Sugarloaf Mound is the sole remaining Mississippian culture platform mound in St. Louis, Missouri, a city referred to in its earlier years as "Mound City" for its forty Native American earthen structures. Sugarloaf Mound is the last remaining of the mounds built within present-day St. Louis by a Native American culture that thrived in the area from A. D. 600-1300. The mound itself is the oldest human-made structure in the city of St. Louis. One of the city's best-known earthen structures, "Big Mound" was razed in the mid-1800s following a sale of the land to the North Missouri Railroad. In preparation for the 1904 World's Fair, an additional sixteen mounds were destroyed; the mounds in Forest Park had human remains associated with them. A group of mounds was near the St. Louis Art Museum and some were near the golf course. Today, about 80 mounds are preserved in the nearby Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site directly across the Mississippi River. Sugarloaf Mound is only one of about 40 mounds; the mounds were constructed by Native Americans that lived in the St. Louis area from about 600-1300 A.
D, the same civilization that built the mounds at Cahokia. Sugarloaf Mound is on the National Register of Historic Places; the mound got its name in the 18th century when St. Louisans noticed the shape resembled the loaves that sugar was transported in. Although the mound has not been excavated, it is assumed. Sugarloaf Mound measures 40 feet in height, 100 feet north/south and 75 feet east/west; the mound overlooks the Mississippi River. It is now located within the incorporated City of St. Louis, but used to be on the border between St. Louis and the autonomous city of Carondelet. In 1809 the mound was used as a survey landmark. A residence was constructed abutting Sugarloaf Mound in 1928, portions of the mound were impacted by a quarry and the construction of Interstate 55. Although suppressed in some online municipal records, the Sugarloaf Mound house was standing and still bore a mailing address of 4420 Ohio Street as of March 2013; the home and land was purchased by the Osage Nation in 2009 from a private owner, with the stated intention of preservation.
The home itself had been occupied until 2008. The Osage Nation does not claim a direct link to the construction of the mound, but claims a kindred heritage of mound building in the American Midwest. "Preservation" does not include the existing residence, but, by 2013, seems to point to an intention to restore Sugarloaf Mound to a condition similar to its configuration before the advent of Non-Native American architectural embellishments and razings. In the summer of 2017, the Osage Nation was able to remove the house from the mound; the home had been vacant and deteriorating since 2009Ultimately, the Osage Nation wants to build an interpretive center to the north of the mound, on property now owned by the Missouri Department of Transportation
Eureka Springs, Arkansas
Eureka Springs is a city in Carroll County, United States, one of two county seats for the county. It is located in the Ozarks of northwest Arkansas; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,073. The entire city is on the National Register of Historic Places as the Eureka Springs Historic District. Eureka Springs has been selected as one of America's Distinctive Destinations by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Eureka Springs was called "The Magic City" and the "Stairstep Town" because of its mountainous terrain and the winding, up-and-down paths of its streets and walkways, it is a tourist destination for its unique character as a Victorian resort village. The city has steep winding streets filled with Victorian-style manors; the historic commercial downtown of the city has an extensive streetscape of well-preserved Victorian buildings. The buildings are constructed of local stone, built along streets that curve around the hills and rise and fall with the topography in a five-mile long loop.
Some buildings have street-level entrances on more than one floor. The streets wind around the town, no two intersect at a 90 degree angle. Native American legends tell of a Great Healing Spring in the Eureka Springs area. People of various indigenous cultures long visited the springs for this sacred purpose; the European Americans believed that the springs had healing powers. After the Europeans arrived, they described the waters of the springs as having magical powers. Dr. Alvah Jackson was credited in American history with locating the spring, in 1856 claimed that the waters of Basin Spring had cured his eye ailments. Dr. Jackson established a hospital in a local cave during the Civil War and used the waters from Basin Spring to treat his patients. After the war, Jackson marketed the spring waters as "Dr. Jackson's Eye Water". In 1879 Judge J. B. Saunders, a friend of Jackson, claimed. Saunders started promoting Eureka Springs to friends and family members across the state and created a boomtown.
Within a period of little more than one year, the city expanded from a rural spa village to a major city. Within a short time in the late 19th century, Eureka Springs developed as a flourishing city and tourist destination. On February 14, 1880, Eureka Springs was incorporated as a city. Thousands of visitors came to the springs based on Saunders' promotion and covered the area with tents and shanties. In 1881, Eureka Springs enjoyed the status of Arkansas's fourth largest city, by 1889 it had become the second largest city, behind Little Rock. After his term as a Reconstruction governor, Powell Clayton moved to the Unionist Eureka Springs and began promoting the city and its commercial interests. Clayton promoted the town as a retirement community for the wealthy. Eureka Springs soon became known for a wealthy lifestyle. In 1882, the Eureka Improvement Company was formed to attract a railroad to the city. With the completion of the railroad, Eureka Springs established itself as a vacation resort.
In only two years, thousands of homes and commercial enterprises were constructed. The Crescent Hotel was built in 1886 and the Basin Park Hotel in 1905; these many Victorian buildings have been well preserved, forming a coherent street scape, recognized for its quality. In 1892, the New Orleans Hotel and Spa was built along Spring Street and is now operating as an all-suite hotel full of Victorian furniture and art; the Ozarka Water Company was formed in Eureka Springs in 1905. Carrie Nation moved there towards the end of her life; the building was operated as a museum, but is now closed. The only bank robbery to occur in Eureka Springs was on September 27, 1922, when five outlaws from Oklahoma tried to rob the First National Bank. Three of the men were killed and the other two wounded. Opera in the Ozarks at Inspiration Point was founded in 1950; the organization continues to present an annual summer opera festival in Eureka Springs. In 1967, the famous 7-story Christ of the Ozarks Statue was built.
A year The Great Passion Play was begun as an outdoor performance piece. It is performed from May through October by a cast of 170 actors and dozens of live animals, it has been seen by an estimated 7.7 million people, which makes it the largest-attended outdoor drama in the United States, according to the Institute of Outdoor Theatre of the University of East Carolina at Greenville, North Carolina. Christian-themed attractions have been added in association with the drama production; these include a New Holy Land Tour, featuring a full-scale re-creation of the Tabernacle in the Wilderness. Architect E. Fay Jones designed Thorncrown Chapel in 1980, it was selected for the "Twenty-five Year Award" by the American Institute of Architects in 2006; the award recognizes structures. The chapel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000 because of the special nature and quality of its architecture. On May 10, 2014, Eureka Springs became the first city in Arkansas to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples.
On May 12, 2015, Eureka Springs passed a Non-Discrimination Ordinance, with voters choosing 579 for to 261 against. It became the first city in Arkansas to have such a law to cover LGBT tourists, but a state law intended to invalidate the anti-discrimination ordinance went into effect July 22
Mound 72 is a small ridgetop mound located 850 meters to the south of Monks Mound at Cahokia Mounds near Collinsville, Illinois. Early in the site's history, the location began as a circle of 48 large wooden posts known as a "woodhenge"; the woodhenge was dismantled and a series of mortuary houses, platform mounds, mass burials and the ridgetop mound erected in its place. The mound was the location of the "beaded burial", an elaborate burial of an elite personage thought to have been one of the rulers of Cahokia, accompanied by the graves of several hundred retainers and sacrificial victims. Early in the history of Cahokia the portion of the site containing Mounds 72 and 96 was the location of a "woodhenge", a ceremonial area with a 412 feet in diameter circle of 48 upright wooden posts. Archaeologists date the placement of at least one of the posts to 950 CE. Archaeological research has shown that four of the posts were at the cardinal locations of north, south and west, the eastern and western posts marking the position of the equinox sunrise and sunsets.
Four other posts in the circle were shown to be at the summer solstice sunrise and sunset and the winter solstice sunrise and sunset positions. This setup is nearly identical to the diameter and post positions of Woodhenge III, one of five successive woodhenges built in another location at Cahokia, differing only in that Woodhenge III was 2 feet smaller in diameter. Considering the size of the circle and the fact that the post holes themselves could be as much as 1 metre in diameter, this discrepancy is negligible; the placement of the two mounds at the location and the directions in which they are oriented correspond to several of the solstice marking posts. The post nearest the elite burial of the "Birdman" is the location that marked the summer solstice sunrise at the times of the site's use; the early stages of the mounds were constructed around the posts, although at a point the posts were removed. Besides their celestial marking functions, the woodhenges carried religious and ritual meaning, reflected in their stylized depiction as a Cross in Circle Motif on ceremonial beakers connected with black drink ceremonialism.
One prominent example has markers added to sunset positions. Mound 72 is a ridgetop mound, one of only six recorded at the Cahokia site. Unlike the other ridgetop mounds which are aligned east/west and north/south, Mound 72 is aligned 30 degrees off the east/west line; this alignment is the same as the summer solstice sunrise/winter solstice sunset line for this latitude. Near the end of the late Emergent Mississippian Edelhardt Phase or the beginning of the early Mississippian Lohmann Phase two small platform mounds were constructed around several of the woodhenge posts, one of them the position marking the summer solstice sunrise position; these mounds were expanded and merged and covered over, being reshaped in the process into the final Mound 72 ridge-top mound. The beginnings of the mounds were the interment of several elite personages oriented to the summer solstice sunrise post; this post is aligned with the north/south axis with a point on the southwest corner of Monks Mound. The post had been replaced several times, including at least one episode after the beginning of mound construction.
5 metres west of the post was the burial of a tall man in his 40s, now thought to have been an important early Cahokian ruler. The body was placed with his feet to the northwest on an elevated platform covered by a bed of more than 20,000 marine-shell disc beads arranged in the shape of a falcon, with the bird's head appearing beneath and beside the man's head, its wings and tail beneath his arms and legs; this burial is now known as the "Beaded burial" or the "Birdman burial". Below the birdman was another man, buried facing downward; the birdman was buried with several other retainers and elaborate grave goods, including mica and other exotic minerals, copper sheathes thought to be the remains of copper covered chunkey sticks, a cache of chunkey stones and hundreds of finely made arrowheads collected from throughout the Mississippian world caches from Tennessee, southern Illinois, Wisconsin and a batch from the faraway Caddoan Mississippian peoples in Oklahoma. The arrowheads indicated that Cahokia had extensive trade links in North America.
The falcon warrior or "birdman" is a common motif in Mississippian culture, is represented by other finds at Cahokia in the form of 2 small stone tablets with avian-human imagery. This burial had powerful iconographic significance to the peoples of Cahokia. After the burial the location was covered over with Mound 72sub1, a small platform mound oriented in an east/west axis with a ramp projecting to the east and another projecting west toward the summer solstice sunset post; the summer sunrise post was located in the center of the eastern side of the mound. This mound was constructed over the remains of a dismantled charnel house, thought to have been erected at the same time as the woodhenge post which it is next to. Interred in the mound were 2 deceased men and several bundled burials the previous residents of the charnel house who had waited for the elite personages to die in order to be interred with them. Over this first phase a 46 feet square platform with two levels and ramp on its eastern side was constructed.
The next episode of construction at this location involved a pit being dug into the mound and a cache of various grave goods being deposited in it. A large rectangular pit was dug into the southeast corner of the mound and a mass burial of 24 women was m
Emerald Mound and Village Site
The Emerald Mound and Village Site is a pre-Columbian archaeological site located northwest of the junction of Emerald Mound Grange and Midgley Neiss Roads in St. Clair County, Illinois; the site includes five mounds, two of which have been destroyed by modern activity, the remains of a village. Middle Mississippian peoples inhabited the village, a satellite village of Cahokia; the largest of the mounds is a two-tiered structure. At the time of its discovery, the mound was the second-largest known in Illinois after Monks Mound at Cahokia; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 26, 1971
Dickson Mounds is a Native American settlement site and burial mound complex near Lewistown, Illinois. It is located in Fulton County on a low bluff overlooking the Illinois River, it is a large burial complex containing at least two cemeteries, ten superimposed burial mounds, a platform mound. The Dickson Mounds site was founded by 800 CE and was in use until after 1250 CE; the site is named in honor of chiropractor Don Dickson, who began excavating it in 1927 and opened a private museum that operated on the site. Its exhibition of the 237 uncovered skeletons uncovered and displayed by Dickson was closed in 1992 by then-Gov. Jim Edgar. Don Dickson discovered the burial mounds on his family farm. Instead of removing the bones, he only removed the dirt, he covered his excavation with a tent. He replaced his tent with a building and set up a private museum; the Dickson Mounds Museum is a museum erected on the site in 1972 by the U. S. state of Illinois. The museum is part of the Illinois State Museum system.
While the members of most hunter-gatherer cultures travel extensively or practice a nomadic lifestyle, the exceptional productivity of the Illinois River valley in fish and game made it possible for semi-permanent settlements to develop. Archaeological examination of these sites have generated significant insights into the living conditions of Native Americans over time and the levels of technology they possessed. A large parcel of the adjacent river bottomland is undergoing preservation and ecosystem restoration as part of the Emiquon Project; the Emiquon wetlands generated much of the food eaten by the people who lived on or near this blufftop site. In 2009, an excavation by Michigan State University turned up sherds of pottery and the foundations of houses and other structures that date back to about 1300 CE; some of the people who lived here were buried in Dickson Mounds itself. Their skeletons were excavated and displayed to the public from the 1930s until 1992, when in a controversial move the burial display was resealed due to Native American concerns.
It is estimated. The earlier burials were in mounds that were still being built as late as the ninth century, while burials were in cemeteries; this exemplifies the shift away from the earlier focus on burial mounds as the monumental foci of communities lacking large settlements to the emphasis on platform mounds at the center of towns. Mississippians decentralized cemeteries, making their communities rather than their burial places the center of their lives. "One group of four Mississippian people buried together appear to have been sacrificed at the Dickson Site". Their heads were replaced by pots; this was not a practice earlier. After the sealing, the museum was renovated as a series of galleries that attempt to portray the history of the site. For example, the River Valley Gallery exhibition attempts to depict indigenous life patterns here since the close of the last Ice Age, while the "Reflections on Three Worlds" Gallery exhibition attempts to describe how scholars have used archeological findings to generate inductive evidence on the residents' life and culture.
Excavators left 248 burials in place after exposure, these were long displayed inside a specially built museum enclosure. The American Indian objections to the display led to its closure in 1992. After that, three excavated dwellings now remain open to visitors at the site and the museum displays chronicle prehistoric life in the region. Combined, the various burial sites at Dickson Mounds comprehensively represent all of the known eras of Native American culture in Illinois. Excavation and analysis of over eight hundred Native American skeletons from these burial sites indicate a transition from hunting and gathering to an agrarian economy and significant health changes in the population as a result of this transition. Earlier settlements at Dickson Mounds indicate an economy based on hunting and gathering. Hunting and gathering provided this population with a mixed and balanced diet. At this time, the population was small and autonomous, traded little with outsiders, maintained only seasonal camps.
From 1050-1175, Dickson Mounds underwent a transitional phase, moving towards a mixed economy of hunting and gathering combined with agriculture the cultivation of maize. The population was developing more permanent settlements and trade networks. From 1175 onward to about 1350, the population size expanded and developed complex permanent settlements; these changes can be attributed to the increased reliance on agriculture and expansion of long-distance trade during this period. The significant lifestyle changes from a small, hunter-gatherer society to a large, agrarian society resulted in major health changes among the population. After analyzing trends in bone growth, enamel development and mortality, archaeologists determined that there was a major decline in health following the adoption and intensification of agriculture. Compared to the hunter-gatherers before them, skeletons of farmers at Dickson Mounds indicate a significant increase in enamel defects, iron-deficiency anemia, bone lesions, degenerative spinal conditions.
The decline in health of Dickson Mounds’ population over time can be attributed to the increased reliance on agriculture, which led to a less varied and less nutritious diet, more strenuous physical labor in the fields, more crowded permanent settlements that facilitated the spread of infectious diseases. Some say the
Orr-Herl Mound and Village Site
The Orr-Herl Mound and Village Site is an archaeological site located along the Ohio River in Hardin County, United States. The site consists of a mound, which includes a sizable midden, the remains of a village; the village was inhabited from 900 to 1500 AD by Mississippian peoples. The site was an important source of fluorspar, which Mississippian peoples used for carvings and beads; the village was a manufacturing site for fluorspar items, which were traded to other villages. The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 21, 1978
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat