President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
George Washington in the French and Indian War
George Washington's military experience began in the French and Indian War with a commission as a major in the militia of the British Province of Virginia. In 1753 Washington was sent as an ambassador from the British crown to the French officials and Indians as far north as present-day Erie, Pennsylvania; the following year he led another expedition to the area to assist in the construction of a fort at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Before reaching that point, he and some of his men, ambushed a French scouting party, its leader was killed. This peacetime act of aggression is seen as one of the first military steps leading to the global Seven Years' War; the French responded by attacking fortifications Washington erected following the ambush, forcing his surrender. Released on parole and his troops returned to Virginia. In 1755 he participated as a volunteer aide in the ill-fated expedition of General Edward Braddock, where he distinguished himself in the retreat following the climactic Battle of Monongahela.
He served from 1755 until 1758 as colonel and commander of the Virginia Regiment, directing the provincial defenses against French and Indian raids and building the regiment into one of the best-trained provincial militias of the time. He led the regiment as part of the 1758 expedition of General John Forbes that drove the French from Fort Duquesne, during which he and some of his companies were involved in a friendly fire incident. Unable to get a commission in the British Army, Washington resigned from the provincial militia and took up the life of a Virginia plantation owner. Washington gained valuable military skills during the war, acquiring tactical and logistical military experience, he acquired important political skills in his dealings with the British military establishment and the provincial government. His military exploits, although they included some notable failures, made his military reputation in the colonies such that he became a natural selection as the commander in chief of the Continental Army following the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1775.
His successes in military and political spheres during that conflict led to his election as the first President of the United States of America. Born into a well-to-do Virginia family in Bridges Creek near Fredericksburg in 1732, Washington was schooled locally until the age of 15, his father's sudden death occurred. This eliminated the possibility of schooling in England, his mother rejected attempts to place him in the Royal Navy. Thanks to the connection by marriage of his half-brother Lawrence to the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington was appointed surveyor of Culpeper County in 1749. Washington's brother had purchased an interest in the Ohio Company, a land acquisition and settlement company whose objective was the settlement of Virginia's frontier areas, including the Ohio Country, territory north and west of the Ohio River, its investors included Virginia's Royal Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, who appointed Washington a major in the provincial militia in February 1753. The Ohio Country was occupied by a variety of Indian tribes that were nominally under the suzerainty of the Iroquois Confederacy based in what is now northwestern New York.
The area was the subject of several conflicting claims by British and French colonies. The British provinces of Virginia and Pennsylvania both claimed the area, traders from Pennsylvania had been trading with the Indians at least since the early 1740s. In 1752, representatives of the Ohio Company reached an agreement with the local Indian leaders allowing the construction of a fort and a small settlement at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, for the establishment of some settlements south of the Ohio River; the French were alarmed by these developments, in 1753 began the construction of a series of fortifications in the uppermost headwaters of the Ohio River, intending to extend the line of forts downriver and deny British traders and settlers access to the territory. When news of this reached Virginia, Governor Dinwiddie sought advice from the British government in London, he received orders to send a messenger to the French, reiterating British claims and demanding that they stop construction of their forts and quit the territory.
Governor Dinwiddie chose Major Washington 21 years old, for the trek into the Ohio Country to assess the French military situation, to deliver the British demands. He was a good choice despite his youth because he was familiar with the frontier from survey work, had good health, both government and Ohio Company leaders trusted Washington. Although he had no frontier warfare experience, neither did most other Virginians. Washington departed from Williamsburg at the end of October 1753. In Fredericksburg he picked up Jacob Van Braam, a family friend who spoke French, before heading into the Virginia highlands. There he was joined by Christopher Gist, an Ohio Company agent, familiar with the territory, a few backwoodsmen to assist with expedition logistics; when the expedition arrived at the site of the proposed fort, Washington noted that the site was well chosen, having "the entire Command of the Monongahela". The expedition proceeded on to Logstown, a large Indian settlement a short way down the Ohio River.
After parleying with the Indians, the Mingo "Half King" Tanacharison and three of his men agreed to accompany the British expedition to meet with the French. Washington learned that many of the Ohio tribes were as unhappy about the British plans for settli
A part-Arabian, partbred Arabian or, less half-Arabian, is a horse with documented amounts of Arabian horse breeding but not a purebred. Because the Arabian is deemed to be a breed of purebred horse dating back many centuries, the modern breed registries recognized by the World Arabian Horse Organization have closed stud books which exclude a horse from registration if it is found to contain any outside blood. However, Arabian breeding has been used for centuries to add useful traits to countless other horse breeds. In the modern era, crossbreeding has been popular to combine the best traits of two different breeds, such as color, size, or ability to specialize in a particular equestrian discipline. Thus, in the modern era, the desire to recognize and acknowledge Arabian breeding in non-purebred horses has led to the formation of partbred sections in many purebred Arabian registries in order to record the pedigrees of crossbreds. In addition, some successful or popular crossbreds have created their own registries closed to most outside breeding, but which allow additional infusions of purebred Arabian blood.
Some registries those for sport horses and various warmbloods, have an open or open stud book that still allows some infusions of Arabian blood as well as that of other breeds, sometimes based on a documented Arabian pedigree, sometimes on a pedigree plus a studbook selection process. There are cases where a horse may qualify for registration in more than one registry and thus may be marketed as "double-registered". A few breeds, such as the Thoroughbred, acknowledge Arabian ancestry with named, documented horses in their stud books, but no longer accept new infusions of Arabian blood and the breed is considered a purebred in its own right. Hundreds of other horse breeds have some evidence of Arabian influence. In some breeds, such as the Percheron, Arabian influence is considered probable, but dates back hundreds of years and thus is difficult to conclusively prove as pedigree records cannot be linked to individual animals. In other breeds, such as the Andalusian horse or the American Quarter Horse, documentation of Arabian bloodlines in the breed can be found but either the records are controversial, or the infusion of Arab blood itself was controversial and for various reasons the breed registry today seeks to downplay Arabian type or influence.
Breed registries for part-Arabians include: The USA Arabian Horse Association's Half-Arabian and Anglo-Arabian registry: Half-Arabians must have at least 50% Arabian blood and one purebred Arabian parent. Half-Arabians can not produce registerable offspring. Anglo-Arabians have different requirements. Anglo-Arabian or Anglo Arab: A Thoroughbred-Arabian cross. Different nations have different standards, but Anglo-Arabians must have a minimum of 25% and no more than 75% blood from each breed, which may be done by a first generation cross of an Arabian with a Thoroughbred or by crossing two Anglo-Arabians, or by crossing an Anglo-Arabian on either a purebred Thoroughbred or Arabian. In some nations, partbred Arabians are called "Anglo-Arabians," if they are not an Arab-Thoroughbred cross AraAppaloosa: An Appaloosa-Arabian cross Morab: A Morgan-Arabian cross National Show Horse: An American Saddlebred-Arabian cross Pintabian: A horse with over 99% Arabian blood and tobiano coloration. Welara: A Welsh pony-Arabian cross.
Horse registries with an open stud book that allow Arabian and part-Arabians as well as other breeds to be registered include: American Warmblood: Has an open stud book that allows some Arabians and part-Arabians via a studbook selection process. Oldenburg horse: Has an open stud book that allows some Arabians and part-Arabians via a studbook selection process. Palomino Horse Breeders of America: A color breed registry that accepts horses of palomino color, including part-Arabians and the occasional chestnut purebred Arabian with flaxen mane and tail if a light enough chestnut to meet the registry standard. Pinto Horse Association of America: An American color breed registry for parti-colored horses that accepts part-Arabians with pinto color patterns and a few purebreds if they exhibit the sabino color pattern, known to exist in purebreds. Selle Francais: A French breed with significant Arabian, Anglo-Arabian and Thoroughbred influence. Breeds with a "partially open" stud book, but that still allow new infusions of Arabian breeding, some based only on documented pedigree, some requiring a pedigree and studbook selection, include: Appaloosa: Has some Arabians in foundation bloodlines.
Allows horses with one Arabian, Thoroughbred, or American Quarter Horse parent crossed on an Appaloosa parent, so long as the ensuing foal has leopard complex traits. Colorado Ranger: Similar to Appaloosa, has Arabian foundation stock. Gidran, or Hungarian Anglo-Arab: A Hungarian breed developed from Arabian foundation stock crossed on local horses with infusions of Arabian, Anglo-Arab and Shagya breeding. All horses of this breed are chestnut. Purosangue Orientale: An Italian breed developed by crossing Arabians on local horses in Sicily. Sardinian Anglo-Arab, Anglo-Arabo Sardo or AAS: An Italian breed with a minimum of 25% Arabian blood, developed by crossing Thoroughbred and Arabian stallions on local mares from Sardinia. Trakehner: Still allows infusion of Arabian, Anglo-Arabian and Shagya blood in limited circumstanc
General George Washington at Trenton
General George Washington at Trenton is a large full-length portrait in oil painted in 1792 by the American artist John Trumbull of General George Washington at Trenton, New Jersey, on the night of January 2, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War. This is the night after the Battle of the Assunpink Creek known as the Second Battle of Trenton, before the decisive victory at the Battle of Princeton the next day; the artist considered this portrait "the best of those which I painted." The portrait is on view at the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut, an 1806 gift of the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut. It was commissioned by the city of Charleston, South Carolina, but was rejected by the city, resulting in Trumbull painting another version; the work was commissioned by the city of Charleston, South Carolina, in 1792 to commemorate President Washington's visit there in May 1791 during his Southern Tour. Trumbull had visited Charleston earlier, in February 1791, to paint portraits of several leaders, including Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Trumbull took the commission from William Loughton Smith, a representative of South Carolina and representing Charleston, con amore, to paint Washington "in the most sublime moment... the evening previous to the battle of Princeton". General George Washington is in a blue coat over gold waistcoat and pants, he holds a sword in his left hand. Behind him is Blueskin, his spirited, light-colored horse, restrained by a groom. Further in the distance is the bridge over the Assunpink Creek and nearby mill, along with artillery and campfires. After Smith rejected the painting, Trumbull painted a similar, but different version for the city, entitled Washington at the City of Charleston, it was now set at Charleston, with the city in the background, the Cooper River and boats in the middle ground, local plants in the foreground. Washington is shown as Smith wanted, "calm, peaceful." He wears gloves on both hands, holds a hat in his left hand, shown resting on his sword, while holding a walking stick with his right hand.
The painting is now on view in the Charleston City Hall. Trumbull painted a much smaller version, entitled George Washington before the Battle of Trenton, c. 1792–94 for his friend Charles Wilkes, a New York banker. It is similar with changes in the background and a bay horse, it is on view there. In 1794, Trumbull went to London as secretary of legation for John Jay during the negotiations of the Jay Treaty, he had made a small version of this portrait and supervised its engraving by Thomas Cheesman, entitled George Washington, in 1796. It was noted by historian Justin Winsor as the best engraving of Trumbull's paintings and was used as the basis for several other engravings. In 1845, William Warner Jr. engraved Gen. Washington. Alfred Daggett engraved a version, Washington at Trenton, New Jersey, January 2d, 1777, published in Historical Collections of New Jersey and Present by John W. Barber and Henry Howe in 1868. An engraving entitled, General Washington at the Bridge Over the Assunpink Creek, was published in the 1898 book, The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, by historian William S. Stryker.
Trumbull described the thinking of Washington after seeing the superiority of the enemy at Trenton:... he is supposed to have been meditating how to avoid the impending ruin. To re-cross the Delaware in the presence of such an enemy, was impossible. Historian and painter William Dunlap after viewing it in the Trumbull Gallery at Yale said: "This is, in many respects, a fine picture, painted in the artist's best days." The United States Post Office has issued several postage stamps of George Washington from the portrait detail in this painting. The first was issued in 1860 with a ninety-cent value; this stamp was revised and issued the next year, 1861. In 1931, the Battle of Yorktown commemorative with a two-cent value included this portrait. A stamp with a six-cent value was issued as part of the Washington Bicentennial stamps of 1932; the Army and Navy Commemorative Series included a stamp with one-cent value in 1936. On February 21, 1915, The New York Times published a full-page image of the painting with the caption "General Washington, painted from life by his staff officer and friend, Col. John Trumbull", in the Picture section, the first time in Rotogravure.
Battle of Trenton – known as the First Battle of Trenton Battle of the Assunpink Creek – known as the Second Battle of Trenton, fought one week Battle of Princeton – battle on the following day Washington at Verplanck's Point – an earlier full-length portrait of Washington by Trumbull "George Washington at the Battle of Trenton,". Inventory of American Sculpture, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. Smithsonian American Art Museum. IAP 07260601. Owner: Yale University Art Gallery Salinger, Margaretta. "George Washington Before the Battle of Trenton". Masterpieces of American Painting in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Pp. 42–43
Washington at Verplanck's Point
Washington at Verplanck's Point is a full-length portrait in oil painted in 1790 by the American artist John Trumbull of General George Washington at Verplanck's Point on the North River in New York during the American Revolutionary War. The background depicts the September 14, 1782 review of Continental Army troops Washington staged there as an honor for the departing French commander Comte de Rochambeau and his army; the painting was a gift from Trumbull to the president's wife, Martha Washington, is now owned by the Winterthur Museum. Trumbull next received a commission from the City of New York and painted a much larger version, George Washington, with a new background, Evacuation Day of New York City, November 25, 1783, the return of Washington and the departure of British forces, it is on display in the Governor's Room of New York City Hall. General George Washington is in a blue coat over buff waistcoat and pants, he is standing in front of his white horse, leaning on the saddle and holding the reins.
Seen through the legs of the horse is an romanticized depiction of Washington's September 14, 1782 display of his Continental Army troops in honor of the Comte de Rochambeau, commander in chief of the French Expeditionary Force which had marched with him earlier to Yorktown, Virginia and, with the support of a French fleet lying offshore, helped force the October 19, 1781 surrender of British general Cornwallis and bring about a peace. Upon Rochambeau's return north a full year Washington staged a formal review of his troops at their encampment Verplanck's Point on the North River by the Comte, it was an honor due "his Excellency" both for his aid during the war and generosity in distributing to the Continental force arms and clothing provided by France and captured by them from the British at Yorktown, as well as a thanks to the nation of France for its military assistance in winning the Colonies their freedom. Stony Point and the Hudson Highlands are visible on the horizon; the painting was a gift to Martha Washington by Trumbull.
After her death, the portrait was bequeathed to Elizabeth Parke Custis Law. It remained in the family until sold to Henry Francis du Pont, who donated it to his museum in 1964. In 1982, the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association purchased a modern copy of the painting by Adrian Lamb for display at Mount Vernon. Martha Washington's grandson, George Washington Parke Custis, wrote in his Recollections and private memoirs of Washington that: The figure of Washington, as delineated by Colonel Trumbull, is the most perfect extant. So is the costume, the uniform of the staff in the war for Independence, being the ancient whig colors and buff–a splendid performance throughout... In 1889, for the centennial celebration of the inauguration of Washington as the first President of the United States, the original portrait owned by Edmund Law Rogers, grandson of Elizabeth Parke Custis Law, the second, the city hall version, were on display together at the Metropolitan Opera House, New York City. In 1982, a silver coin with a 30 dollar value was issued for Antigua & Barbuda commemorating the 250th anniversary of Washington's birth with this image of him at Verplanck's Point on the reverse side.
In 2017, Philip Mead, chief historian at the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia, museum curators found that a watercolor panorama by Pierre Charles L'Enfant was of this 1782 encampment at Verplanck's Point and included Washington's canvas marquee tent. R. Scott Stephenson, director of curatorial affairs at the museum, has stated that although the tent is not seen in Trumbull's painting, "because of this new watercolor and the research we've done, we can tell it shows Washington standing right in front of the tent." In July, 1790, Trumbull received a commission from the corporation for the City of New York, led by Mayor Richard Varick, to paint the president's portrait. The result, George Washington, was a scaling-up of Washington at Verplanck's Point to nearly four times its size. Known as Washington and the Departure of the British Garrison from New York City, it is a full-length portrait in oil similar in composition and character to its source but for its backdrop, switched from Rochambeau's September 1782 review of the Continental Army to Evacuation Day, Washington's return to New York City upon the British forces' November 25, 1783 departure.
This painting is located in the historic Governor's Room of New York City Hall. General George Washington at Trenton – full-length portrait painted in 1792 by Trumbull Trumbull, John. "George Washington, Gen,". Inventory of American Sculpture, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. Smithsonian American Art Museum. IAP 80180302. Owner: Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum Trumbull, John. "General George Washington,". Inventory of American Sculpture, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. Smithsonian American Art Museum. IAP 80180303. Owner: City of New York "Washington at Verplanck's Point by John Trumbull, 1790"; the Historical Marker Database
Napoleon Crossing the Alps
Napoleon Crossing the Alps is the title given to the five versions of an oil on canvas equestrian portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte painted by the French artist Jacques-Louis David between 1801 and 1805. Commissioned by the King of Spain, the composition shows a idealized view of the real crossing that Napoleon and his army made across the Alps through the Great St. Bernard Pass in May 1800. Having taken power in France during the 18 Brumaire on 9 November 1799, Napoleon was determined to return to Italy to reinforce the French troops in the country and retake the territory seized by the Austrians in the preceding years. In the spring of 1800 he led the Reserve Army across the Alps through the Great St. Bernard Pass; the Austrian forces, under Michael von Melas, were laying siege to Masséna in Genoa and Napoleon hoped to gain the element of surprise by taking the trans-Alpine route. By the time Napoleon's troops arrived, Genoa had fallen; the Reserve Army fought a battle at Montebello on 9 June before securing a decisive victory at the Battle of Marengo.
The installation of Napoleon as First Consul and the French victory in Italy allowed for a rapprochement with Charles IV of Spain. While talks were underway to re-establish diplomatic relations, a traditional exchange of gifts took place. Charles received Versailles-manufactured pistols, dresses from the best Parisian dressmakers, jewels for the queen, a fine set of armour for the newly reappointed Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy. In return Napoleon was offered sixteen Spanish horses from the royal stables, portraits of the king and queen by Goya, the portrait, to be commissioned from David; the French ambassador to Spain, Charles-Jean-Marie Alquier, requested the original painting from David on Charles' behalf. The portrait was to hang in the Royal Palace of Madrid as a token of the new relationship between the two countries. David, an ardent supporter of the Revolution but had transferred his fervour to the new Consulate, was eager to undertake the commission. On learning of the request, Bonaparte instructed David to produce three further versions: one for the Château de Saint-Cloud, one for the library of Les Invalides, a third for the palace of the Cisalpine Republic in Milan.
A fifth version remained in his various workshops until his death. The original painting remained in Madrid until 1812, when it was taken by Joseph Bonaparte after his abdication as King of Spain, he took it with him when he went into exile in the United States, it hung at his Point Breeze estate near Bordentown, New Jersey. The painting was handed down through his descendants until 1949, when his great grandniece, Eugenie Bonaparte, bequeathed it to the museum of the Château de Malmaison; the version produced for the Château de Saint-Cloud from 1801 was removed in 1814 by the Prussian soldiers under von Blücher who offered it to Frederick William III King of Prussia. It is now held in the Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin; the 1802 copy from Les Invalides was taken down and put into storage on the Bourbon Restoration of 1814. The 1803 version was confiscated in 1816 by the Austrians. However, the people of Milan refused to give it up and it remained in the city until 1825, it was installed at the Belvedere in Vienna in 1834.
It remains now part of the collection of the Österreichische Galerie Belvedere. The version kept by David until his death in 1825 was exhibited at the Bazar Bonne-Nouvelle in 1846. In 1850 it was offered to the future Napoleon III by David's daughter, Pauline Jeanin, installed at the Tuileries Palace. In 1979, it was given to the museum at the Palace of Versailles; the commission specified a portrait of Napoleon standing in the uniform of the First Consul in the spirit of the portraits that were produced by Antoine-Jean Gros, Robert Lefèvre and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, but David was keen to paint an equestrian scene. The Spanish ambassador, Ignacio Muzquiz, informed Napoleon and asked him how he would like to be represented. Napoleon requested to be shown reviewing the troops but decided on a scene showing him crossing the Alps. In reality the crossing had been made in fine weather and Bonaparte had been led across by a guide a few days after the troops, mounted on a mule. However, from the outset the painting was first and foremost propaganda, Bonaparte asked David to portray him "calm, mounted on a fiery steed", it is probable that he suggested the addition of the names of the other great generals who had led their forces across the Alps: Hannibal and Charlemagne.
Few drafts and preparatory studies were made, contrary to David's normal practice. Gros, David's pupil, produced a small oil sketch of a horse being reined in, a probable study for Napoleon's mount, the notebooks of David show some sketches of first thoughts on the position of the rider; the lack of early studies may in part be explained by Bonaparte's refusal to sit for the portrait. He had sat for Gros in 1796 on the insistence of Joséphine de Beauharnais, but Gros had complained that he had not had enough time for the sitting to be of benefit. David had managed to persuade him to sit for a portrait in 1798, but the three hours that th
Heights of presidents and presidential candidates of the United States
A record of the heights of the Presidents of the United States and presidential candidates is useful for evaluating what role, if any, height plays in presidential elections. Some observers have noted that the taller of the two major-party candidates tends to prevail, argue this is due to the public's preference for taller candidates; the tallest U. S. President was Abraham Lincoln at 6 feet 4 inches, while the shortest was James Madison at 5 feet 4 inches. Donald Trump, the current President, is 6 feet 3 inches. Mike Pence, the current Vice-President, is 5 feet 10 inches. Various folk wisdoms about U. S. presidential politics put forward the view that the taller of the two major-party candidates always wins or always wins since the advent of the televised presidential debate. There is more data if the relationship of electoral success to height difference starts from the year 1900, rather than from the beginning of televised debates. In the twenty-eight presidential elections between 1900 and 2011, eighteen of the winning candidates have been taller than their opponents, while eight have been shorter, two have been of the same height.
On average the winner was 1.0 inch taller than the loser. The claims about taller candidates winning all modern presidential elections is still pervasive, however. Examples of such views include: In Ray Bradbury's 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451, when Mildred and her friends talk about the success of one presidential candidate over the other in a recent election, they talk only about the attractiveness of the winning candidate over the loser. One of their points is "You just don't go running a little short man like that against a tall man." A 1988 article in the Los Angeles Times fashion section about a haberdasher devoted to clothing shorter men included a variation of the tale: "Stern says he just learned that Dukakis is 5 feet, 8 inches.'Did you know,' he adds, noticeably disappointed,'that since 1900 the taller of the two candidates always wins?'" A 1997 book called How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You discusses the issue in a section about the importance of height: "What about height?
One assumes the taller the better height. In fact every president elected in the United States since 1900 was the taller of the two candidates." A chapter titled "Epistemology at the Core of Postmodernism" in the 2002 book Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmodernisms makes this observation: "I remember the subversive effect the observation had on me that in every U. S. presidential race, the taller of the two candidates had been elected. It opened up space for a counterdiscourse to the presumed rationality of the electoral process." A 1975 book called First Impressions: The Psychology of Encountering Others notes: "Elevator Shoes, Anyone? One factor which has a far-reaching influence on how people are perceived, at least in American society, is height. From 1900 to 1968 the man elected U. S. president was always the taller of the two candidates." A 1978 book titled The Psychology of Person Identification states: "They say that every President of the USA elected since the turn of the century has been the taller of the two candidates."
A 1999 book, Survival of the Prettiest by Nancy Etcoff, repeated a version of the legend in a section on the power of heights: "... Since 1776 only James Madison and Benjamin Harrison have been below-average height; the easiest way to predict the winner in a United States election is to bet on the taller man: in this century you would have had an unbroken string of hits until 1972 when Richard Nixon beat George McGovern."A comparison of the heights of the winning presidential candidate with the losing candidate from each election since 1789 is provided below to evaluate such views. Notes: * Lost the electoral vote, but received more popular votes ** Lost the House of Representatives vote, but received the most popular votes and a plurality of electoral votes. † Ran unopposed. Portrait artist Francis Bicknell Carpenter supplies the information for Lincoln: Mr. Lincoln's height was six feet three and three-quarter inches "in his stocking-feet." He stood up one day, at the right of my large canvas.
A disputed theory holds that Lincoln's height is the result of the genetic condition multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b. Only shorter than Lincoln was Lyndon B. Johnson, the tallest President who entered office without being elected directly, President Donald Trump; the shortest President elected to office was James Madison. The tallest unsuccessful presidential candidate is Winfield Scott, who stood at 6 ft 5 in and lost the 1852 election to Franklin Pierce, who stood at 5 ft 10 in; the second tallest unsuccessful candidate is John Kerry, at 6 ft 4 in. The shortest unsuccessful presidential candidate is Stephen A. Douglas, at 5 ft 4 in; the next shortest is Hillary Clinton, 5 ft 5 in. The largest height difference between two presidential candidates was in the 1860 election, when Abraham Lincoln stood 12 in