Mount Logan is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest peak in North America, after Denali. The mountain was named after Sir William Edmond Logan, a Canadian geologist and founder of the Geological Survey of Canada. Mount Logan is located within Kluane National Park Reserve in southwestern Yukon, less than 40 kilometres north of the Yukon–Alaska border. Mount Logan is the source of the Logan glaciers. Logan is believed to have the largest base circumference of any non-volcanic mountain on Earth, including a massif with eleven peaks over 5,000 metres. Due to active tectonic uplifting, Mount Logan is still rising in height. Before 1992, the exact elevation of Mount Logan was unknown and measurements ranged from 5,959 to 6,050 metres. In May 1992, a GSC expedition climbed Mount Logan and fixed the current height of 5,959 metres using GPS. Temperatures are low on and near Mount Logan. On the 5,000 m high plateau, air temperature hovers around −45 °C in the winter and reaches near freezing in summer with the median temperature for the year around −27 °C.
Minimal snow melt leads to a significant ice cap, reaching 300 m in certain spots. The Mount Logan massif is considered to contain all the surrounding peaks with less than 500 m of prominence, as listed below: In 1922, a geologist approached the Alpine Club of Canada with the suggestion that the club send a team to the mountain to reach the summit for the first time. An international team of Canadian and American climbers was assembled and they had planned their attempt in 1924 but funding and preparation delays postponed the trip until 1925; the international team of climbers began their journey in early May, crossing the mainland from the Pacific coast by train. They walked the remaining 200 kilometres to within 10 kilometres of the Logan Glacier where they established base camp. In the early evening of June 23, 1925, Albert H. MacCarthy, H. F. Lambart, Allen Carpé, W. W. Foster, Norman H. Read and Andy Taylor stood on top for the first time, it had taken them 65 days to approach the mountain from the nearest town, McCarthy and return, with all climbers intact.
1957 East Ridge. Don Monk, Gil Roberts and 3 others reached the summit on July 19. 1965 Hummingbird Ridge. Dick Long, Allen Steck, Jim Wilson, John Evans, Franklin Coale Sr. and Paul Bacon over 30 days, mid-July to Mid-August. Fred Beckey remarked: "couldn't believe that they had climbed that thing. We didn't think they had a chance". Featured in Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. 1967, the first ski descent of the mountain was made in two stages by Daniel C. Taylor main summit to the Kluane glacier 1977 Warbler Ridge. Dave Jones, Frank Baumann, Fred Thiessen, Jay Page and Rene Bucher in 22 days. 1978 West Ridge. Steve Davis, Jon Waterman, George Sievewright, Roger Hurt. Climbed ridge in 27 days "capsule-style". 1979 "Northwest Ridge" Michael Down, Paul Kindree, John Howe, Reid Carter and John Wittmayer climbed to the summit over 22 days, topping out on June 19. 1979 South-Southwest Ridge. Raymond Jotterand, Alan Burgess, Jim Elzinga and John Laughlan reached the summit after 15 days of climbing on June 30 and July 1.
1987 an alpine-style attempt on the Hummingbird Ridge ended with the deaths of Catherine Freer, North America's strongest female alpinist, David Cheesmond from South Africa and Canada, considered among the best alpinists in the world, when a snow cornice broke. 1992 June 6, an expedition sponsored by the Royal Canadian Geographic Society confirmed the height of Mount Logan using GPS. The leader was Michael Schmidt, with Lisel Currie, Leo Nadeay, Charlie Roots, J-C. Lavergne, Roger Laurilla, Pat Morrow, Karl Nagy, Sue Gould, Alan Björn, Lloyd Freese, Kevin McLaughlin and Rick Staley. 2017 May 23, 15-year-old Naomi Prohaska reached the summit. She was part of a team led by her father. Following the death of former Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, a close friend of Trudeau's, proposed renaming the mountain Mount Trudeau. A mountain in British Columbia's Premier Range was named Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau instead. During the last few days of May 2005, three climbers from the North Shore Search and Rescue team of North Vancouver became stranded on the mountain.
A joint operation by Canadian and American forces rescued the three climbers and took them to Anchorage, Alaska for treatment of frostbite. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of Canada List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories List of Ultras in Canada List of elevation extremes by country Irving, R. L. G.. Ten Great Mountains. London: J. M. Dent & Sons. Roper, Steve. Fifty Classic Climbs of North America. San Francisco, CA, USA: Sierra Club Books. Pp. 179–182. ISBN 0-87156-292-8. Scott, Chic. Pushing the Limits, The Story of Canadian Mountaineering. Calgary, Canada: Rocky Mountain Books. ISBN 0-921102-59-3. Retrieved December 27, 2013. Selters, Andy. Ways to the Sky. Golden, CO, USA: American Alpine Club Press. ISBN 0-930410-83-1. Sherman, Paddy. Cloud Walkers - Six Climbs on Major Canadian Peaks. Toronto, Canada: Macmillan of Canada. Lib Congress Cat# 65-25069. Mount Log
Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier
Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier is the highest peak of the Cariboo Mountains in the east-central interior of British Columbia, Canada. The mountain is part of the Premier Range, located just west of Valemount; the name honours the seventh Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, who died in 1919. Named "Mount Titan" by American mountaineer Allen Carpe, it was renamed in 1929 to honour Canada's Liberal prime minister. Mountain peaks of Canada List of mountain peaks of North America
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Volcán de Colima
The Volcán de Colima, 3,820 m known as Volcán de Fuego, is part of the Colima Volcanic Complex consisting of Volcán de Colima, Nevado de Colima and the eroded El Cántaro. It is the youngest of the three and as of 2015 is one of the most active volcanos in Mexico and in North America, it has erupted more than 40 times since 1576. One of the largest eruptions was on January 20–24, 1913. Nevado de Colima known as Tzapotépetl, lies 5 kilometres north of its more active neighbor and is the taller of the two at 4,271 meters, it is the 26th-most prominent peak in North America. Despite its name, only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of Colima, it is 125 km south of Guadalajara, Jalisco. Since 1869–1878, a parasitic set of domes, collectively known as El Volcancito, has formed on the northeast flank of the main cone of the volcano. In the late Pleistocene era, a huge landslide occurred at the mountain, with 25 km³ of debris travelling some 120 km, reaching the Pacific Ocean. An area of some 2,200 km² was covered in landslide deposits.
The active cone is within a large caldera, formed by a combination of landslides and large eruptions. The lava is andesite containing 56-61% SiO2. About 300,000 people live within 40 km of the volcano, which makes it the most dangerous volcano in Mexico. In light of its history of large eruptions and situation in a densely populated area, it was designated a Decade Volcano, singling it out for study. In recent years there have been frequent temporary evacuations of nearby villagers due to threatening volcanic activity. Eruptions have occurred in 1991, 1998–1999 and from 2001 to the present day, with activity being characterised by extrusion of viscous lava forming a lava dome, occasional larger explosions, forming pyroclastic flows and dusting the areas surrounding the volcano with ash and tephra; the largest eruption for several years occurred on May 24, 2005. An ash cloud rose to more than 3 km over the volcano, satellite monitoring indicated that the cloud spread over an area extending 110 nautical miles west of the volcano in the hours after the eruption.
Pyroclastic flows travelled 4–5 km from the vent, lava bombs landed 3–4 km away. Authorities set up an exclusion zone within 6.5 km of the summit. On November 21, 2014, the volcano erupted again. An ash column was sent 5 km into the air. No fatalities were reported, no evacuations took place. There were eruptions on January 10, 21 and 25, with the ash from the January 21 eruption falling in towns more than 15 miles away. On 10 July 2015, there was another eruption. Another eruption occurred on Sunday, September 25, 2016, sending a plume of ash and smoke 10,000 ft into the sky. During December 2016, ashes plumes occurred twice a day. On Sunday, December 18, 2016, there were three eruptions; the biggest columns of ash reached 2 kilometers in height. Colima volcano experienced another strong explosion at 06:27 UTC on January 18, 2017; the eruption spewed volcanic ash up to 4 km above the crater. The volcano is monitored by the Colima Volcano Observatory at the University of Mexico. A team analyzes and communicates every event that occurs at this volcano.
Last year a webcam was installed close to the volcano, volcanic activity can be seen in real time. Notes BibliographyDomínguez T. Ramírez J. J. Breton M. Present Stage Of Activity At Colima Volcano, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003, abstract #V42B-0350 Universidad de Colima, Observatorio Vulcanológico Universidad de Colima, Centro de Intercambio e Investigación en Vulcanología Experiments at Colima by the Alaska Volcano Observatory "Colima". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-14. "Volcán de Colima". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2016-12-03