The Blue Banana is a discontinuous corridor of urbanisation spreading over Western and Central Europe, with a population of around 111 million. The concept was developed in 1989 by a group of French geographers managed by Roger Brunet, it stretches from North Wales across Greater London to the Benelux states and along the German Rhineland, Southern Germany, Alsace in France in the west and Switzerland to Northern Italy in the south. The French geographer Roger Brunet, who observed a division between "active" and "passive" spaces, developed the concept of a West European "backbone" in 1989, he made reference to an urban corridor of industry and services stretching from northern England to northern Italy. The name "Blue Banana" was dually coined by Jacques Chérèque, an artist adding a graphic to an article by Josette Alia in Le Nouvel Observateur; the color blue referred to either the color of the flag of the European Community, or the blue collars of the factory workers in the region. Brunet saw the "European Backbone" as the development of historical precedents, e.g. trade routes, or as the consequence of an accumulation of industrial capital.
In his analysis, Brunet excluded the Paris urban area and other French conurbations because of French economic insularity. His aim was a greater economic integration in Europe, but he felt that France had lost this connection by the 17th century as a result of its persecution of Huguenots and centralisation in Paris. Versions do, include Paris. In 1991, in the context of a study on behalf of the European Commission in support of its Regional Policy, researchers criticized the idea of the Blue Banana as a desirable formation, but not its empirical reality, identifying it as the result of regional competition in Europe. Furthermore, their diagram of the Blue Banana had more of a curve, still including Northern Italy, but ending at Barcelona, it included Paris, had the Anglo-Scottish border as its northern stem. A study of the history of the Blue Banana as a concept refers to the Commission's study as a mistaken rejection of the Blue Banana from Brunet's original conception. From the research on the Commission's behalf, the Blue Banana represented a developed core at the expense of the periphery, whereas Brunet empirically viewed the Blue Banana as a region of development at Paris's periphery, beyond the French borders.
List of metropolitan areas in the European Union by GDP Demographics of Europe Golden Banana Four Motors for Europe Geza, Tóth. European Spatial Structure. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing. Doi:10.13140/2.1.1560.2247. ISBN 978-3-659-64559-4. Brunet, Roger. "Lignes de force de l'espace Européen". Mappemonde: 14–19
Annie Florence Petty. was the first professionally educated and trained librarian to work in the state of North Carolina. She served as the first librarian at the North Carolina State Normal and Industrial School and was one of the founding members of the North Carolina Library Association Annie Petty was born in the Quaker Bush Hill community of Randolph County, North Carolina on August 27, 1871 to William Clinton and Mary Victoria Petty, she attended the Library School of the Drexel Institute of Art and Industry in Philadelphia in 1898, where she received her formal training in the emerging field of librarianship
Michael Augustine Quinn, MBE, was a chef and charity worker, Head Chef at The Ritz. He became a homeless alcoholic and founded an alcohol awareness charity. Michael was one of 6 children born to Agnes and Frank Quinn in Leeds 9, he attended Corpus Christi High School along with his siblings and both he and his brother Peter were taught by their sister Patricia. Michael began his career as apprentice at the Queens Hotel in Leeds, in 1966 was declared'Top Apprentice Chef of Great Britain', he subsequently worked at Claridge's, earned a Michelin star as head chef of Gravetye Manor, headhunted by The Ritz in 1980. His success there led to him being known as the "Mighty Quinn". Michael made history by insisting, he made television appearances on iconic programmes such as Farmhouse Kitchen and Wogan, was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 1985 Birthday Honours. He appeared as a "castaway" on the BBC Radio programme Desert Island Discs on 17 March 1984. Michael has three children, Michael and James.
However, by 1990, he was unemployed and sleeping on the street or in Salvation Army hostels, due to his alcoholism. In 2001, after a period of recovery, he established the charitable Ark Foundation, which raises awareness of alcohol and drug abuse in catering colleges in the United Kingdom, he died on 24 August 2017 at the age of 71. Ark Foundation