The wood duck or Carolina duck is a species of perching duck found in North America. It is one of the most colorful North American waterfowl, the wood duck is a medium-sized perching duck. A typical adult is from 47 to 54 cm in length with a wingspan of between 66 to 73 cm and this is about three-quarters of the length of an adult mallard. It shares its genus with the Asian Mandarin duck, the adult male has distinctive multicolored iridescent plumage and red eyes, with a distinctive white flare down the neck. The female, less colorful, has a white eye-ring and a whitish throat. The males call is a whistle, the females utter a drawn-out, rising squeal, do weep do weep, when flushed. Their breeding habitat is wooded swamps, shallow lakes, marshes or ponds, and creeks in eastern North America and they usually nest in cavities in trees close to water, although they will take advantage of nesting boxes in wetland locations if available. Females line their nests with feathers and other materials. Unlike most other ducks, the duck has sharp claws for perching in trees and can, in southern regions.
Females typically lay between 7 and 15 white-tan eggs that incubate for an average of 30 days, after hatching, the ducklings jump down from the nest tree and make their way to water. The mother calls them to her, but does not help them in any way and they prefer nesting over water so the young have a soft landing, but will nest up to 140 m away from the shoreline. The day after they hatch, the climb to the nest entrance. The ducklings can swim and find their own food by this time and these birds feed by dabbling or walking on land. They mainly eat berries and seeds, but insects, the birds are year-round residents in parts of its southern range, but the northern populations migrate south for the winter. They overwinter in the southern United States near the Atlantic coast, 75% of the wood ducks in the Pacific Flyway are non-migratory. There is a feral population in Dublin. The population of the duck was in serious decline in the late 19th century as a result of severe habitat loss. By the beginning of the 20th century, wood ducks had disappeared from much of their former range
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in ecology in the 1980s. Restoration ecology is commonly used for the academic study of the process. E. O. Wilson, a biologist states that, Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm, the next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology. Restoration ecology is the study of ecological restoration. Estimates of the current extinction rate is 1,000 to 10,000 times more than the normal rate, for many people biological diversity, has an intrinsic value that humans have a responsibility towards other living things, and an obligation to future generations. On a more level, natural ecosystems provide human society with food, fuel. Such processes have been estimated to be trillions of dollars annually. Habitat loss is the cause of both species extinctions and ecosystem service decline. The two ways to reverse trend of habitat loss are conservation of currently viable habitat and restoration of degraded habitats. The fundamental difference between restoration and other conservation efforts is analogous to the difference between disease prevention and treatment, conservation attempts to maintain and protect existing habitat and biodiversity, whereas restoration attempts to reverse existing environmental degradation and population declines.
Targeted human intervention is used to promote habitat, biodiversity recovery, the possibility of restoration, does not provide an excuse for converting extremely valuable pristine habitat into other uses, as in medicine, it better to prevent than to treat. Though restoration ecologists and other conservation biologists generally agree that habitat is the most important locus of biodiversity protection, conservation biology as an academic discipline is rooted in population biology. Because of that, it is organized at the genetic level. Restoration ecology is organized at the community level, looking at specific ecosystems, conservation biologys focus on rare or endangered species limit the number of manipulative studies that can be performed. As a consequence, conservation studies tend to be descriptive, however, the highly manipulative nature of restoration ecology allows the researcher to test the hypotheses vigorously. Restorative activity often reflects an experimental test of what limits populations, Restoration ecology draws on a wide range of ecological concepts.
Disturbance is a change of environmental conditions, which interferes with the functioning of a biological system, disturbance, at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, is a natural component of many communities. Humans have had limited natural impacts on ecosystems for as long as humans have existed, however and minimizing the differences between modern anthropogenic and natural disturbances is crucial to restoration ecology
The American coot, known as a mud hen, is a bird of the family Rallidae. Though commonly mistaken to be ducks, American coots belong to a distinct order, unlike the webbed feet of ducks, coots have broad, lobed scales on their lower legs and toes that fold back with each step in order to facilitate walking on dry land. Coots live near water, typically inhabiting wetlands and open water bodies in North America, groups of coots are called covers or rafts. The oldest known coot lived to be 22 years old, the American coot is a migratory bird that occupies most of North America. It lives in the Pacific and southwestern United States and Mexico year-round, in the winter they can be found as far south as Panama. Coots generally build floating nests and lay 8–12 eggs per clutch and males have similar appearances, but they can be distinguished during aggressive displays by the larger ruff on the male. American coots eat primarily algae and other plants but animals when available. The American coot is listed as “Least Concern” under the IUCN conservation ratings, hunters generally avoid killing American coots because their meat is not as sought after as that of ducks.
Much research has been done on the habits of American coots. Studies have found that mothers will preferentially feed offspring with the brightest plume feathers, American coots are susceptible to conspecific brood parasitism and have evolved mechanisms to identify which offspring are theirs and which are from parasitic females. The American coot was first described by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1789, a member of the family Rallidae, it has three subspecies, Fulica americana alai, F. a. caribaea, and F. a. ardesiaca. These subspecies, are considered to be their own separate species. Including these subspecies, there are 11 members of the genus Fulica distributed across the globe, Coot fossils from the Middle Pleistocene of California have been described as Fulica hesterna but cannot be separated from the present-day American coot. Thus, it seems that the modern-type American coots evolved during the mid-late Pleistocene, the American coots genus name, Fulica, is a direct borrowing of the Latin word for coot.
The specific epithet americana means America, the American coot measures 34–43 cm in length and 58–71 cm across the wings. Adults have a short, white bill and white frontal shield and females look alike, but females are smaller. Body mass in females ranges from 427 to 628 g and in males from 576 to 848 g, juvenile birds have olive-brown crowns and a gray body. They become adult-colored around 4 months of age, the American coot has a variety of repeated calls and sounds
Poa is a genus of about 500 species of grasses, native to the temperate regions of both hemispheres. Common names include meadow-grass, bluegrass and speargrass, Poa are members of the Pooideae subfamily of the Poaceae family. Bluegrass, which has leaves, derives its name from the seed heads. The genus Poa includes both annual and perennial species, most are monoecious, but a few are dioecious. The leaves are narrow, folded or flat, sometimes bristled, many of the species are important pasture plants, used extensively by grazing livestock. Kentucky bluegrass is the most extensively used cool-season grass used in lawns, sports fields, annual bluegrass can sometimes be considered a weed. According to second-century physician Galen, the roots of certain species are good for treating fresh wounds, in the sixteenth century, Poa grasses were used to treat inflammation of the kidney. Some of the Poa species are popular for gardens and for landscaping in New Zealand, lepidoptera whose caterpillars feed on Poa include, Agriphila inquinatella Cercyonis pegala Poanes hobomok Poanes zabulon
Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the evil forest areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by ancient cultures worldwide. The worlds first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall and he spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long,9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers. He tried to encourage birdlife by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in and he invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy.
Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany, in Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a national statute. As of 2014,1767 out of a total of 10339 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve in their names, in Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units. Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the balance, biological diversity. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, and hunting is not allowed, there are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no, 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to protect the natural resources. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park, in Sweden there are 29 national parks. The first of them were established in 1909, in fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden and they comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Enironmental Code
California chaparral and woodlands
The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of lower northern and southern California and northwestern Baja California, located on the west coast of North America. It is an ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests and scrub Biome, the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion is subdivided into three smaller ecoregions. California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion, In southern coastal California and northwestern coastal Baja California, as well as all the Channel Islands of California and Guadalupe Island. California interior chaparral and woodlands, In central interior California surrounding the California Central Valley cover the foothills, the ecoregion includes a great variety of plant communities, including grasslands, oak savannas and woodlands and coniferous forests, including southern stands of the tall coast redwood. Species include the California gnatcatcher, Costas hummingbird, coast horned lizard, other animals found here are the Heermann kangaroo rat, Santa Cruz kangaroo rat, and the endangered white-eared pocket mouse.
Another notable insect resident of this ecoregion is the rain beetle It spends up to years living underground in a larval stage. Chaparral, like most Mediterranean shrublands, is highly resilient and historically burned with high-severity. Historically, Native Americans burned chaparral to promote grasslands for textiles, though adapted to infrequent fires, chaparral plant communities can be exterminated by frequent fires especially with climate change induced drought. Today, frequent accidental ignitions can convert chaparral from a native shrubland to nonnative annual grassland and drastically reduce species diversity, some unique plant communities, like southern Californias Coastal Sage Scrub, have been nearly eradicated by agriculture and urbanization. As a result, the now has many rare and endangered species
Coastal sage scrub
It is within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests and scrub biome. Plant community Coastal sage scrub is characterized by low-growing aromatic, flora Characteristic shrubs and subshrubs include, California sagebrush, black sage, white sage, California buckwheat, coast brittle-bush, golden yarrow. Larger shrubs include and lemonade berry, herbaceous plants, and in some locales and succulents, are part of the flora. The coastal sage plant community is divided into two geographical subtypes — northern coastal scrub and southern coastal scrub. Northern coastal scrub occurs along the Pacific Coast from the northern San Francisco Bay Area northwards to southern Oregon and it frequently forms a landscape mosaic with the California coastal prairie plant community. The predominant plants are low evergreen shrubs and herbs, Characteristic shrubs include coyote brush, yerba santa, coast silk-tassel and yellow bush lupine. Herbaceous species include western blue-eyed grass, Douglas iris, and grasses, Southern coastal scrub is mostly found along the maritime Central Coast region, and the terraces and mountains with coastal climate influence in Southern California.
The plants of this community prefer the mild maritime climates found along Southern Californias coastline, world Wildlife Fund estimates that only 15 percent of the coastal sage scrublands remain undeveloped. Bernard Field Station at the Claremont Colleges, in San Diego County, the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base protects larger areas, and the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar has vernal pools and the endemic mint Pogogyne abramsii. One of the largest remaining areas of coastal sage scrub is found in the Temescal Mountains of Riverside County. A number of rare and endangered species occur in coastal scrub habitats. For example, the California gnatcatcher is a bird species endemic to the coastal sage scrublands. Other endemic fauna includes the El Segundo blue butterfly in the LAX dunes, the endangered Torrey pine is the dominant tree at Torrey Pines State Reserve in San Diego, one of only two known stands of this pine species. Terrace California coastal prairie California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion Native grasses of California Index, California chaparral and woodlands In, Mayer KE, a Guide to Wildlife Habitats of California.
Sacramento, CA, California Department of Fish and Game, Coastal Scrub, de Becker, berkeley, CA, University of California Press. California coastal sage scrub and chaparral, Claremont Colleges, Robert J. Bernard Field Station website — Lists and photographs of organisms found in Coastal sage scrub. Las Pilitas horticulture database, California coastal sage plant community — text. Theodore Payne Foundation for Wild Flowers and Native Plants, Native Plant Guides — Southern California species
GIS or geographic information system is a computer system that allows for visualizing, manipulating and storage of data with associated attributes. GIS offers better understanding of patterns and relationships of the landscape at different scales, tools inside the GIS allow for manipulation of data for spatial analysis or cartography. A topographical map is the type of map used to depict elevation. In a Geographic Information System, digital models are commonly used to represent the surface of a place. Digital terrain models are another way to represent terrain in GIS, USGS is developing a 3D Elevation Program to keep up with growing needs for high quality topographic data. 3DEP is a collection of enhanced elevation data in the form of high quality LiDAR data over the conterminous United States, there are three bare earth DEM layers in 3DEP which are nationally seamless at the resolution of 1/3,1, and 2 arcseconds. This map is derived from GTOPO30 data that describes the elevation of Earths terrain at intervals of 30 arcseconds and it uses color and shading instead of contour lines to indicate elevation.
Hypsography is the study of the distribution of elevations on the surface of the Earth, the term originates from the Greek word ὕψος hypsos meaning height. Most often it is used only in reference to elevation of land, related to the term hypsometry, the measurement of these elevations of a planets solid surface are taken relative to mean datum, except for Earth which is taken relative to the sea level. In the troposphere, temperatures decrease with altitude and this lapse rate is approximately 6.5 °C/km. S
Quercus lobata, commonly called the valley oak or roble, grows into the largest of North American oaks. It is endemic to California, growing in valleys and foothills from Siskiyou County to San Diego County. Mature specimens may attain an age of up to 600 years and this deciduous oak requires year-round access to groundwater. Its thick, ridged bark is characteristic and resembles alligator hide, the valley oaks deeply lobed leaves assist in identification. The sturdy trunk of the oak may exceed three meters in diameter and its stature may surpass 30 meters in height. The Fetzer Oak, in Covelo, California, is the tallest known North American oak, the branches have an irregular and arching appearance that produce a profound leafless silhouette in the clear winter sky. During Autumn leaves turn a yellow to orange color but become brown during mid to late fall. In advancing age the branches assume a drooping characteristic and its pewter-colored rippled bark adds to the attractive aesthetic of this species.
Typically, leaves are five to ten centimeters long and are roundly and deeply lobed, the leaf width is approximately one half its length. Each leaf is green with an underneath pale green appearance, moreover. When a fresh leaf is rubbed or broken, a scent is exuded. The wood is a dull brown approaching yellow, and it has not been used extensively for milling, over most of the range, acorns fall in October. A variety of mammals and birds eat them, including the acorn woodpecker, California scrub jay, yellow-billed magpie, the acorns are attacked by bruchid beetles, but can survive moderate levels of infestation. Surviving acorns all germinate in their first winter, and none remain by mid-winter, the acorns are medium to dark brown and range from two to three centimeters in length. The caps have deep stippling and are found most often as singlets, the Concow tribe call the acorns lō-ē’. Globular galls up to several centimeters in diameter are frequently attached to twigs of mature specimens of valley oak and these house the larval stage of small indigenous wasps Andricus quercuscalifornicus. A related wasp species, A.
kingi, produces small galls shaped like Hersheys kisses on leaf surfaces, the valley oak is the only known food plant of Chionodes petalumensis caterpillars. Like many oaks, valley oaks can tolerate wild fires, although smaller individuals may be top-killed, most resprout from the root crown Valley oak tolerates cool wet winters and hot dry summers, but requires abundant water
Santa Clara County, California
Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,781,642, the county seat is San Jose, the tenth-most populous city in the United States. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area region, Santa Clara County is named after Mission Santa Clara, which was established in 1777, and is named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the counties of California. The original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Coyote Creek, part of the countys territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries.
The result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad,118 U. S.394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the Valley of the Hearts Delight due to its natural beauty, the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943, varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, and other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a presence in the area. The term Silicon Valley was coined in 1971, the trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and agriculture has since been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. And Hewlett-Packard, and internet companies eBay, Google, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
The San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the south, as of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. The vast majority of these Superfund sites were caused by associated with the high tech sector located in Silicon Valley. As of 2013, Santa Clara County has the highest median income of any county in California at $84,741. The 2010 United States Census reported that Santa Clara County had a population of 1,781,642. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 479,210 persons,22. 5% Mexican,0. 4% Puerto Rican,0. 1% Cuban,3. 8% Other Hispanic
Carduus pycnocephalus, with common names including Italian thistle, Italian plumeless thistle, and Plymouth thistle, is a species of thistle. It is native to, the Mediterranean region in southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, East Europe and the Caucasus, the plant has become an introduced species in other regions, and on other continents, often becoming a noxious weed or invasive species. A winter annual, Carduus pycnocephalus stems range from 8 inches to 6.6 feet, the multiple stems are winged with spines. The plant grows in a rosettes of 10–14 inches in diameter, cauline leaves are tomentose on the underside and contain spines on the lobe tips. Flower heads are 2-5 per cluster, densely matted with cobwebby hairs at the base of the phyllaries, corollas are pink to purple, approx. 4-.6 in long, and the fruits are brown to gold, with a bristly, minutely barbed pappus. It is a C-listed weed by the California Department of Agriculture and it favors grasslands and chaparral vegetation types, but is especially prevalent in oak woodlands in and around the Central Valley.
It is found in disturbed areas, often with basaltic soils, fertile soils, Italian thistle can grow densely, crowding out other vegetation with dense rosette colonies in the winter, thereby preventing establishment of native plants. Its spiny leaves and phyllaries prevent animals from grazing on it and its tendency to grow under the canopy of oaks increases the risk of wildfire damage to the trees, as fire can carry to the canopy easier. Mechanical Mechanical methods can be effective but must be done before the plant sets seed, the root must be severed at least 4 inches below the ground to prevent the plant from regenerating. Mowing and slashing are not reliable as the plant is able to regrow, Biological Biological control agents have limited success with Carduus pycnocephalus. Insects that tested host-specific by the California Dept, puccinia cardui-pycnocephali is a species of rust apparently exclusive to Carduus pycnocephalus. Other rust species have found on Italian thistle as well. Grazing by sheep or goats in Australia has showed promise as well, Chemical Chemical control can be achieved with a variety of products including, glyphosate, Picloram, and 2, 4-D ester.
However, caution must be exercised when using these products, and their use is not always appropriate, especially near water surfaces, check with local and national regulations directing use. USDA Plants Profile, Carduus pycnocephalus Jepson Manual Treatment — Carduus pycnocephalus Carduus pycnocephalus — CalPhoto gallery