Hell's Angels (film)
Hell's Angels is a 1930 pre-Code independently made American epic aviation war film and produced by Howard Hughes, that stars Ben Lyon, James Hall, Jean Harlow. The film, written by Harry Behn and Howard Estabrook, was released by United Artists. Though the film was shot as a silent, Hughes retooled Hell's Angels over a lengthy gestation period. Most of the film is in black-and-white, but there is one color sequence, the only color footage of Harlow's career. Controversy during the Hell's Angels production contributed to the film's notoriety, including the accidental deaths of several pilots, an inflated budget, a lawsuit against a competitor, repeated postponements of the release date. Hell's Angels was one of the highest-grossing films of the early sound era, but despite this it still failed to recover its exorbitant production costs, it is now hailed as one of the screen's first sound action films. Roy and Monte Rutledge are different British brothers. Strait-laced Roy loves and idealizes the demure Helen.
Monte, on the other hand, is a womanizer. Their German friend and fellow Oxford student Karl is against the idea of having to fight England when World War I breaks out. Meanwhile, the oblivious Monte is caught in the arms of a woman by her German officer husband, who insists upon a duel the next day. Monte flees that night; when Roy is mistaken for his brother, he is shot in the arm. Karl is conscripted into the German Air Force, the two British brothers enlist in the Royal Flying Corps, Monte only to get a kiss from a girl at the recruiting station; when Roy introduces Monte to Helen, she invites Monte to her flat. Monte gives in; the next morning, however, he is for once ashamed of himself. Meanwhile, Karl is an officer aboard a Zeppelin airship sent to bomb London; as the bombardier-observer, he is lowered below the clouds in a spy basket. He deliberately guides the Zeppelin over water. Four RFC fighters are sent to intercept the Zeppelin. Roy pilots one, with Monte as his gunner. To gain altitude more the airship commander orders everything possible be jettisoned.
When, not enough, he decides to sacrifice Karl by cutting the cable that secures his pod. He accepts the advice of another officer. German machine gunners shoot down three aircraft. After his machine guns jam or run out of ammunition, the last British pilot aloft dives his fighter into the dirigible, sending it crashing in a blazing fireball; the brothers narrowly avoid the debris. In France, Monte is branded a coward for shirking his duty when his replacement is shot down in his place; when a Staff Colonel asks for two volunteers for a suicide mission and Monte step up. They are to destroy a vital enemy munitions depot, they will sneak in using a captured German bomber the next morning so that a British brigade will have a chance in their otherwise hopeless afternoon attack. That night, Roy discovers a drunk Helen in a nightclub with Captain Redfield; when he tries to take her home, she turns on him, revealing that she never loved him, that she was, in fact, not the young innocent he believed her to be.
Devastated, Roy joins Monte for some carousing. Monte decides not to go on the mission and nearly persuades Roy to do the same, but in the end, Roy drags Monte back to the airfield; the raid on the German munitions dump is successful. However, they are spotted in the act by a flight of German fighters from the Flying Circus, led by the “Red Baron”, Manfred von Richthofen. Monte defends the bomber with a machine gun until their squadron arrives, a dogfight breaks out, their buddy "Baldy" shoots down the one German, still targeting the bomber, but von Richthofen swoops in and shoots the brothers down. They are captured, they are given the option of talking or facing a firing squad by none other than Roy's old dueling opponent. Monte decides to save his life. Unable to change his brother's mind, Roy convinces Monte that he should speak with the German general alone, he offers to tell. The general is persuaded to give him a pistol to kill Monte. Roy fails to get Monte to do the right thing, has no choice but to shoot his brother in the back.
Afterward, Roy is executed. The British attack gets off to a successful start. Hell's Angels had been conceived as a silent, with James Hall and Ben Lyon as Roy and Monte Rutledge, Norwegian silent film star Greta Nissen cast as Helen, the female lead, was to be directed by Marshall Neilan. Principal photography began on October 31, 1927 with interiors shot at the Metropolitan Studio in Hollywood. A few weeks into production, Hughes' overbearing production techniques forced Neilan to quit. Hughes first hired Luther Reed, on loan from Paramount but still was in conflict over directing roles before hiring a more pliable director, Edmund Goulding, but took over the directing reins when it came to the frenetic aerial battle scenes. A year and a half into production, the advent of the sound motion picture came with the arrival of The Jazz Singer. Hughes incorporated the new technology into the half-finished film, but Greta Nissen became the first casualty of the sound age, due to her pronounced Norwegian accent.
He paid her for her work and cooperation, replaced her, because her accent would make her role as a British
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure form, it is a pale blue, clear liquid more viscous than water. Hydrogen peroxide is the simplest peroxide, it is used as bleaching agent and antiseptic. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", is a reactive oxygen species and has been used as a propellant in rocketry, its chemistry is dominated by the nature of its unstable peroxide bond. Hydrogen peroxide is unstable and decomposes in the presence of light; because of its instability, hydrogen peroxide is stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases; the boiling point of H2O2 has been extrapolated as being 150.2 °C 50 °C higher than water. In practice, hydrogen peroxide will undergo explosive thermal decomposition if heated to this temperature, it may be safely distilled at lower temperatures under reduced pressure.
In aqueous solutions hydrogen peroxide differs from the pure substance due to the effects of hydrogen bonding between water and hydrogen peroxide molecules. Hydrogen peroxide and water form a eutectic mixture; the boiling point of the same mixtures is depressed in relation with the mean of both boiling points. It occurs at 114 °C; this boiling point is 14 °C greater than that of pure water and 36.2 °C less than that of pure hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a nonplanar molecule as shown by Paul-Antoine Giguère in 1950 using infrared spectroscopy, with C2 symmetry. Although the O−O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a high rotational barrier of 2460 cm−1; the increased barrier is ascribed to repulsion between the lone pairs of the adjacent oxygen atoms and results in hydrogen peroxide displaying atropisomerism. The molecular structures of gaseous and crystalline H2O2 are different; this difference is attributed to the effects of hydrogen bonding, absent in the gaseous state. Crystals of H2O2 are tetragonal with the space group D44P4121.
Hydrogen peroxide has several structural analogues with Hm−X−X−Hn bonding arrangements. It has the highest boiling point of this series, its melting point is fairly high, being comparable to that of hydrazine and water, with only hydroxylamine crystallising more indicative of strong hydrogen bonding. Diphosphane and hydrogen disulfide exhibit only weak hydrogen bonding and have little chemical similarity to hydrogen peroxide. All of these analogues are thermodynamically unstable. Structurally, the analogues all adopt similar skewed structures, due to repulsion between adjacent lone pairs. Alexander von Humboldt synthesized one of the first synthetic peroxides, barium peroxide, in 1799 as a by-product of his attempts to decompose air. Nineteen years Louis Jacques Thénard recognized that this compound could be used for the preparation of a unknown compound, which he described as eau oxygénée – subsequently known as hydrogen peroxide. An improved version of Thénard's process used hydrochloric acid, followed by addition of sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct.
This process was used from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century. Thénard and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac synthesized sodium peroxide in 1811; the bleaching effect of peroxides and their salts on natural dyes became known around that time, but early attempts of industrial production of peroxides failed, the first plant producing hydrogen peroxide was built in 1873 in Berlin. The discovery of the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide by electrolysis with sulfuric acid introduced the more efficient electrochemical method, it was first implemented into industry in 1908 in Weißenstein, Austria. The anthraquinone process, still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in Ludwigshafen; the increased demand and improvements in the synthesis methods resulted in the rise of the annual production of hydrogen peroxide from 35,000 tonnes in 1950, to over 100,000 tonnes in 1960, to 300,000 tonnes by 1970. Pure hydrogen peroxide was long believed to be unstable, as early attempts to separate it from the water, present during synthesis, all failed.
This instability was due to traces of impurities, which catalyze the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Pure hydrogen peroxide was first obtained in 1894—almost 80 years after its discovery—by Richard Wolffenstein, who produced it by vacuum distillation. Determination of the molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide proved to be difficult. In 1892 the Italian physical chemist Giacomo Carrara determined its molecular mass by freezing-point depression, which confirmed that its molecular formula is H2O2. At least half a dozen hypothetical molecular structures seemed to be consistent with the available evidence. In 1934, the English mathematical physicist William Penney and the Scottish physicist Gordon Sutherland proposed a molecular structure for hydrogen peroxide, similar to the presently accepted one. Hydrogen peroxide was prepared industrially by hydrolysis of ammonium persulfate, itself obtained by the electrolysis of a solution
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical compounds, or alloys. Chemical elements may not be included in the definition, depending on expert viewpoint. Chemical substances are called'pure' to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water. Other chemical substances encountered in pure form are diamond, table salt and refined sugar. However, in practice, no substance is pure, chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical. Chemical substances exist as solids, gases, or plasma, may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure. Chemical substances may be converted to others by means of chemical reactions. Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not matter, are thus not "substances" in this regard.
A chemical substance may well be defined as "any material with a definite chemical composition" in an introductory general chemistry textbook. According to this definition a chemical substance can either be a pure chemical element or a pure chemical compound. But, there are exceptions to this definition; the chemical substance index published by CAS includes several alloys of uncertain composition. Non-stoichiometric compounds are a special case that violates the law of constant composition, for them, it is sometimes difficult to draw the line between a mixture and a compound, as in the case of palladium hydride. Broader definitions of chemicals or chemical substances can be found, for example: "the term'chemical substance' means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity, including – any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of a chemical reaction or occurring in nature". In geology, substances of uniform composition are called minerals, while physical mixtures of several minerals are defined as rocks.
Many minerals, mutually dissolve into solid solutions, such that a single rock is a uniform substance despite being a mixture in stoichiometric terms. Feldspars are a common example: anorthoclase is an alkali aluminum silicate, where the alkali metal is interchangeably either sodium or potassium. In law, "chemical substances" may include both pure substances and mixtures with a defined composition or manufacturing process. For example, the EU regulation REACH defines "monoconstituent substances", "multiconstituent substances" and "substances of unknown or variable composition"; the latter two consist of multiple chemical substances. For example, charcoal is an complex polymeric mixture that can be defined by its manufacturing process. Therefore, although the exact chemical identity is unknown, identification can be made to a sufficient accuracy; the CAS index includes mixtures. Polymers always appear as mixtures of molecules of multiple molar masses, each of which could be considered a separate chemical substance.
However, the polymer may be defined by a known precursor or reaction and the molar mass distribution. For example, polyethylene is a mixture of long chains of -CH2- repeating units, is sold in several molar mass distributions, LDPE, MDPE, HDPE and UHMWPE; the concept of a "chemical substance" became established in the late eighteenth century after work by the chemist Joseph Proust on the composition of some pure chemical compounds such as basic copper carbonate. He deduced; this is now known as the law of constant composition. With the advancement of methods for chemical synthesis in the realm of organic chemistry. However, there are some controversies regarding this definition because the large number of chemical substances reported in chemistry literature need to be indexed. Isomerism caused much consternation to early researchers, since isomers have the same composition, but differ in configuration of the atoms. For example, there was much speculation for the chemical identity of benzene, until the correct structure was described by Friedrich August Kekulé.
The idea of stereoisomerism – that atoms have rigid three-dimensional structure and can thus form isomers that differ only in their three-dimensional arrangement – was another crucial step in understanding the concept of distinct chemical substances. For example, tartaric acid has three distinct isomers, a pair of diastereomers with one diastereomer forming two enantiomers. An element is a chemical substance made up of a particular kind of atom and hence cannot be broken down or transformed by a chemical reaction into a different element, though it can be transmuted into another element through a nuclear reaction; this is so, beca
Blond or fair hair is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. The resultant visible hue always has some yellowish color; the color can be from the pale blond to reddish "strawberry" blond or golden-brownish blond colors. Because hair color tends to darken with age, natural blond hair is very rare in adulthood. Naturally-occurring blond hair is found in populations of northern European descent and is believed to have evolved to enable more efficient synthesis of vitamin D, due to northern Europe's lower levels of sunlight. Blond hair has developed in other populations, although it is not as common, can be found among natives of the Solomon Islands and Fiji, among the Berbers of North Africa, among some Asians. In Western culture, blond hair has long been associated with female beauty. Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and beauty, was reputed to have blond hair. In ancient Greece and Rome, blond hair was associated with prostitutes, who dyed their hair using saffron dyes in order to attract customers.
The Greeks stereotyped Thracians and slaves as blond and the Romans associated blondness with the Celts and the Germans to the north. In western Europe during the Middle Ages, blond hair was idealized as the paragon of female beauty; the Norse goddess Sif and the medieval heroine Iseult were both portrayed as blond and, in medieval artwork, Mary Magdalene, the Virgin Mary are shown with blond hair. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, scientific racists categorized blond hair and blue eyes as characteristics of the supreme Nordic race. In contemporary western culture, blonde women are negatively stereotyped as sexually attractive, but unintelligent; the word "blond" is first documented in English in 1481 and derives from Old French blund, meaning "a colour midway between golden and light chestnut". It eclipsed the native term "fair", of same meaning, from Old English fæġer, causing "fair" to become a general term for "light complexioned"; this earlier use of "fair" survives in the proper name Fairfax, from Old English fæġer-feahs meaning "blond hair".
The word "blond" has two possible origins. Some linguists say it comes from Medieval Latin blundus, meaning "yellow", from Old Frankish blund which would relate it to Old English blonden-feax meaning "grey-haired", from blondan/blandan meaning "to mix". Old English beblonden meant "dyed", as ancient Germanic warriors were noted for dyeing their hair. However, linguists who favor a Latin origin for the word say that Medieval Latin blundus was a vulgar pronunciation of Latin flavus meaning "yellow". Most authorities French, attest to the Frankish origin; the word was reintroduced into English in the 17th century from French, was for some time considered French. "Blond", with its continued gender-varied usage, is one of few adjectives in written English to retain separate lexical genders. The two forms, are pronounced identically. American Heritage's Book of English Usage propounds that, insofar as "a blonde" can be used to describe a woman but not a man, said to possess blond hair, the term is an example of a "sexist stereotype women are defined by their physical characteristics."
The Oxford English Dictionary records that the phrase "big blond beast" was used in the 20th century to refer to men "of the Nordic type". The OED records that blond as an adjective is used with reference to women, in which case it is to be spelt "blonde", citing three Victorian usages of the term; the masculine version is used in the plural, in "blonds of the European race", in a citation from 1833 Penny cyclopedia, which distinguishes genuine blondness as a Caucasian feature distinct from albinism. By the early 1990s, "blonde moment" or being a "dumb blonde" had come into common parlance to mean "an instance of a person, esp. A woman... being foolish or scatter-brained." Another hair color word of French origin, functions in the same way in orthodox English. The OED gives "brunet" as meaning "dark-complexioned" or a "dark-complexioned person", citing a comparative usage of brunet and blond to Thomas Henry Huxley in saying, "The present contrast of blonds and brunets existed among them." "Brunette" can be used, like "blonde", to describe a mixed-gender populace.
The OED quotes Grant Allen, "The nation which resulted... being sometimes blonde, sometimes brunette.""Blond" and "blonde" are occasionally used to refer to objects that have a color reminiscent of fair hair. For example, the OED records its use in 19th-century poetic diction to describe flowers, "a variety of clay ironstone of the coal measures", "the colour of raw silk", a breed of ray, lager beer, pale wood. Various subcategories of blond hair have been defined to describe the different shades and sources of the hair color more accurately. Common examples include the following: ash-blond: grayish blond. Bleached blond, bottle blond, or peroxide blond: terms used to refer to artificially colored blond hair. Blond/flaxen: when distinguished from other varieties, "blond" by itself refers to a light but not whitish blond, with no traces of red, gold, or brown. Dirty blond or dishwater blond: dark blond with flecks of golden blond and brown. Golden blond: a darker to rich, golden-yellow blond (found in Northeastern Europe, i.e. Russia
Human hair color
Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. If more eumelanin is present, the color of the hair is darker. Levels of melanin can vary over time causing a person's hair color to change, it is possible to have hair follicles of more than one color on the same person. Particular hair colors are associated with ethnic groups, while gray or white hair is associated with age. Two types of pigment give hair its color: pheomelanin. Pheomelanin colors hair red. All humans have some pheomelanin in their hair. Eumelanin, which has two subtypes of black or brown, determines the darkness of the hair color. A low concentration of brown eumelanin results in blond hair, whereas a higher concentration of brown eumelanin results in brown hair. High amounts of black eumelanin result in black hair. Pheomelanin is more bio-chemically stable than black eumelanin, but less bio-chemically stable than brown eumelanin, so it breaks down more when oxidized; this is.
As the pheomelanin continues to break down, the hair will become red orange yellow, white. The genetics of hair colors are not yet established. According to one theory, at least two gene pairs control human hair color. One phenotype has a recessive blond allele. A person with a brown allele will have brown hair; this explains. However, this can only be possible if both parent are heterozygous in hair color- meaning that both of them have one dominant brown hair allele and one recessive allele for blond hair, but as dominant traits mask recessive ones the parents both have brown hair; the possibility of which trait may appear in an offspring can be determined with a Punnett square. The other gene pair is a non-red/red pair, where the non-red allele is dominant and the allele for red hair is recessive. A person with two copies of the red-haired allele will have red hair; the two-gene model does not account for all possible shades of brown, blond, or red, nor does it explain why hair color sometimes darkens as a person ages.
Several gene pairs control the light versus dark hair color in a cumulative effect. A person's genotype for a multifactorial trait can interact with the environment to produce varying phenotypes. Natural hair color can be brown, black, red, or white; the Fischer–Saller scale, named after Eugen Fischer and Karl Saller, is used in physical anthropology and medicine to determine the shades of hair color. The scale uses the following designations: A, B to E, F to L, M to O, P to T, U to Y and Roman numerals I to IV and V to VI. Brown hair is characterized by higher levels of eumelanin and lower levels of pheomelanin. Of the two types of eumelanin, brown-haired people have brown eumelanin. Brown-haired girls or women are known as brunette. Chestnut hair is a hair color, a reddish shade of brown hair. In contrast to auburn hair, the reddish shade of chestnut is darker. Chestnut hair is common among the native peoples of Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Blonde hair ranges from nearly white to a dark golden blonde.
Strawberry blonde, a mixture of blonde and red hair, is a much rarer type containing the most pheomelanin. Blonde hair can have any proportion of pheomelanin and eumelanin, but has only small amounts of both. More pheomelanin creates a more golden or strawberry blonde color, more eumelanin creates an ash or sandy blonde color. Many children born with blonde hair develop darker hair as they age, with the majority of natural blondies developing a hair color of a dark blonde hue by the time they reach middle age. Pregnancy hormones hasten this process. Natural light blonde hair is rare in adulthood, with claims of the world's population ranging from 2% blonde to 16% in the US. Blonde hair is most found in Northern and Western Europeans and their descendants but can be found spread around most of Europe. Studies in 2012 showed that blonde hair of Melanesians is caused by a recessive mutation in tyrosinase-related protein 1. In the Solomon Islands, 26% of the population carry the gene. Black hair is the darkest hair color.
It is more dense than other hair colors. Auburn hair ranges along a spectrum of light to dark red-brown shades; the chemicals which cause auburn hair are eumelanin and pheomelanin, with a higher proportion of red-causing pheomelanin than is found in average brown hair. It is most found in individuals of Northern and Western European descent. Red hair ranges from light strawberry blond shades to titian and red, it is recessive. Red hair has the highest amounts of pheomelanin, around 67%, low levels of eumelanin. At 1–2% of the population, it is the least common hair color in the world, it is most prominently found in the British Isles. Scotland has the highest proportion of redheads.
Auburn hair is a variety of red hair, most described as reddish-brown in color or dark ginger. Auburn hair ranges in shades from medium to dark, it can be found with a wide array of skin tones and eye colors, but as is the case with most red hair, it is associated with light skin features. The chemical pigments that cause the coloration of auburn hair are pheomelanin with high levels of eumelanin. "Auburn" can be used to describe many shades of reddish hair with similar hues. It is conflated in popular usage with Titian hair. While Titian hair is a brownish shade of red hair, auburn hair is defined as including the actual color red. Most definitions of Titian hair describe it as a brownish-orange color, but some describe it as being reddish; this is in reference to red hair itself, not the color red. Auburn so too do chestnut and burgundy. In contrast with the two, auburn is more red in color, while chestnut is more brown, burgundy is more purple; the word "auburn" comes from the Old French word alborne, which meant blond, coming from Latin word alburnus.
The first recorded use of auburn in English was in 1430. The word was sometimes corrupted into abram, for example in early folios of Coriolanus, Thomas Kyd's Soliman and Perseda and Thomas Middleton's Blurt, Master Constable. Auburn hair is common among people of northern and western European descent, as well as North Africans, but it is rare elsewhere. Auburn hair occurs most in the following regions: Denmark, Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Poland, north Iberia and Russia; this hair color is less common farther south and southeast, but can occur somewhat in Southern Europe. It can be found in other parts of the world colonized by genetically European people, such as North America, South America, New Zealand, South Africa, etc. Auburn is sometimes seen among the indigenous people of Taiwan, but it is absent in the Han Chinese immigrants, it is more common among the Formosan aborigines than among the white people of Northwestern European descent. Blond hair Titian hair Online Etymology Dictionary