Snake River (Colorado)
The Snake River is a short tributary of the Blue River 15 miles long, in central Colorado in the United States. It drains a mountainous area on the west side of the Front Range in southeastern Summit County east of Keystone, it rises near the continental divide near Webster Pass along the Summit-Park county line and descends through a steep canyon to the north past the former mining camp of Montezuma turns west to flow past Keystone, where it joins the Blue from the east as an arm of Dillon Reservoir. List of rivers of Colorado List of tributaries of the Colorado River
Byers Canyon is a short gorge on the upper Colorado River in Grand County, Colorado in the United States. The canyon is 8 miles long and is located in the headwaters region of the Colorado between Hot Sulphur Springs and Kremmling. U. S. Highway 40 passes through the canyon between Hot Sulphur Springs and Kremmling; the Union Pacific Railroad's Moffat Route travels through the short canyon. Gore Canyon
Ruby Canyon is a 25 mile long canyon on the Colorado River located on the Colorado-Utah border in the western United States, is a popular destination for rafting. The canyon takes its name from the red sandstone cliffs; the only access to the canyon outside of rafting is provided by Union Pacific Railroad between Mack and Westwater, Utah. Amtrak's California Zephyr follows this route through Ruby Canyon between Grand Junction and Thompson Springs, Utah. A popular attraction along the route are the words "Utah | Colorado" painted on the canyon wall at the border between the two states next to the Utaline Siding
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
A continental divide is a drainage divide on a continent such that the drainage basin on one side of the divide feeds into one ocean or sea, the basin on the other side either feeds into a different ocean or sea, or else is endorheic, not connected to the open sea. Every continent on earth except Antarctica which has no free-flowing water has at least one continental drainage divide; the endpoints of a continental divide may be coastlines of gulfs, seas or oceans, the boundary of an endorheic basin, or another continental divide. One case, the Great Basin Divide, is a closed loop around an endoreic basin; the endpoints where a continental divide meets the coast are not always definite since the exact border between adjacent bodies of water is not defined. The International Hydrographic Organization's publication Limits of Oceans and Seas defines exact boundaries of oceans, but it is not universally recognized. Where a continental divide meets an endorheic basin, such as the Great Divide Basin of Wyoming, the continental divide splits and encircles the basin.
Where two divides intersect, they form a triple divide. Whether a divide is considered a continental divide distinguished from other secondary drainage divides may depend on whether the associated gulfs, seas, or oceans are considered separate. For example, the Gulf of Mexico is considered separate from the Atlantic Ocean, so the Eastern Continental Divide separates their respective watersheds, but the Sea of Cortez is not considered separate from the Pacific Ocean, so the divide between the Colorado River watershed which drains to the Sea of Cortez, Columbia River Watershed which drains to the Pacific Ocean, is not considered to be a continental divide. Together, continental divides demarcate a set of drainage basins or watersheds, each of which drains to a specific ocean, sea or gulf, such as the North American Atlantic seaboard watershed, demarcated by the Eastern Continental Divide and Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Divide. A'continent' for the purpose of water divides may not correspond to a geopolitical or geophysical continent.
In Africa, the most significant continental divide is the Congo-Nile Divide between the watersheds of the Nile and the Congo, passing through the area of the African Great Lakes. Between the Congo and the Sahara, a vast area drains into the endorheic Lake Chad, puncturing the Atlantic–Mediterranean divide; the Mediterranean–Indian Ocean divide is punctured in East Africa by the endorheic lake systems of the East African Rift. Antarctica is not considered to have a continental divide; the interior of Antarctica receives little precipitation, that in the form of snow, the continent is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. The Transantarctic Mountains divide the ice streams draining West Antarctica into the Ronne Ice Shelf, toward the Pacific and into the Ross Ice Shelf, from those draining East Antarctica toward the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Arabian Peninsula In Australia the Great Dividing Range separates those rivers flowing to the eastern seaboard and the Pacific Ocean from those flowing westward to the Murray–Darling Basin and to the Southern Ocean.
However, Australia has fewer distinct ocean boundaries and fewer prominent mountain ranges, which makes it hard to and define any one divide. Much of the interior of the continent drains into the endorheic Lake Eyre Basin. Scottish watershed Eurasia has various divides, depending on the definition of "ocean". Examples include: Asia: Himachal Pradesh: Arabian Sea Lake Baikal: Kara Sea, Laptev Sea Perm Krai/Urals: Caspian Sea, Arctic Sea Tibetan Plateau: Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean Uttarakhand: Bay of Bengal Europe-Asia: Don-Volga: Black Sea, Caspian Sea Europe: the European Watershed with the triple divide of North Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean Adriatic Sea at Lunghin Pass in the Central Eastern Alps; the Arctic Divide or Northern Divide in northern and western Canada, separates the Arctic Ocean watershed from the Hudson Bay watershed. The Arctic Divide runs from Snow Dome Mountain, on the edge of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park on the eastern border of British Columbia, northeasterly across Alberta, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut to northern Baffin Island runs southeast along the spine of the island to the tip of Meta Incognita Peninsula.
The hamlet of Kimmirut to the northwest on Hudson Strait is the nearest inhabited place. This divide was a barrier to transportation until the Methye Portage in northwestern Saskatchewan was discovered in 1778, which opened up the Arctic rivers to the fur traders and became part of a transcontinental trade route from Atlantic to Pacific, it was of significance in Canadian history because it marked the northern boundary of Rupert's Land, the trading monopoly area of the Hudson's Bay Company. The Continental Divide called the Great Divide, in Alaska, the Pacific-Arctic Divide, separates the watersheds of the Pacific Ocean from those of the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, it runs from the western tip of the Seward Peninsula in Alaska, through western Canada along the crest of the Rocky Mountains, including through Glacier National Park, Yellow
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
Colorado-Big Thompson Project
The Colorado-Big Thompson Project is a federal water diversion project in Colorado designed to collect West Slope mountain water from the headwaters of the Colorado River and divert it to Colorado's Front Range and plains. In Colorado 80% of the state's precipitation falls on the West Slope, in the Rocky Mountains, while around 80% of the state's growing population lives along the East Slope, between the cities of Fort Collins and Pueblo. Ten reservoirs, about 18 dams and dikes, the Alva B. Adams Tunnel under the Continental Divide, as well as six power plants, make up the project; the C-BT is owned and managed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation's Eastern Colorado Area Office under its Great Plains Region; the project was built, is owned, is operated by the federal Bureau of Reclamation under the Department of the Interior. By the late 1890s, farmers in northeastern Colorado realized water rights in the area had become over-appropriated. In order to survive the agricultural season, additional water supplies would be needed.
Prior to the Dust Bowl era, agriculture in this section of the state had relied upon sources such as Boulder Creek, St. Vrain Creek, Little Thompson River, Big Thompson River and the Cache La Poudre River, all of which are a part of the South Platte River basin and flow into the South Platte River before the South Platte reaches Greeley, Colorado. In search of a solution and their representatives approached the Bureau of Reclamation. In the late 1930s a solution was found: divert the water via a 13.2-mile -long tunnel under the Continental Divide and Rocky Mountain National Park. The proposed water diversion was extensive and the project could not have been constructed without compensation to the West Slope for the water sent East; as a result, the first feature built on the C-BT was Green Mountain Dam and Reservoir, a West Slope facility designed to provide for future water demands in the state's Upper Colorado River Basin. The project was authorized by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1937.
Construction began on Green Mountain in the northern part of Summit County in 1938. Construction on the project continued through most of the next 20 years. While the project was built for agricultural purposes, it serves multiple demands including municipal and industrial supply, hydro-power generation and fish and wildlife. In recent years, water supply demands have shifted making municipal and industrial supply the main water beneficiary, rather than irrigation. Today, the "C-BT" serves over 33 cities and towns in northeastern Colorado, including Fort Collins, Loveland, Estes Park and Sterling, encompassed by 7 counties, providing a secondary source of water for around 830,000 people and an irrigated area of 650,000 acres. Although water rights allow for up to 310,000 acre feet of water a year to be diverted, annual diversions average around 220,000 acre feet, instead. A drop of over 2000 vertical feet from the Rockies down to the plains allows for power generation. Six power plants on the project produce an average supply of 759 million kilowatt hours of electricity a year.
Like the water supply, generated electricity is supplemental. Electricity produced on the C-BT is a source of "peaking power" and is marketed by the Department of Energy via its Western Area Power Administration. An extensive series of reservoirs and conduits on the west side of the Rockies serve to collect water from the headwaters of the Colorado River, as well as two tributaries, Cottonwood Creek and the Fraser River. Lake Granby, located in eastern Grand County, is the primary C-BT storage facility, with a capacity of 539,800 acre feet; the reservoir is held by 12,722 feet of auxiliary dikes. Willow Creek Reservoir is built on Willow Creek, located west of Lake Granby, provides a source from which water is diverted and pumped to Granby. Windy Gap Reservoir is a small diversion facility located directly below the confluence of the Colorado and Fraser rivers, about 5 miles downstream of Granby. Water from the Fraser River, as well as other inflows to the Colorado below Granby Dam, is diverted here and pumped eastwards to Lake Granby.
The Windy Gap project is not owned by the Bureau of Reclamation, but by the Northern Water Municipal District, a consortium of six Front Range cities. However, Windy Gap water uses the storage and distribution facilities of the Bureau of Reclamation's C-BT. From Lake Granby the water is lifted 125 feet up to Shadow Mountain Lake, located on the Colorado River west of the natural Grand Lake; the two bodies of water are connected by a short channel which allows water to flow to the intake of the Alva B. Adams Tunnel on Grand Lake's eastern shore; the water flows 13.2 miles under the Continental Divide through the Adams Tunnel, which can carry up to 550 cubic feet per second to the Eastern Slope. Once the water emerges from the Adams Tunnel just southwest of Estes Park, the system is entirely gravity powered, dropping some 2,800 feet as it descends to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains west of Loveland; the tunnel outlet is located at a small regulating pool on the Wind River. From here it is transported via an inverted siphon across the Aspen Creek valley and drops 205 feet to Marys Lake, where it drives the 8.1 megawatt Marys Lake Powerplant.
Marys Lake is a small natural lake enlarged to form a second regulatory reservoir. The water drops 515 feet to the 45-MW Estes Powerplant at Lake Estes, f