Atlantic Spanish mackerel
The fish exhibits a green back, its sides are silvery marked with about three rows of round to elliptical yellow spots. Lateral line gradually curving down from the end of the gill cover toward caudal peduncle. The first dorsal fin is black at the front, posterior membranes are white with a black edge. Its single row of cutting edged teeth in each jaw are large, uniform, as with the King mackerel and the Cero mackerel, these teeth look very similar to those of the Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix. Spanish mackerel occur seasonally from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, as far north as Cape Cod and they are a shallow water species, preferring sand bottom in depths of 10 to 40 feet, occasionally found as deep as 80 feet. It appears that one Atlantic and one or more Gulf groups of Spanish mackerel occur in Florida waters, an Eastern Gulf group moves northward from the Florida Keys during late winter and spring, appearing off the central West Coast of Florida about April 1. Movement continues westward and terminates along the northern Texas coast, during fall, this group migrates back to its wintering grounds in the Keys.
The Gulf group of Spanish mackerel spawn in batches from May to September off shore of Texas, the Atlantic group spawns starting in April off the Carolinas and from late August to late September in the northernmost part of its range. Spanish mackerel mature by age-1 at a length of 14 inches. Females live longer and grow to larger sizes than males, females may live as long as 11 years, growing to 11 pounds and 33 inches FL. Males reach about age-6 and 19 inches FL, Spanish mackerel are voracious, carnivores. As with other members of the genus, food consists mainly of fishes with lesser quantities of shrimp. Striped anchovies and clupeoids such as menhaden and thread herring, are important forage in North Carolina, Texas. The percentage of anchovies consumed is higher for juveniles than for adults, Spanish mackerel are a highly valued fish throughout their range from North Carolina to Texas. Recreational anglers catch Spanish mackerel from boats while trolling or drifting and from boats, jetties, fast lure retrieves are key to catching these quick fish.
Commercial methods are primarily run-around gill netting, and rarely, by trolling lures similar to those used by recreational anglers, Spanish mackerel are managed in commercial and recreation fisheries with bag limits, size limits, commercial trip limits, and with only seasonal fishing allowed. The management of mackerel has been considered a success because the used to be in decline. Spanish mackerel are primarily marketed fresh or frozen as fillets as commercially caught fish are too small to sell in the form of steaks and they may be prepared by broiling, baking or, rarely, by smoking
For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use, it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies, unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status, for any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation, it is always an alternative to a different scientific name, given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name that is one taxonomists synonym may be another taxonomists correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently. They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to one, a species is moved to a different genus.
To the general user of scientific names, in such as agriculture, ecology, general science. A synonym is a name that was used as the correct scientific name but which has been displaced by another scientific name. Thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as a name which has the same application as another. In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have mentioned as such after the current scientific name. Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the synonym in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes, they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural, a name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature, the earliest such name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest correctly published name, synonyms are important because if the earliest name cannot be used, the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with the type and same rank. For example, John Edward Gray published the name Antilocapra anteflexa in 1855 for a species of pronghorn, however, it is now commonly accepted that his specimen was an unusual individual of the species Antilocapra americana published by George Ord in 1815. Ords name thus takes precedence, with Antilocapra anteflexa being a subjective synonym. Objective synonyms are common at the level of genera, because for various reasons two genera may contain the type species, these are objective synonyms
It is best known to sports fishermen, as its speed and high-quality flesh make it a prize game fish. In Hawaii, the wahoo is known as ono, many Hispanic areas of the Caribbean and Central America refer to this fish as peto. The flesh of the wahoo is white to grey, delicate to dense, the taste has been said to be similar to mackerel. This has created demand for the wahoo as a premium-priced commercial food fish. These colors fade rapidly at death, the mouth is large, and both the upper and lower jaws have a somewhat sharper appearance than those of king or Spanish mackerel. Specimens have been recorded at up to 2.5 m in length, Wahoo can swim up to 60 mph. They are some of the fastest fish in the sea, the wahoo may be distinguished from the related Atlantic king mackerel and from the Indo-Pacific narrow-barred Spanish mackerel by a fold of skin which covers the mandible when its mouth is closed. In contrast, the mandible of the mackerel is always visible as is the case for the smaller Spanish mackerel.
The teeth of the wahoo are similar to those of king mackerel, the barracuda is sometimes confused with mackerel and wahoo, but is easy to distinguish from the latter two species. Barracuda have prominent scales, dagger-like teeth, and lack the caudal keels, Wahoo tend to be solitary or occur in loose-knit groups of two or three fish. Where conditions are suitable, they can be found in schools as large as 100 or more and their diet is made up of other fish and squid. Most wahoo taken have a parasite living in their stomachs, the giant stomach worm. In 2003, the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council issued a Dolphin Wahoo Fishery Management Plan for the Atlantic, the species as a whole is not considered overfished. In most parts of its range, the wahoo is a highly prized sport fishing catch and it reaches a good size, is often available not too far from land, and is a very good fighter on light to medium tackle. It is known in sports fishing circles for the speed and strength of its first run, the aggressive habits and razor-sharp teeth of the wahoo can be of considerable annoyance when targeting larger gamefish, such as tuna or marlin.
Zischke, Mitchell T. Griffiths, Shane P. Tibbetts, Ian R. Rapid growth of wahoo in the Coral Sea, based on length-at-age estimates using annual and daily increments on sagittal otoliths. Zischke, Mitchell T. Farley, Jessica H. Griffiths, Shane P. Tibbetts, Ian R. Reproductive biology of wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri, reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
IUCN Red List
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1964, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is the main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, the IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world, the aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. Major species assessors include BirdLife International, the Institute of Zoology, the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, assessments by these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List. The IUCN aims to have the category of every species re-evaluated every five years if possible, the 1964 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants used the older pre-criteria Red List assessment system.
Plants listed may not, appear in the current Red List, IUCN advise that is best to check both the online Red List and the 1997 plants Red List publication. The 2006 Red List, released on 4 May 2006 evaluated 40,168 species as a whole, plus an additional 2,160 subspecies, aquatic stocks, on 12 September 2007, the World Conservation Union released the 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Russ Mittermeier, chief of Swiss-based IUCNs Primate Specialist Group, stated that 16,306 species are endangered with extinction,188 more than in 2006, the Red List includes the Sumatran orangutan in the Critically Endangered category and the Bornean orangutan in the Endangered category. The study shows at least 1,141 of the 5,487 mammals on Earth are known to be threatened with extinction, and 836 are listed as Data Deficient. The Red List of 2012 was released 19 July 2012 at Rio+20 Earth Summit, nearly 2,000 species were added, the IUCN assessed a total of 63,837 species which revealed 19,817 are threatened with extinction.
With 3,947 described as endangered and 5,766 as endangered. At threat are 41% of amphibian species, 33% of reef-building corals, 30% of conifers, 25% of mammals, the IUCN Red List has listed 132 species of plants and animals from India as Critically Endangered. Extinct – No known individuals remaining, extinct in the wild – Known only to survive in captivity, or as a naturalized population outside its historic range. Critically endangered – Extremely high risk of extinction in the wild, Endangered – High risk of extinction in the wild. Vulnerable – High risk of endangerment in the wild, near threatened – Likely to become endangered in the near future. Does not qualify for a more at-risk category and abundant taxa are included in this category. Data deficient – Not enough data to make an assessment of its risk of extinction, Not evaluated – Has not yet been evaluated against the criteria
Achille Valenciennes was a French zoologist. Valenciennes was born in Paris, and studied under Georges Cuvier, Valenciennes study of parasitic worms in humans made an important contribution to the study of parasitology. Valenciennes carried out diverse systematic classifications, linking fossil and current species and he worked with Cuvier on the 22-volume Histoire Naturelle des Poissons, carrying on alone after Cuvier died in 1832. In 1832 he succeeded Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville as chair of Histoire naturelle des mollusques, des vers et des zoophytes at the Muséum national dhistoire naturelle. Early in his career, he was tasked of classifying animals described by Alexander von Humboldt during his travels in the American tropics, and he is the binomial authority for many species of fish, such as the bartail jawfish. Working in the field of herpetology, Valenciennes described two new species of reptiles. The organ of Valenciennes, a part of the anatomy of the female Nautilus genus whose purpose remains unknown, is named after him
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the father of paleontology. Cuvier is known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, in his Essay on the Theory of the Earth Cuvier was interpreted to have proposed that new species were created after periodic catastrophic floods. In this way, Cuvier became the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century and his study of the strata of the Paris basin with Alexandre Brongniart established the basic principles of biostratigraphy. Cuvier is remembered for strongly opposing theories of evolution, which at the time were mainly proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck, Cuvier believed there was no evidence for evolution, but rather evidence for cyclical creations and destructions of life forms by global extinction events such as deluges. Cuvier supported function and rejected Lamarcks thinking and his most famous work is Le Règne Animal.
In 1819, he was created a peer for life in honor of his scientific contributions, thereafter, he was known as Baron Cuvier. He died in Paris during an epidemic of cholera, some of Cuviers most influential followers were Louis Agassiz on the continent and in the United States, and Richard Owen in Britain. His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower, Cuvier was born in Montbéliard, where his Protestant ancestors had lived since the time of the Reformation. His father, Jean George Cuvier, was a lieutenant in the Swiss Guards, at the time, the town, which was annexed to France on 10 October 1793, belonged to the Duchy of Württemberg. His mother, who was younger than his father, tutored him diligently throughout his early years. During his gymnasium years, he had trouble acquiring Latin and Greek, and was always at the head of his class in mathematics, history. At the age of 10, soon entering the gymnasium, he encountered a copy of Conrad Gessners Historiae Animalium. He began frequent visits to the home of a relation, all of these he read and reread, retaining so much of the information, that by the age of 12, he was as familiar with quadrupeds and birds as a first-rate naturalist.
He remained at the gymnasium for four years, Cuvier spent an additional four years at the Caroline Academy in Stuttgart, where he excelled in all of his coursework. Although he knew no German on his arrival, after nine months of study. Upon graduation, he had no money on which to live as he awaited appointment to an academic office, so in July 1788, he took a job at Fiquainville chateau in Normandy as tutor to the only son of the Comte dHéricy, a Protestant noble. There, during the early 1790s, he began his comparisons of fossils with extant forms, Cuvier regularly attended meetings held at the nearby town of Valmont for the discussion of agricultural topics. There, he acquainted with Henri Alexandre Tessier, who had assumed a false identity
Bay of Biscay
The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarch to the Spanish border, the average depth is 1,744 metres and the greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the northern Spanish coast, the Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Oceans fiercest weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months, up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point, the southernmost portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common, in late spring and early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe and these depressions cause severe weather at sea and bring light though very constant rain to its shores.
The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelfs border anti-clockwise, the main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Bordeaux, Biarritz, Nantes, La Rochelle, Donostia-San Sebastián, Santander, Gijón and Avilés. The southern end of the gulf is called in Spanish Mar Cantábrico, from the Estaca de Bares, as far as the mouth of Adour river. It was named by Romans in the 1st century BC as Sinus Cantabrorum and also, on some medieval maps, the Bay of Biscay is marked as El Mar del los Vascos. The Bay of Biscay has been the site of famous naval engagements over the centuries. In 1592 the Spanish defeated an English fleet during the eponymous Battle of the Bay of Biscay, the USS Californian sank here after striking a naval mine on June 22,1918. On December 28,1943, the Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise and a group of German destroyers as part of Operation Stonewall during World War II. U-667 sank on 25 August 1944 in position 46°00′N 01°30′W, when she struck a mine, often specialist groups take the ferries to hear more information.
Volunteers and employees of Biscay Dolphin Research regularly observe and monitor cetacean activity from the bridge of the ships on the P&O Ferries Portsmouth to Bilbao route, many species of whales and dolphins can be seen in this area. Most importantly, it is one of the few places where the beaked whales and this is the best study area in the world for beaked whales. Other records in the late 20th century include one off Galicia at 43°00′N 10°30′W in September 1977 reported by a whaling company and another one seen off the Iberian Peninsula. The best areas to see the larger cetaceans lie in the deep waters beyond the shelf, particularly over the Santander Canyon
Indo-Pacific king mackerel
Indo-Pacific king mackerel or popularly seer fish is a sea fish among the mackerel variety of fishes. It is found in around the Indian Ocean and adjoining seas and it is a popular game fish, growing up to 45 kg, and is a strong fighter that has on occasion been seen to leap out of the water when hooked. It is excellent tablefare and is caught by sportfishers trolling with plugs or feathers/jigs. At times it is possible to more than one by casting silver spoons or pirks when one is hooked while trolling. It is very popular among the countries of the Indian subcontinent including Pakistan, Sri Lanka and it is a fairly expensive fish that is considered a delicacy in most places. In addition to being cooked and eaten fresh, it is used to make fish pickle. It is an part of the Syrian Christian cuisine along the coast of Kerala in India. Froese and Pauly, eds
Giuseppe Antonio Risso, called Antoine Risso, was a Niçard naturalist. Risso was born in the city of Nice in the Duchy of Savoy and he published Ichthyologie de Nice, Histoire naturelle de lEurope méridionale and Histoire Naturelle des Orangers. Rissos dolphin was named after him and he is denoted by the author abbreviation Risso when citing a botanical name, the same abbreviation is used for zoological names. Rissoa Freminville in Desmarest,1814, a genus of gastropods Rissoella J. Agardh,1849, a genus of algae Electrona risso, IPNI gives 81 records for Risso. Risso A. Memoire sur quelques Gasteropodes nouveaux, Nudibranches et Tectibranches observes dans la Mer de Nice, journal de Physique, de Chimie, dHistoire Naturelle et des Arts 87, 368-377. Risso A. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de lEurope Méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes Maritimes, Vol.1, XII +448 pp.1 plate. Vol.2, VII +482 pp.8 pl. Vol.3, XVI +480 pp.14 pl. Vol.4, IV +439 pp.12 pl.
Vol.5, révision des espèces de brachiopodes décrites par A. Risso. Carnets de Géologie / Notebooks on Geology, Article 2012/02 with the scientific bibliography of A. Risso in an appendix Jules René Bourguignat, Étude synonymique sur les mollusques des Alpes maritimes publiés par A. Risso en 1826. Works by or about Antoine Risso at Internet Archive Site Risso, http, //paleopolis. rediris. es/benthos/Risso/
Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name, more informally it is called a Latin name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs, for example, humans belong to the genus Homo and within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. The formal introduction of system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus. Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. Similarly, both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a name is usually given, at least when it is first mentioned. In zoology Patella vulgata Linnaeus,1758, the original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica, the parentheses indicate that the species is now considered to belong in a different genus.
The ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, in botany Amaranthus retroflexus L. – L. is the standard abbreviation used in botany for Linnaeus. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica, Rothmaler transferred it to the genus Hyacinthoides, the ICN does not require that the dates of either publication be specified. Prior to the adoption of the binomial system of naming species. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature and these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, and second, to be a diagnosis or description, such polynomial names may sometimes look like binomials, but are significantly different. For example, Gerards herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort, The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort, is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia. The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels, the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words.
The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné. It was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word trivial name together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as an epithet or specific name
Scomber is a genus of fish in the family Scombridae living in the open ocean found in Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. The genus Scomber and the genus Rastrelliger comprise the tribe Scombrini and these fishes have an elongated body, highly streamlined and agile. The eyes are large, the head is elongated, with a big mouth provided with teeth and they have two dorsal triangular fins, with some stabilizing fins along the caudal peduncle. The basic color is blue-green with a white belly and a darker back. They are known from various localities of Germany, Romania and Mexico