The danionins are a group of small minnow-type fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae. Members of this group are in the genera Danio and Rasbora, they are native to the fresh waters of South and Southeast Asia, with fewer species in Africa. Many species are available as aquarium fish worldwide. Danio species tend to have horizontal stripes, rows of spots, or vertical bars, have long barbels. Devario species tend to have vertical or horizontal bars, short rudimentary barbels, if barbels are present at all. All danionins are egg scatterers and breed in the rainy season in the wild, they are carnivores living on small crustaceans. The grouping of fish now deemed danionins has been the subject of constant research and speculation throughout the 20th century. Nearly all the fish classed within the genera Danio and Devario were placed in the genus Danio upon discovery. However, in the first part of the 20th century, George S. Myers split them into three genera, Danio and Daniops; the sole species within Myers' Daniops, D. myersi, has long ago been found to be a synonym of Devario laoensis, but his genus Brachydanio lasted for much longer, as it included most of the fish now classed as Danio, whereas Danio included most of the fish now classed as Devario.
However, Danio dangila and Danio feegradei, both of which had most of the characteristics of the Brachydanio were placed within Danios.. In 1941, H. M. Smith attempted to unite all the Brachydanios and Danios species into one genus on the basis of a fish from Thailand, supposed to bridge the gap, he downgraded both Danio and Brachydanio into subgenera and erected a new subgenus of Allodanio with one member, Allodanio ponticulus, but Myers pointed out that A. ponticulus was a member of the genus Barilius. The danionin group was thought to include Parabarilius, Danio and Danionella. In this scheme, danionins were distinguished from other cyprinids by the uniquely shared character of the "danionin notch", a large and peculiarly shaped indentation in the medial margin of the mandibles. However, all of these categories at that time were informal. Microrasbora was not considered to be a part of the danionins, nor closely related to Danionella, a part of the danionins as understood at that time. In the late 1980s and 1990s, doubts grew about the validity of Brachydanio, with species being referred to their original naming of Danio, Fang Fang determined that the genus Danio, recognized up to that point, was paraphyletic.
Fang restricted Danio to the species in the "D. dangila species group", which at the time comprised nine species including D. dangila, D. rerio, D. nigrofasciatus, D. albolineatus. The only Danio species to have been called Danio were D. dangila and D. feegradei. As D. dangila was the first discovered Danio the name Danio had to remain with D. dangila, why the vast majority of species were moved to Devario. The sister group to Devario was deemed to be a clade formed by Inlecypris and Chela, more controversially, Esomus was found to be the sister group of Danio; the relationships of Sundadanio and Microrasbora remained unresolved. The danionin notch was found to not supported to be a danionin synapomorphy. In another paper, Celestichthys margaritatus was described as a new species of the Danioninae, it is most related to Microrasbora erythromicron. The genus is identified as a danionin due specializations of its lower jaw and its numerous anal fin rays. Though it lacks a danionin notch, Celestichthys exhibits the "danionin mandibular knob", a bony process on the side of the mandible behind the danionin notch or where the notch should be.
This knob is better developed in males than females. The fish of Rasborinae invariably have anal fins with three spines and five rays. Celestichthys has 8-10 anal fin rays. Rasborins have the generalized cyprinid principal caudal fin ray count of 10/9, while all Asian cyprinids with fewer than 10/9 principal caudal fin rays are all diminutive species of Danioninae, including Celestichthys, M. erythromicron and Paedocypris. In 2007, an analysis of the phylogenetic relationships of the described genus Paedocypris was published, placing it as the sister taxon to Sundadanio; the clade formed by these two genera was found to be sister to a clade including many danionin genera, as well as some rasborin genera such as Rasbora and Boraras, making the danionin group paraphyletic without these rasborin genera based on these results. This paper considered the danionin genera to be within a larger Rasborinae. In 2007, another study analyzed the relationships of Danio; these authors considered Rasborinae to have priority over Danioninae, suggesting that they have the same meaning.
Danio was found to be the sister group of a clade including Chela, Microrasbora and Inlecypris, rather than in a clade with either Devario or Esomus as in previous studies. This paper supported the close relationship of "Microrasbora" erythromicron to Danio species.
Myanmar the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west and Laos to its east and China to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea; the country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people. As of 2017, the population is about 54 million. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size, its capital city is Naypyidaw, its largest city and former capital is Yangon. Myanmar has been a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations since 1997. Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language and Theravada Buddhism became dominant in the country.
The Pagan Kingdom fell. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia; the early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence as a democratic nation. Following a coup d'état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was dissolved following a 2010 general election, a nominally civilian government was installed.
This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi's party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at its GDP at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government; as of 2016, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development, according to the Human Development Index. Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.
The terms are popularly thought to derive from "Brahma Desha" after Brahma. In 1989, the military government changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar"; the renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi clarified that foreigners are free to use either name, "because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular"; the country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar". Countries that do not recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead. In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar". Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group.
Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be Myamah; the name Burma has been in use in English since the 18th century. Burma continues to be used in English by the governments of countries such as the United Kingdom. Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names; the government of Canada has in the past used Burma, such as in its 2007 legislation imposing sanctions, but as of the mid-2010s uses Myanmar. The Czech Republic uses Myanmar, although its Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website; the United Nations uses Myanmar, as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Norway and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation /Ra
The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, their relatives. Called the "carp family", or "minnow family", Cyprinidae is the largest and most diverse fish family and the largest vertebrate animal family in general, with about 3,000 species of which only 1,270 remain extant, divided into about 370 genera.. They range from about 12 mm to the 3-meter Catlocarpio siamensis; this family of fish is one of the few. The family belongs to the ostariophysian order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make more than two-thirds; the family name is derived from the Ancient Greek kyprînos. Cyprinids are stomachless fish with toothless jaws. So, food can be chewed by the gill rakers of the specialized last gill bow; these pharyngeal teeth allow the fish to make chewing motions against a chewing plate formed by a bony process of the skull. The pharyngeal teeth are used by scientists to identify species. Strong pharyngeal teeth allow fish such as the common carp and ide to eat hard baits such as snails and bivalves.
Hearing is a well-developed sense in the cyprinids since they have the Weberian organ, three specialized vertebral processes that transfer motion of the gas bladder to the inner ear. The vertebral processes of the Weberian organ permit a cyprinid to detect changes in motion of the gas bladder due to atmospheric conditions or depth changes; the cyprinids are considered physostomes because the pneumatic duct is retained in adult stages and the fish are able to gulp air to fill the gas bladder, or they can dispose excess gas to the gut. Cyprinids are native to North America and Eurasia; the largest known cyprinid is the giant barb, which may grow up to 3 m in length and 300 kg in weight. Other large species that can surpass 2 m are the golden mahseer and mangar; the largest North American species is the Colorado pikeminnow, which can reach up to 1.8 m in length. Conversely, many species are smaller than 5 cm; the smallest known fish is Paedocypris progenetica, reaching 10.3 mm at the longest. All fish in this family most do not guard their eggs.
The bitterlings of subfamily Acheilognathinae are notable for depositing their eggs in bivalve molluscs, where the young develop until able to fend for themselves. Most cyprinids feed on invertebrates and vegetation due to the lack of teeth and stomach. Many species, such as the ide and the common rudd, prey on small fish when individuals become large enough. Small species, such as the moderlieschen, are opportunistic predators that will eat larvae of the common frog in artificial circumstances; some cyprinids, such as the grass carp, are specialized herbivores. For this reason, cyprinids are introduced as a management tool to control various factors in the aquatic environment, such as aquatic vegetation and diseases transmitted by snails. Unlike most fish species, cyprinids increase in abundance in eutrophic lakes. Here, they contribute towards positive feedback as they are efficient at eating the zooplankton that would otherwise graze on the algae, reducing its abundance. Cyprinids are important food fish.
In land-locked countries in particular, cyprinids are the major species of fish eaten because they make the largest part of biomass in most water types except for fast-flowing rivers. In Eastern Europe, they are prepared with traditional methods such as drying and salting; the prevalence of inexpensive frozen fish products made this less important now than it was in earlier times. Nonetheless, in certain places, they remain popular for food, as well as recreational fishing, have been deliberately stocked in ponds and lakes for centuries for this reason. Cyprinids are popular for angling for match fishing and fishing for common carp because of its size and strength. Several cyprinids have been introduced to waters outside their natural ranges to provide food, sport, or biological control for some pest species; the common carp and the grass carp are the most important for example in Florida. In some cases, such as the Asian carp in the Mississippi Basin, they have become invasive species that compete with native fishes or disrupt the environment.
Carp in particular can stir up sediment, reducing the clarity of the water and making it difficult for plants to grow. Numerous cyprinids have become important in the aquarium and fishpond hobbies, most famously the goldfish, bred in China from the Prussian carp. First imported into Europe around 1728, it was much fancied by Chinese nobility as early as 1150 AD and after it arrived there in 1502 in Japan. In the latter country, from the 18th century onwards, the common carp was bred into the ornamental variety known as koi – or more nishikigoi, as koi means "common carp" in Japanese. Other popular aquarium cyprinids include danionins and true barbs. Larger species are bred by the thousands in outdoor ponds in Southeast Asia, trade in these aquarium fishes
Devario is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae native to the rivers and streams of South and Southeast Asia. These fishes have many species having vertical or horizontal stripes; these species consume various small, aquatic insects and worms, as well as, in the case of fry, plankton. 43 species in this genus are recognized
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
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Cypriniformes is an order of ray-finned fish, including the carps, minnows and relatives. This order contains 11-12 families, over 400 genera, more than 4,250 species, with new species being described every few months or so, new genera being recognized frequently, they are most diverse in southeastern Asia, are absent from Australia and South America. Their closest living relatives are the Gymnotiformes and the Siluriformes. Like other orders of the Ostariophysi, fishes of cypriniformes possess a Weberian apparatus, they differ from most of their relatives in having only a dorsal fin on their back. Further differences are the Cypriniformes' unique kinethmoid, a small median bone in the snout, the lack of teeth in the mouth. Instead, they have convergent structures called pharyngeal teeth in the throat. While other groups of fish, such as cichlids possess pharyngeal teeth, the cypriniformes' teeth grind against a chewing pad on the base of the skull, instead of an upper pharyngeal jaw; the most notable family placed here is Cyprinidae.
This is one of the largest families of fish, is distributed across Africa and North America. Most species are freshwater inhabitants, but a considerable number are found in brackish water, such as roach and bream. At least one species is found in the Pacific redfin, Tribolodon brandtii. Brackish water and marine cyprinids are invariably anadromous, swimming upstream into rivers to spawn. Sometimes separated as family Psilorhynchidae, they seem to be specially-adapted fishes of Cyprinidae. Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are families of mountain stream fishes feeding on algae and small invertebrates, they are found only in subtropical Asia. While the former are a speciose group, the latter contain only a handful of species; the suckers are found in temperate North eastern Asia. These large fishes are similar to carps in ecology. Members of Cobitidae common across Eurasia and parts of North Africa. A mid-sized group like the suckers, they are rather similar to catfish in appearance and behaviour, feeding off the substrate and equipped with barbels to help them locate food at night or in murky conditions.
Fishes in the families Cobitidae, Balitoridae and Gyrinocheilidae are called loaches, although it seems that the last do not belong to the lineage of "true" loaches but are related to the suckers. These included all the forms now placed in the superorder Ostariophysi except the catfish, which were placed in the order Siluriformes. By this definition, the Cypriniformes were paraphyletic, so the orders Gonorhynchiformes and Gymnotiformes have been separated out to form their own monophyletic orders; the families of Cypriniformes are traditionally divided into two superfamilies. Superfamily Cyprinioidea contains the carps and minnows and the mountain carps as the family Psilorhynchidae. In 2012 Maurice Kottelat reviewed the superfamily Cobitoidei and under his revision it now consists of the following families: hillstream loaches, Botiidae, true loaches, Gastromyzontidae, sucking loaches, stone loaches, Serpenticobitidae and long-finned loaches. Catostomoidea is treated as a junior synonym of Cobitoidei.
But it seems that it could be split off the Catostomidae and Gyrinocheilidae in a distinct superfamily. While the Cyprinioidea seem more "primitive" than the loach-like forms, they were successful enough never to shift from the original ecological niche of the basal Ostariophysi. Yet, from the ecomorphologically conservative main lineage at least two major radiations branched off; these diversified from the lowlands into torrential river habitats, acquiring similar habitus and adaptations in the process. The mountain carps are apomorphic Cyprinidae close to true carps, or maybe to the danionins. While some details about the phylogenetic structures of this massively diverse family are known – e.g. that Cultrinae and Leuciscinae are rather close relatives and stand apart from Cyprininae – there is no good consensus yet on how the main lineages are interrelated. A systematic list, from the most ancient to the most modern lineages, can thus be given as: Superfamily Cyprinoidei Family Cyprinidae Bonaparte, 1840 and minnows incl.
Psilorhynchidae) Superfamily Cobitoidei Superfamily Catostomoidea Family Catostomidae Agassiz 1850 Superfamily Gyrinocheiloidea Family Gyrinocheilidae Gill 1905 Superfamily Cobitoidea Family Barbuccidae Kottelat 2012 Family Serpenticobitidae Kottelat 2012 Family Botiidae Berg 1940 Family Vaillantellidae Nalbant & Bănărescu 1977 Family Cobitidae Swainson 1838 Family Balitoridae Swainson 1839 Family Gastromyzontidae Fowler 1905 Family Ellopostomatidae Bohlen & Šlechtová 2009 Family Nemacheilidae Regan 1911 Phylogeny based on the work of the following works Cypriniformes include the most primitive of the Ostariophysi in the narrow sense. This is evidenced n
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture