Balsamic vinegar shortened to balsamic, is a dark and intensely flavoured vinegar originating in Italy, made wholly or from grape must. Grape must is freshly crushed grape juice with all the skins and stems; the term "aceto balsamico" is unregulated, but there are three protected balsamic vinegars: "Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena", "Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia", "Aceto Balsamico di Modena". The two traditional balsamic vinegars are made the same way from reduced grape must aged for several years in a series of wooden barrels, are produced in either the province of Modena or the wider Emilia region surrounding it; the names of these two vinegars are protected by the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin, while the less expensive Balsamic Vinegar of Modena is made from grape must blended with wine vinegar, produced in either Modena or Reggio Emilia, with a Protected Geographical Indication status. Balsamic vinegar contains no balsam; the word balsamico means "balsam-like" in the sense of "restorative" or "curative".
There are three types of balsamic vinegar: Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP, Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP, Aceto Balsamico di Modena IGP. There are many products that contain "Aceto Balsamico di Modena IGP" as an ingredient, such as glazes or other condiments. Only two consortia produce true traditional balsamic vinegar and neighboring Reggio Emilia. True balsamic vinegar is made from a reduction of pressed Lambrusco grapes; the resulting thick syrup, called mosto cotto in Italian, is subsequently aged for a minimum of 12 years in a battery of several barrels of successively smaller sizes. The casks are made of different woods like chestnut, oak, mulberry and juniper. True balsamic vinegar is rich, deep brown in color, has a complex flavour that balances the natural sweet and sour elements of the cooked grape juice with hints of wood from the casks. Reggio Emilia designates the different ages of their balsamic vinegar by label colour. A red label means the vinegar has been aged for at least 12 years, a silver label that the vinegar has aged for at least 18 years, a gold label designates that the vinegar has aged for 25 years or more.
Modena uses a different system to indicate the age of its balsamic vinegars. A white-coloured cap means the vinegar has aged for at least 12 years and a gold cap bearing the designation extravecchio shows the vinegar has aged for 25 years or more; these commercial-grade products imitate the traditional product. They are made of wine vinegar with the addition of colouring and sometimes thickeners like guar gum or cornflour to artificially simulate the sweetness and thickness of the aged Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena. IGP status requires a minimum aging period of two months, not in wooden barrels, rising to three years when labeled as invecchiato; as the manufacturing process is industrialized, the output of a medium-sized producer may be hundreds of litres per day. In 2009, the European Commission inserted the Balsamic Vinegar of Modena designation in the register of IGP productions. Condimento balsamic vinegars may be labeled as condimento balsamico, salsa balsamica or salsa di mosto cotto.
For those products, there is a risk of creating confusion among consumers looking for the original Balsamic Vinegar of Modena PGI, the two different Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena PDO, Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Reggio Emilia PDO.'Condimento' balsamic vinegar may be made in any of the following ways: Made by producers of both Balsamic Vinegar of Modena PGI or Traditional Balsamic Vinegar of Modena/Reggio Emilia PDO, by using the PGI or PDO as an ingredient. For those products the use of the PGI and PDO as an ingredient must be reported, i.e. "Glaze with Aceto Balsamico di Modena IGP". The Consortium must approve the use of the PGI's / PDO's name. Made by the same method as the vinegars, but by producers located outside of Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces and not made under consortium supervision. For those products, no reference to the PDO/PGI can be made, they cannot use the geographical names Modena or Reggio Emilia; as there are no official standards or labeling systems to designate condimento balsamic vinegar, it can be hard to tell their quality based on the packaging alone.
Traditional balsamic vinegar is produced from the juice of just-harvested white grapes boiled down to reach a minimum sugar concentration of 30% or more in the must, fermented with a slow aging process which further concentrates the flavours. The flavour intensifies over the years, with the vinegar being stored in wooden casks, becoming sweet and concentrated. During this period, a portion evaporates: it is said that this is the "angels' share", a term used in the production of bourbon whiskey, scotch whisky and other alcoholic beverages. None of the product may be withdrawn until the end of the minimum aging period of 12 years. At the end of the aging period a small portion is drawn from the smallest cask and each cask is topped up with the contents of the preceding cask. Freshly reduced cooked must is added to the largest cask and in every subsequent year the drawing and topping up process is repeated; this process whe
Fried pickles are a snack food found in the Southern U. S.. They are made by deep-frying sliced battered dill pickles. Fried pickles first appeared on the American culinary scene in the early 1960s; the first known printed fried pickle recipe was in the Oakland Tribune on November 19, 1962, for "French Fried Pickles," which called for using sweet pickle slices and pancake mix. Fried dill pickles were popularized by Bernell "Fatman" Austin in 1963 at the Duchess Drive In located in Atkins, Arkansas; the Fatman's Recipe is only known to his family and used once each year at the annual Picklefest in Atkins, held each May. The recipe for Fried pickle at Wikibooks is a general one. Fried pickles are served at food festivals and menus of individual and chain restaurants throughout the United States and elsewhere, they can be eaten as an accompaniment to other dishes. Fried pickles are served with a ranch dressing or other creamy sauce for dipping. List of deep fried foods List of pickled foods
Food engineering is a multidisciplinary field which combines microbiology, applied physical sciences and engineering for food and related industries. Food engineering includes, but is not limited to, the application of agricultural engineering, mechanical engineering and chemical engineering principles to food materials. Food engineers provide the technological knowledge transfer essential to the cost-effective production and commercialization of food products and services. Physics and mathematics are fundamental to understanding and engineering products and operations in the food industry. Food engineering encompasses a wide range of activities. Food engineers are employed in food processing, food machinery, ingredient manufacturing and control. Firms that design and build food processing plants, consulting firms, government agencies, pharmaceutical companies, health-care firms employ food engineers. Specific food engineering activities include: drug/food products. In the development of food engineering, one of the many challenges is to employ modern tools and knowledge, such as computational materials science and nanotechnology, to develop new products and processes.
Improving quality and security remain critical issues in food engineering study. New packaging materials and techniques are being developed to provide more protection to foods, novel preservation technology is emerging. Additionally, process control and automation appear among the top priorities identified in food engineering. Advanced monitoring and control systems are developed to facilitate automation and flexible food manufacturing. Furthermore, energy saving and minimization of environmental problems continue to be important food engineering issues, significant progress is being made in waste management, efficient utilization of energy, reduction of effluents and emissions in food production. Typical topics include:food people Advances in classical unit operations in engineering applied to food manufacturing Progresses in the transport and storage of liquid and solid foods Developments in heating and freezing of foods Advanced mass transfer in foods New chemical and biochemical aspects of food engineering and the use of kinetic analysis New techniques in dehydration, thermal processing, non-thermal processing, liquid food concentration, membrane processes and applications of membranes in food processing Shelf-life, electronic indicators in inventory management, sustainable technologies in food processing Modern packaging and sanitation technologies.
Development of sensors systems for quality and safety assessment
Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a species in the genus Zygosaccharomyces. It was described as Saccharomyces bailii by Lindner in 1895, but in 1983 it was reclassified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii in the work by Barnett et al. Spoilage resulting from growth of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces is widespread, which has caused significant economic losses to the food industry. Within this genus, Z. bailii is one of the most troublesome species due to its exceptional tolerance to various stressful conditions. A wide range of acidic and/or high-sugar products such as fruit concentrates, soft drinks, ketchup, pickles, salad dressing, etc. are considered to be shelf-stable, i.e. they inactivate a broad range of food-borne microorganisms. However, these products are still susceptible to spoilage by Z. bailii. Z. bailii vegetative cells are ellipsoid, non-motile and reproduced asexually by multilateral budding, i.e. the buds can arise from various sites on the cells. During the budding process, a parent cell produces a bud on its outer surface.
As the bud elongates, the parent cell's nucleus one nucleus migrates into the bud. Cell wall material is filled in the gap between the parent cell. Z. bailii cell size varies within a range of x µm and the cells exist singly or in pair in short chain. It has been observed that the doubling time of this yeast is 3 hours at 23 °C in yeast nitrogen base broth containing 20% fructose. In more stressful conditions, this generation time is extended. Besides the asexual reproduction mode, under certain conditions Z. bailii produces sexual spores in a sac called ascus. Each ascus contains one to four ascospores, which are smooth, thin-walled, spherical or ellipsoidal, it should be mentioned that the ascospores are observed as it is difficult and may take a long time to induce their formation. On various nutrient agars, Z. bailii colonies are smooth, round and white to cream coloured, with a diameter of 2 – 3 mm at 3 – 7 days. As the morphology properties of Zygosaccharomyces are identical to other yeast genera such as Saccharomyces and Pichia, it is impossible to differentiate Zygosaccharomyces from other yeasts or individual species within the genus based on macroscopic and microscopic morphology observations.
Therefore, the yeast identification to species level is more dependent on physiological and genetic characteristics than on morphological criteria. In general, any glucose-containing medium is suitable for the culture and counting of yeasts, e.g. Sabouraud medium, malt extract agar, tryptone glucose yeast extract agar, yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar. For the detection of acid-resistant yeasts like Z. bailii, acidified media are recommended, such as MEA or TGY with 0.5% acetic acid added. Plating with agar media is used for counting of yeasts, with surface spreading technique is preferable to pour plate method because the former technique gives a better recovery of cells with lower dilution errors; the common incubation conditions are aerobic temperature 25 °C for a period of 5 days. A higher incubation temperature and shorter incubation time can be applied for Z. bailii, as the yeast grows faster at this elevated temperature. Among the Zygosaccharomyces spoilage species, Z. bailii possesses the most pronounced and diversified resistance characteristics, enabling it to survive and proliferate in stressful conditions.
It appears. The most described natural habitats are dried or fermented fruits, tree exudates, at various stages of sugar refining and syrup production. Besides, it is to encounter Z. bailii as a major spoilage agent in unprocessed foods. An outstanding feature of Z. bailii is its exceptional resistance to weak acid preservatives used in foods and beverages, such as acetic, propionic, sorbic acids and sulfur dioxide. In addition, it is reported; the ranges of pH and aw for growth are 2.0 - 7.0 and 0.80 - 0.99, respectively. Besides being preservative resistant, other features that contribute to the spoilage capacity of Z. bailii are: its ability to vigorously ferment hexose sugars, ability to cause spoilage from an low inoculum, moderate osmotolerance. Therefore, foods at particular risk to spoilage by this yeast have low pH, low aw and contain sufficient amounts of fermentable sugars; the extreme acid resistance of Z. bailii has been reported by many authors. On several occasions, growth of the yeast has been observed in fruit-based alcohols preserved with 0.08% benzoic acid, in beverages containing either 0.06% sorbic acid, 0.07% benzoic acid, or 2% acetic acid.
Notably, individual cells in any Z. bailii population differ in their resistance to sorbic acid, with a small fraction able to grow in preservative levels double that of the average population. In some
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant. The whole, cracked, or bruised mustard seeds are mixed with water, lemon juice, wine, or other liquids and other flavorings and spices, to create a paste or sauce ranging in color from bright yellow to dark brown; the taste of mustard ranges from sweet to spicy. Paired with meats and cheeses, mustard is added to sandwiches, corn dogs, hot dogs, it is used as an ingredient in many dressings, sauces and marinades. As a cream or as individual seeds, mustard is used as a condiment in the cuisine of India and Bangladesh, the Mediterranean and southeastern Europe, the Americas, Africa, making it one of the most popular and used spices and condiments in the world; the English word "mustard" derives from Old French mostarde. The first element is from Latin mustum, —the condiment was prepared by making the ground seeds into a paste with must; the second element comes from Latin ardens. It was first attested in English in the late 13th century, though it was found as a surname a century earlier.
Archeological excavations in the Indus Valley have revealed. That civilization existed until about 1800 BC; the Romans were the first to experiment with the preparation of mustard as a condiment. They mixed unfermented grape juice with ground mustard seeds to make "burning must", mustum ardens — hence "must ard". A recipe for mustard appears in De re coquinaria, the anonymously compiled Roman cookbook from the late fourth or early fifth century; the Romans exported mustard seed to Gaul, by the 10th century, monks of Saint-Germain-des-Prés in Paris absorbed the mustard-making knowledge of Romans and began their own production. The first appearance of mustard makers on the royal registers in Paris dates back to 1292. Dijon, became a recognized center for mustard making by the 13th century; the popularity of mustard in Dijon is evidenced by written accounts of guests consuming 320 litres of mustard creme in a single sitting at a gala held by the Duke of Burgundy in 1336. In 1777, one of the most famous Dijon mustard makers, Grey-Poupon, was established as a partnership between Maurice Grey, a mustard maker with a unique recipe containing white wine.
Their success was aided by the introduction of the first automatic mustard-making machine. In 1937, Dijon mustard was granted an Appellation d'origine contrôlée. Due to its long tradition of mustard making, Dijon is regarded as the mustard capital of the world; the early use of mustard as a condiment in England is attested from the year 1390 in the book The Forme of Cury, written by King Richard II's master cooks. It was prepared in the form of mustard balls—coarse-ground mustard seed combined with flour and cinnamon, rolled into balls, dried—which were stored and combined with vinegar or wine to make mustard paste as needed; the town of Tewkesbury was well known for its high-quality mustard balls made with ground mustard mixed with horseradish and dried for storage, which were exported to London and other parts of the country, are mentioned in William Shakespeare's play King Henry the Fourth, Part II. The use of mustard as a hot dog condiment is said to have been first seen in the US at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, when the bright-yellow French's mustard was introduced by the R.
T. French Company. Mustard is most used at the table as a condiment on cold meats, it is used as an ingredient in mayonnaise, vinaigrette and barbecue sauce. It is a popular accompaniment to hot dogs and bratwurst. In the Netherlands and northern Belgium, it is used to make mustard soup, which includes mustard, parsley and pieces of salted bacon. Mustard as an emulsifier can stabilize a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids, such as oil and water. Added to Hollandaise sauce, mustard can inhibit curdling; the amounts of various nutrients in mustard seed are to be found in the USDA National Nutrient Database. As a condiment, mustard averages about 5 kcal per teaspoon; some of the many vitamins and nutrients found in mustard seeds are omega 3 fatty acid. The many varieties of prepared mustards have a wide range of strengths and flavors, depending on the variety of mustard seed and the preparation method; the basic taste and "heat" of the mustard are determined by seed type and ingredients. Preparations from the white mustard plant have a less pungent flavor than preparations of black mustard or brown Indian mustard.
The temperature of the water and concentration of acids such as vinegar determine the strength of a prepared mustard. Thus, "hot" mustard is made with cold water, whereas using hot water produces a milder condiment, all else being equal. Mustard oil can be extracted from the meal of the seed; the mustard plant ingredient itself has a sharp, pungent flavor. Mixing ground mustard seeds with water causes a chemical reaction between two compounds in the seed: the enzyme myrosinase and
Cumin is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including the Middle East and stretching east to India. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, dried – are used in the cuisines of many cultures in both whole and ground form. Although cumin is thought to have uses in traditional medicine, there is no high-quality evidence that it is safe or effective as a therapeutic agent; the English "cumin" is derived from the Old English via Latin cuminum from the Greek κύμινον, related to Hebrew כמון and Arabic كمون. Cumin is the dried seed of a member of the parsley family; the cumin plant is harvested by hand. It is an annual herbaceous plant, with a slender, branched stem, 20–30 cm tall and has a diameter of 3–5 cm; each branch has two to three subbranches. All the branches attain the same height, so the plant has a uniform canopy; the stem is coloured grey or dark green. The leaves are 5 -- 10 cm pinnate or bipinnate, with thread-like leaflets; the flowers are small, white or pink, borne in umbels.
Each umbel has five to seven umbellets. The fruit is a lateral fusiform or ovoid achene 4–5 mm long, containing two mericarps with a single seed. Cumin seeds have eight ridges with oil canals, they resemble caraway seeds, being oblong in shape, longitudinally ridged, yellow-brown in colour, like other members of the Apiaceae family such as caraway and dill. Originating in a region of the Eastern Mediterranean called the Levant, cumin has been in use as a spice for thousands of years. Seeds excavated at the Syrian site Tell ed-Der were dated to the second millennium BC, they have been reported from several New Kingdom levels of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. In the ancient Egyptian civilization, cumin was used as a spice and as a preservative in mummification; the ancient Greeks kept cumin at the dining table in its own container, this practice continues in Morocco. Cumin was used in ancient Roman cuisine. In India, it has been used for millennia as a traditional ingredient in innumerable recipes, forms the basis of many other spice blends.
Cumin was introduced to the Americas by Portuguese colonists. Several different types of cumin are known, but the most famous ones are black and green cumin, both of which are used in Persian cuisine. Today, the plant is grown in the Indian subcontinent, Northern Africa, Mexico and China. Since cumin is used as part of birdseed and exported to many countries, the plant can occur as an introduced species in many territories; the main producers of cumin are China and India, which produces 70% of the world supply and consumes 90% of that. Mexico is another major producer. In total, around 300,000 tons of cumin per year are produced worldwide. Cumin is tropical, or subtropical crop, it has a growth season of 100 to 120 days. The optimum growth temperature ranges are between 25 and 30 °C; the Mediterranean climate is most suitable for its growth. Cultivation of cumin requires a hot summer of three to four months. At low temperatures, leaf colour changes from green to purple. High temperature might induce early ripening.
In India, cumin is sown from October until the beginning of December, harvesting starts in February. In Syria and Iran, cumin is harvested in June/July; the three noteworthy sorts of cumin seed in the market vary in seed shading, amount of oil, flavor. Iranian Indian Middle Eastern Cumin is grown from seeds; the seeds need 2 to 5 °C for emergence, an optimum of 20–30 °C is suggested. Cumin is vulnerable to frost damage at flowering and early seed formation stages. Methods to reduce frost damage are spraying with sulfuric acid, irrigating the crop prior to frost incidence, setting up windbreaks, or creating an early-morning smoke cover; the seedlings of cumin are rather small and their vigor is low. Soaking the seeds for 8 hours before sowing enhances germination. For an optimal plant population, a sowing density of 12–15 kilograms per hectare is recommended. Fertile, loamy soils with good aeration, proper drainage, high oxygen availability are preferred; the pH optimum of the soil ranges from 6.8 to 8.3.
Cumin seedlings are sensitive to salinity and emergence from heavy soils is rather difficult. Therefore, a proper seedbed preparation is crucial for optimal establishment of cumin. Two sowing methods are used for cumin and line sowing. For broadcast sowing, the field is divided into beds and the seeds are uniformly broadcast in this bed. Afterwards, they are covered with soil using a rake. For line sowing, shallow furrows are prepared with hooks at a distance of 20 to 25 cm; the seeds are placed in these furrows and covered with soil. Line sowing offers advantages for intercultural operations such as hoeing, or spraying; the recommended sowing depth is 1–2 cm and the recommended sowing density is around 120 plants per m2. The water requirements of cumin are lower than those of many other species. Despite this, cumin is irrigated after sowing to be sure that enough moisture is available for seedling development; the amount and frequency of irrigation depends on the climate conditions. The relative humidity in the center of origin of cumin is rather low.
High relative humidity favours fungal diseases. Cumin is especially