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Blue Streak (missile)

The de Havilland Propellers Blue Streak was a British Intermediate-range ballistic missile, the first stage of the Europa satellite launch vehicle. Blue Streak was cancelled without entering full production; the project was intended to maintain an independent British nuclear deterrent, replacing the V bomber fleet which would become obsolete by 1965. The operational requirement for the missile was issued in 1955 and the design was complete by 1957. During development, it became clear that the missile system was too expensive and too vulnerable to a pre-emptive strike; the missile project was cancelled with US-led Skybolt the preferred replacement. To avoid political embarrassment from the cancellation, the UK government proposed that the rocket be used as the first stage of a civilian satellite launcher called Black Prince; as the cost was thought to be too great for the UK alone, international collaboration was sought. This led to the formation of the European Launcher Development Organisation, with Blue Streak used as the first stage of a carrier rocket named Europa.

Europa was tested at Woomera Test Range, at Kourou in French Guiana. Following launch failures, the ELDO project was cancelled in 1972 and development of Blue Streak was halted. Post-war Britain's nuclear weapons armament was based on free-fall bombs delivered by the V bomber force, it soon became clear that if Britain wanted to have a credible nuclear deterrent threat, a ballistic missile was essential. There was a political need for an independent deterrent, so that Britain could remain a major world power. Britain was unable to purchase American weapons wholesale due to the restrictions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. In April 1954 the Americans proposed a joint development programme for ballistic missiles; the United States would develop an intercontinental ballistic missile of 5,000-nautical-mile range, while the United Kingdom with United States support would develop a Intermediate-range ballistic missile of 2,000-nautical-mile range. The proposal was accepted as part of the Wilson-Sandys Agreement of August 1954, which provided for collaboration, exchange of information, mutual planning of development programmes.

The decision to develop was influenced by what could be learnt about missile design and development in the US. Initial requirements for the booster were made by the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough with input on the rocket engine design from the Rocket Propulsion Establishment at Westcott. British Operational Requirement 1139 demanded a rocket of at least 1500 n.m. range and the proposed rocket would have just reached that threshold. The de Havilland Propellers company won the contract to build the missile, to be powered by an uprated liquid-fuelled Rocketdyne S-3D engine, developed by Rolls-Royce, called RZ.2. Two variants of this engine were developed: the first provided a static thrust of 137,000 lbf and the second 150,000 lbf; the engines were used to guide the missile. This configuration, put considerable pressure on the autopilot which had to cope with the problem of a vehicle whose weight was diminishing and, steered by large engines whose thrust remained more or less constant.

Vibration was a problem at engine cut-off, the development of the autopilot for the satellite launcher was, in itself, a considerable achievement. Subcontractors included the Sperry Gyroscope Company who produced the missile guidance system whilst the nuclear warhead was designed by the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at Aldermaston; the missiles used liquid kerosene propellants. Whilst the vehicle could be left laden with over 20 tonnes of kerosene, the 60 tonnes of liquid oxygen had to be loaded before launch or icing became a problem. Due to this, fuelling the rocket took 4.5 minutes, which would have made it useless as a rapid response to an attack. The missile was vulnerable to a pre-emptive nuclear strike, launched without warning or in the absence of any heightening of tension sufficient to warrant readying the missile. To negate this problem de Havilland created a stand-by feature. A missile could be held at 30 seconds' notice to launch for ten hours; as the missiles were to be deployed in pairs and it took ten hours for one missile to be prepared for stand-by, one of the two missiles could always be ready for rapid launch.

To protect the missiles against a pre-emptive strike while being fuelled, the idea of siting the missiles in underground launchers was developed. These would have been designed to withstand a one megaton blast at a distance of half a mile and were a British innovation, subsequently exported to the United States. Finding sites for these silos proved difficult. RAF Spadeadam in Cumberland was the only site where construction was started on a full scale underground launcher, although test borings were undertaken at a number of other locations; the remains of this test silo, known as U1, were rediscovered by tree felling at Spadeadam. This was the site where the RZ.2 rocket engines and the complete Blue Streak missile were tested. The best sites for silo construction were the more stable rock strata in parts of southern and north-east England and eastern Scotland, but the construction of many underground silos in the countryside carried enormous economic and political costs. Development of the underground launchers presented a major technical challenge.

1/60 - and 1/6-scale models based on a ` U' - shaped design were tested at RPE Westcott. Three alternative

Jamiro Monteiro

Jamiro Gregory Monteiro Alvarenga known as Jamiro, is a Cape Verdean professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for the Philadelphia Union. On 28 July 2018, Jamiro joined Ligue 2 side Metz on a three-year deal. In March 2019, he joined Philadelphia Union on loan. Monteiro played in 22 of which he was in the starting lineup, he posted 9 assists in the 2019 campaign. On January 10, 2020, contrary to previous reports of him returning to Metz, Monteiro signed a three year deal to return to the Union. Jamiro was born in Netherlands to parents of Cape Verdean descent. In March 2016, Monteiro received his first international call for the Cape Verde national football team for 2017 Africa Cup of Nations qualification, he made his debut in a 2–0 loss against Morocco as a late sub. As of match played 2 June 2019 As of match played 11 June 2017 Jamiro Monteiro at Voetbal International profile Jamiro Monteiro at Soccerway Jamiro Monteiro at

Cardinal (color)

Cardinal is a vivid red, which may get its name from the cassocks worn by Catholic cardinals. The cardinal bird takes its name from the cardinal bishops; the first recorded use of cardinal as a color name in English was in the year 1698. The corresponding Pantone Matching System color is 200, as seen in the school colors for Wisconsin and Wesleyan, as one of the two official colors of the Phi Kappa Psi and Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternities and the only official color of the sorority Alpha Omicron Pi. However, Stanford's, M. I. T.´s, USC´s PMS color is 201, while Carnegie Mellon and Worcester Polytechnic Institute use PMS 187, Brown University uses PMS 192, Iowa State University uses PMS 186, Ball State University uses PMS 199. The hex triplet for the web-safe version of the color is #CC2233. Fraternities Cardinal is used by the Alpha Sigma Phi, Phi Kappa Psi, Phi Kappa Theta Fraternities as well as the Chi Omega and Alpha Omicron Pi Sororities. School colors Cardinal red and black are the colours of St Joseph’s College, Gregory Terrace in Brisbane, Australia.

Cardinal red and steel grey are the colors of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is the official color of athletic team The Engineer and official mascot Tim Beaver. Cardinal and White are the official colors of Sierra College, a Community College in Rocklin, California Cardinal is the official color of Stanford University. Cardinal and gold are the official colors of the University of Southern California Trojans. Cardinal and white are the official colors of Chico. Cardinal and grey are the official colors of La Trobe University, Australia, it is reflective of the tinctures gules and argent in its coat of arms. Cardinal is the official color of Sogang University, South Korea; the university was established by the Society of Jesus. Cardinal is the official college color of University College, Durham - a college of Durham University in the United Kingdom - and is worn as the primary color of the college's many sports teams and societies, such as the football team, the hockey team and the boat club.

Cardinal and gold are the official colors of Iowa State University, located in Iowa. The school's mascot, Cy, was chosen based on the school's main color, since a cyclone mascot would have been difficult to design. A number of other universities use it as well. Cardinal and white are the official colors of the University of Arkansas Razorbacks. Prior to adoption of the Razorback as the mascot, the university's sports teams were known as the Cardinals. Cardinal and black are the official colors of Wesleyan University, the school's athletic teams are called the Cardinals. Cardinal and blue are the school colors for Scotch College, Melbourne. Cardinal and blue are the official school colors of Fresno. Other school colors described as cardinal include those of the University of Arizona, Ball State University, Brown University, Carnegie Mellon University, Chadron State College, Chaminade College Preparatory, Chapman University, Fairfield University, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Nicholls State University, New Mexico State University, Oberlin College, Stevens Institute of Technology, Troy University, the University of Southern California, Willamette University, University of Wisconsin–Madison, City College of San Francisco, Santa Clara University and the combined sports programs of Claremont McKenna, Harvey Mudd and Scripps Colleges.

Sports Cardinal is 1 of 2 primary colors with myrtle a.k.a. green & red for the 21-time premiership winners South Sydney Rabbitohs. Cardinal is the official primary color of the St. Louis Cardinals. Cardinal was one of the colors of the San Francisco 49ers, along with the color California gold. Cardinal is the official color of the Arizona Cardinals. Cardinal is the official color of Marlow Rowing Club in the UK. Cardinal is the official color, Nickname of Woking FC in the UK. List of colors


Nagu is a former municipality and parish of Finland. On 1 January 2009, it was consolidated with Houtskär, Iniö, Korpo and Pargas to form the new town of Väståboland. On 1 January 2012 the name Väståboland was changed to Pargas. Nagu consists of two main islands and 1500–3000 smaller islands and skerries located south of Turku in the province of Western Finland in the region of Southwest Finland; the Nagu archipelago is part of the world's largest brackish water archipelago with 100 000 islands and skerries in Sweden and Estonia. The total area of Nagu is 1 698,44 km2, of which the land area is only 246.88 km2, or less than 15%. Nagu has a population of 1 400 persons, but during the summer over 10 000 more reside in the area. Most of the islands belonging to the Nagu archipelago can be reached by a network of roads and cost-free connection boats covering the vast archipelago area and reaching the most remote islands in the south, where Nagu shares borders with the international waters of the Baltic sea.

Nagu has a population of 1 400 inhabitants. Nagu is bilingual, with the majority being the minority Finnish speakers; the number of other minority languages is large with 20 nationalities residing in Nagu. In 2015 a temporary refugee centre for asylum seeking families from Iraq, Afghanistan and Somalia was opened in Nagu by the Red Cross; the story of the successful integration of refugees in Nagu known as the ”Nagu model”, made it into international news when photographer Giles Duley visited Nagu during the winter of 2015–2016 as part of a series of photo articles for the UNHCR. Mr. Duley’s visit was covered by the Guardian among other media. Out of the circa 120 persons staying that first winter in the premises of Hotel Strandbo, a couple of families have chosen to stay in Nagu after receiving residential permits. Through the addition of two Syrian refugee families receiving homes in Nagu in 2018 the Arabic language now holds third place among mother tongues spoken in Nagu. Nagu is among the biggest tourism centres of the archipelago region.

All across the Nagu archipelago there are several leisure boat harbours, the biggest of, situated in the centre of Nagu, a village called Kyrkbacken. Besides the harbour and the 15th century church of Nagu the village offers two grocery stores, two banks, gas stations for both cars and boats, a post office, several daily coach connections in both directions, several hotels and a large number of restaurants and souvenir shops; the souvenir shops and some of the restaurants are open during summer only. The Nagu church, a medieval stone church from the middle of the 15th century, stands in the middle of the village Kyrkbacken, the centre of Nagu; the Schwan organ from 1791 is the oldest organ in Finland still in use, that still consists of original parts and sounds like it did in the 18th century. The Nötö church, the Abraham chapel, was inaugurated on the 2nd of July in 1757. Before this there has been two previous chapels on the island; the Nötö church was decorated by Gustaf Lucander, who's altar piece still fills the wall around the altar window.

Lucander painted the apostles along the gallery. His self portrait can be found in the church; the Själö church was built in 1733. One part of the church hall is still enclosed by a barrier; this used to be. The Maritime House offers exhibitions about the naval history of Nagu from the early 19th century til' today.. The Nagu-nalle Teddy´s walk in the woods closest to the centre of Nagu is a popular walk among families with small children; the trail features the characters by Henrika Andersson. The Westerholm trail is a 3 km long walk that starts from the market place in the South harbour in the centre and goes through the woods of nearby Ernholm; the Westerholm trail is not a traditional nature trail, but more of a cultural trail, telling its hikers about Victor Westerholm, a Finnish landscape artist, who spent part of his childhood on the island of Ernholm. The Nagu harbour marina has been popular among sailors since the 1980, it has since been improved and enlarged continuously. Besides jetties, harbour office, laundry facilities and a gas station for boats the harbour offers restaurants and small shops.

The labyrinth in Finby is located on a walking distance from the centre. Follow the road Parkvägen west from the marina, past the sports and football fields and continue west on Norrstandsvägen. There are signs by the road marking the beginning of the track leading into the forest and up the labyrinth hill; the island of Själö is not a part of the centre, but it can be visited on foot from the centre by those who take the connection boat M/S Östern or the M/S Falkö from the harbour. The Estonia memorial in Pärnäs was erected in memory of the 852 deceased in the M/S Estonia disaster on the 28 of September 1994. A track leads to the memorial from the ferry harbour in Pärnäs; the Fagerlund traktor museum is a owned museum in Tackork, about 10 km from the centre towards Korpo. The museum shows around 30 veteran tractors that have been restored; the Kasberget hill in Prostvik is the highest hill in Nagus. A 4,4 km long trail leads to the hill from the Parola area, situated right by the main road; the hill offers a nice view over the northern parts of Nagu.

The Sm

Irish Rebellion of 1641

The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup d'état by Irish Catholic gentry, who tried to seize control of the English administration in Ireland to force concessions for Catholics. The coup failed and the rebellion developed into an ethnic conflict between Irish Catholics on one side, English and Scottish Protestants on the other; the rebellion followed the Plantation of Ulster by Protestant settlers from Britain. It began a conflict known as the Irish Confederate Wars, part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms; the rising was sparked by Catholic fears of an impending invasion of Ireland by anti-Catholic forces of the English Long Parliament and the Scottish Covenanters, who were defying the authority of King Charles I. In turn, the rebels' suspected association with Charles helped start the English Civil War; the English and Scottish parliaments refused to raise an army to put down the rebellion unless it was under their command rather than the King's. The Irish rebellion broke out in October 1641 and was followed by several months of violent chaos before the Irish Catholic upper classes and clergy formed the Catholic Confederation in May 1642.

The Confederation became a de facto government of most of Ireland, free from the control of the English administration and loosely aligned with the Royalist side in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The subsequent Irish Confederate Wars continued in Ireland until the 1650s, when Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army decisively defeated the Irish Catholics and Royalists, re-conquered the country; the 1641 Irish Rebellion is seen as a key event in the mid-17th century collapse of the Stuart monarchy. The roots of the 1641 rebellion lay in the failure of the English State in Ireland to assimilate the native Irish elite in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest and plantation of the country; the pre-Elizabethan Irish population is divided into the "Old Irish", the Old English, or descendants of medieval Norman settlers. These groups were antagonistic, with English settled areas such as the Pale around Dublin, south Wexford, other walled towns being fortified against the rural Gaelic clans. By the seventeenth century, the cultural divide between these groups at elite social levels, was declining.

Many Old English lords not only spoke the Irish language, but extensively patronised Irish poetry and music, have been described as Hiberniores Hibernis ipsis. Intermarriage was common. Moreover, in the wake of the Elizabethan conquest, the native population became defined by their shared religion, Roman Catholicism, in distinction to the new Church of England and Church of Scotland of settlers, the Protestant English administration in Ireland. During the decades between the end of the Elizabethan wars of re-conquest in 1603 and the outbreak of rebellion in 1641, the political position of the wealthier landed Irish Catholics was threatened by the English government of Ireland; the Tudor conquest of Ireland during the 16th-century saw the Plantation of Munster occur, in the early 17th century the Plantation of Ulster. In the case of Ulster this was the result of the confiscating of vast amounts of forfeited land from the Irish lords who fled in the Flight of the Earls in 1607. Of this territory 20 % was granted to "deserving" native Irish clans.

By the time of the 1641 rebellion, native Irish society was not benefiting from the plantation and this was exacerbated by the fact many grantees had to sell their estates due to poor management and the debts they incurred. This erosion of their status and influence saw them prepared to join a rebellion if they had more to lose. Many of the exiles found service as mercenaries in the Catholic armies of France, they formed a small émigré Irish community, militantly hostile to the English-run and Protestant state in Ireland, but restrained by the good relations between the Stewart monarchs of Scotland and Ireland, with Spain and France after 1604. In Ireland itself the resentment caused by the plantations was one of the principal causes for the outbreak and spread of the rebellion. Moreover, the Irish Parliament's legislation had to be approved by the shared monarchies privy council, under a 15th-century Act of the Irish Parliament, known as Poynings' Law; the Protestant dominated administration took opportunities to confiscate more land from longstanding landowners.

In the late 1630s Thomas Wentworth, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, proposed a new round of plantations, though these had not been implemented by 1641. In 1641 60% of land still belonged to Catholics. Most of the Irish Catholic upper classes were not ideologically opposed to the sovereignty of Charles I over Ireland, but wanted to be full subjects of the triple monarchy and maintain their pre-eminent position in Irish society; this was prevented by two factors, firstly their religious dissidence, secondly the threat posed to them by the extension of the Plantations. The failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605 curtailed the rights of wealthy Irish Catholics, who had not been involved in the plot. Anglicanism was the only approved form of worship of the Three Kingdoms. Non-attendance at Protestant church services was punishable by recusant fines and the public practice of unapproved faiths by arrest. Catholics could not serve above a certain rank in the army; the Irish privy council was dominated by English Protestants.

The constituencies of the Irish House of Commons were increased, giving Protestants a majority of 108–102 in it, from the session of 1613. The

Indra Nooyi

Indra Nooyi is an Indian American business executive and former CEO of PepsiCo. She has ranked among the world's 100 most powerful women. In 2014, she was ranked at number 13 on the Forbes list of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women, was ranked the 2nd most powerful woman on the Fortune list in 2015. In 2017, she was ranked the 2nd most powerful woman once more on the Forbes list of The 19 Most Powerful Women in Business, she serves on the board of Amazon, the International Cricket Council, Schlumberger. Nooyi was born in Tamil Nadu, India. Nooyi did her schooling in Holy Angels Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School in T. Nagar. Nooyi received a bachelor's degrees in Physics and Mathematics from Madras Christian College of the University of Madras in 1974, a Post Graduate Programme Diploma from Indian Institute of Management Calcutta in 1976. In 1978, Nooyi was admitted to Yale School of Management and moved to the USA where she earned a master's degree in Public and Private Management in 1980. Beginning her career in India, Nooyi held product manager positions at Johnson & Johnson and textile firm Mettur Beardsell.

While attending Yale School of Management, Nooyi completed her summer internship with Booz Allen Hamilton. In 1980, Nooyi joined the Boston Consulting Group as a strategy consultant, worked at Motorola as Vice President and Director of Corporate Strategy and Planning, followed by a stint at Asea Brown Boveri. Nooyi joined PepsiCo in 1994, was named CEO in 2006, replacing Steven Reinemund, becoming the fifth CEO in PepsiCo's 44-year history.. Nooyi has directed the company's global strategy for more than a decade and led PepsiCo's restructuring, including the 1997 divestiture of Tricon, now known as Yum! Brands. Tricon included companies like Pizza Hut, KFC, Taco Bell under its umbrella; the financial gains from this spinoff allowed the company to increase the pace of its share buyback strategy, thereby giving it more leverage to pursue future acquisitions without as much shareholder backlash. Nooyi took the lead in the acquisition of Tropicana in 1998, the merger with Quaker Oats Company, which brought Gatorade in 2001.

The $3.3 billion acquisition of Tropicana faced opposition from other PepsiCo executives and Wall Street critics. Acquiring Tropicana allowed PepsiCo to gain a competitive edge; the Quaker Oats Company's ownership of Gatorade was a positive strategic move for PepsiCo, since Gatorade was responsible for 80% of sports drink sales at the time. Similar to the Tropicana acquisition, this strategic move gave PepsiCo leverage against Coca-Cola, owner of Powerade – second in the sports drink segment. PepsiCo's annual net profit rose from $2.7 billion to $6.5 billion. Nooyi was named on Wall Street Journal's list of 50 women to watch in 2007 and 2008, was listed among Time's 100 Most Influential People in The World in 2007 and 2008. Forbes named her the #3 most powerful woman in 2008. In 2014, she was ranked #13 by Forbes. Fortune ranked her the #1 most powerful woman in business in 2009 and 2010. On 7 October 2010, Fortune magazine ranked her the 6th most powerful woman in the world. In Fortune's Most Powerful Women List of 15 September 2015, Nooyi ranked 2nd.

Nooyi's strategic redirection of PepsiCo has been successful. She reclassified PepsiCo's products into three categories: "fun for you", "better for you", "good for you", her initiative was backed up with ample funding. She moved corporate spending away from junk foods and into the healthier alternatives, with the aim of improving the healthiness of the "fun" offerings. In 2015, Nooyi removed aspartame from Diet Pepsi, furthering the shift towards healthier foods, despite lack of evidence of aspartame's harmful effects. Nooyi has stated an intent to develop a line of snacks marketed for women, feeling that it is a hitherto unexplored category. In a radio interview, Nooyi stated that PepsiCo is getting ready to launch products designed and packaged according to women's preferences, based on behavioral differences in the way men and women consume snacks. On 6 August 2018, PepsiCo Inc confirmed that Nooyi would step down as the CEO and Ramon Laguarta, a 22-year veteran of PepsiCo, would replace her on 3 October.

Ramon Laguarta replaced her as well as becoming a member of the board of directors. However, Nooyi continued to serve as the chairwoman of the company until early 2019. During her tenure, the company's sales grew 80%. Nooyi served as CEO for 12 years, 7 years longer than the average CEO tenure at large companies according to an Equilar study. In 2019, Nooyi became the co-director of the newly created Connecticut Economic Resource Center, a public-private partnership with the Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development, she will help draft the states new economic development strategy. Nooyi is a college classmate of Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont. While CEO of PepsiCo in 2011, Nooyi earned $17 million, which included a base salary of $1.9 million, a cash bonus of $2.5 million, pension value and deferred remuneration of $3 million. By 2014, her total remuneration had grown including $5.5 million of equity. In 2018, Nooyi was named one of the "Best CEOs In The World" by the CEOWORLD magazine.

Forbes magazine ranked Nooyi on the 2008 through 2017 lists of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women