above the ground to keep the dress clean in well-swept and paved streets; the motto of the London Worshipful Company of Pattenmakers, the former representative guild for this trade and remains: Recipiunt Fœminæ Sustentacula Nobis, Latin for Women Receive Support From Us. The 19th-century invention of cheap rubber galoshes displaced the patten, as did the widespread use of urban paving elevated, paved pathways only for pedestrians- the now ubiquitous pavements, sidewalk in American English or hard road surfaces.
Wearing of pattens inside church was discouraged, if not outright forbidden: because of the noise they made, the oft-commented "clink" being the consensus term for the sound. To talk excessively and too loudly was coined to be as if one: "had your "tongue run on pattens", used by Shakespeare and others. In houses, pattens were taken off with hats and overcoats upon entering, not doing so being considered rude and inconsiderate by bringing dirt inside - a faux pas or wrong step; the aunt of the Brontë Sisters, Miss Branwell, seems to have been considered notably eccentric for wearing her pattens indoors: Pattens were not always easy to walk in, despite their practical intention, literary evidence suggests that they could appear, at least to males, as a further aspect of feminine frailty and dependency. Samuel Pepys recorded in his Diary for January 24, 1660: From the Middle Period Poems of John Clare: From Thomas Hardy's The Woodlanders of 1887, though set earlier in the century: The word could be used as a term for a wooden soled shoe, a chopine or clog, as opposed to an overshoe, until at least the nineteenth century.
The word was used for the traditional wooden outd