The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants; the arrival of Europeans to New Zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the Māori way of life. Māori people adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were amicable, with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which fell dramatically.
By the start of the 20th century, the Māori population had begun to recover, efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional Māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, further bolstered by a Māori protest movement that emerged in the 1960s. In the 2013 census, there were 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up 15 percent of the national population, they are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders. In addition, more than 140,000 Māori live in Australia; the Māori language is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media and sport. Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups.
They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is ongoing. In the Māori language, the word māori means "normal", "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits. Wai māori denotes "fresh water", as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *maqoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, genuine"; the spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New Zealand, although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard Māori-language spelling. Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New Zealanders" or as "natives".
The Māori used the term Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense. Māori people use the term tangata whenua to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; the term can refer to the Māori people as a whole in relation to New Zealand as a whole. The Māori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage; the Department of Native Affairs was renamed as the Department of Māori Affairs. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a Māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of Māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947, the authorities determined that a man, five-eighths Māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan; the Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity.
In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of Māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or Waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection but no minimum "blood" requirement exists as determined by the government. The most current reliable evidence indicates that the initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE, at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some kiore bones at 50–150 has now been shown to have been unreliable. Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki, in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes, whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies. In the last few decades, mitochondrial-DNA research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. Evidence fro
Tā moko is the permanent marking of the face and body as traditionally practised by Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Captain James Cook wrote in 1769: The marks in general are spirals drawn with great nicety and elegance. One side corresponds with the other; the marks on the body resemble foliage in old chased ornaments, convolutions of filigree work, but in these they have such a luxury of forms that of a hundred which at first appeared the same no two were formed alike on close examination. Tohunga-tā-moko were considered inviolable and sacred. Tattoo arts are common in the Eastern Polynesian homeland of Māori, the traditional implements and methods employed were similar to those used in other parts of Polynesia. In pre-European Māori culture, many if not most high-ranking persons received moko, those who went without them were seen as persons of lower social status. Receiving moko constituted an important milestone between childhood and adulthood, was accompanied by many rites and rituals.
Apart from signalling status and rank, another reason for the practice in traditional times was to make a person more attractive to the opposite sex. Men received moko on their faces and thighs. Women wore moko on their lips and chins. Other parts of the body known to have moko include women's foreheads, thighs and backs and men's backs and calves. Moko was distinct from tattooing, in that the skin was carved by uhi, not punctured; this left the skin with grooves rather than a smooth surface. Tohunga-tā-moko used a range of uhi made from albatross bone which were hafted onto a handle, struck with a mallet; the pigments were made from the awheto for the body colour, ngarehu for the blacker face colour. The soot from burnt kauri gum was mixed with fat to make pigment; the pigment was stored in ornate vessels named oko, which were buried when not in use. The oko were handed on to successive generations. A kōrere is believed to have been used to feed men whose mouths had become swollen from receiving tā moko.
Men were predominantly the tā moko specialists, although King records a number of women during the early 20th century who took up the practice. There is a remarkable account of a woman prisoner-of-war in the 1830s, seen putting moko on the entire back of the wife of a chief; the pākehā practice of collecting and trading mokomokai changed the dynamic of tā moko in the early colonial period. King talks about changes which evolved in the late 19th century when needles came to replace the uhi as the main tools; this was a quicker method, less prone to possible health risks, but the feel of the tā moko changed to smooth. Tā moko on men stopped around the 1860s in line with changing fashion and acceptance by Pākehā. Women continued receiving moko through the early 20th century, the historian Michael King in the early 1970s interviewing over 70 elderly women who would have been given the moko before the 1907 Tohunga Suppression Act. Women were traditionally only tattooed on their lips, around the chin, sometimes the nostrils.
Since 1990 there has been a resurgence in the practice of tā moko for both men and women, as a sign of cultural identity and a reflection of the general revival of the language and culture. Most tā moko applied today is done using a tattoo machine, but there has been a revival of the use of uhi. Women too have become more involved as practitioners, such as Christine Harvey of the Chathams, Henriata Nicholas in Rotorua and Julie Kipa in Whakatane. Te Uhi a Mataora was established in 2000 "to preserve and develop tā moko as a living art form". Europeans were aware of tā moko from at the time of the first voyage of James Cook, early Māori visitors to Europe, such as Moehanga in 1805 Hongi Hika in 1820 and Te Pēhi Kupe in 1826, all had full-face moko, as did several "Pākehā Māori" such as Barnet Burns. However, until recently the art had little global impact. Appropriation of tā moko by non-Māori is deemed offensive and high-profile uses of Māori designs by Robbie Williams, Ben Harper and a 2007 Jean-Paul Gaultier fashion show were controversial.
To reconcile the demand for Māori designs in a culturally sensitive way, the Te Uhi a Mataora group promotes the use of the term kirituhi, which has now gained wide acceptance:... Kirituhi translates to mean—"drawn skin." As opposed to Moko which requires a process of consents and historical information, Kirituhi is a design with a Maori flavour that can be applied anywhere, for any reason and on anyone... Tā moko Mokomokai, preserved Māori heads Te Rangi; the Coming of the Maori. Wellington: Whitcombe & Tombs. Jahnke, R. and H. T. "The politics of Māori image and design", Pukenga Korero, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 5–31. King, M. and Friedlander, M.. Moko: Māori Tattooing in the 20th Century. Auckland: David Bateman. ISBN 1-86953-088-8 Nikora, L. W. Rua, M. and Te Awekotuku, Ng. "Wearing Moko: Māori Facial Marking in Today's World", in Thomas, N. Cole, A. and Douglas, B. Tattoo. Bodies and Exchange in the Pacific and the West, London: Reacktion Books, pp. 191–204. Robley, Maj-Gen H. G.. Moko, or Maori Tattooing.
Digital edition from New Zealand Electronic Text Centre Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia, "Tā Moko: Māori Tattoo", in Goldie, exhibition catalogue, Auckland: Auckland City Art Gallery and David Bateman, pp. 108–114. Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia, "More than Skin Deep", in Barkan, E. and Bush, R. Claiming the Stone: Naming the Bones: Cultural Property
Joseph Blake (criminal)
Joseph "Blueskin" Blake was an 18th-century English highwayman and felon. Blake was the son of Jane Blake, he was baptised at All-Hallows-the-Great in London. His parents had the means to send him to the parish school of St Giles-without-Cripplegate for about six years. A school friend, William Blewitt, introduced him to the self-styled "Thief-Taker General" Jonathan Wild around 1714, he became a professional thief. By the age of 17, he was earning his living as a pickpocket, working with Edward Pollitt, had been nicknamed "Blueskin"; the origin of his sobriquet is uncertain: it could be due to his swarthy complexion, but also to excessive facial hair, a port-wine birthmark, or a punning reference to his friend Blewitt. By 1719, Blake was working with Irish highwayman James Carrick, and, by 1722, he was a member of a gang of street robbers led by Robert Wilkinson. Several of his colleagues were arrested that summer, three were hanged in September. Blake escaped this time due to influence deployed on his behalf by Wild, but he received a sabre cut to the head as he resisted his arrest by Wild in December 1722.
He turned King's evidence including Blewitt. Three accomplices were hanged on the strength of Blake's testimony in February 1723. Blueskin expected to be released and to receive some of the reward money for securing the convictions, but he was confined in Wood Street Compter instead, under threat of deportation. Blake found sureties for his good behaviour, was released in June 1724, he joined forces with notorious thief and gaol-breaker Jack Sheppard. They burgled the house of William Kneebone on Sunday 12 July, stealing a quantity of cloth and some other trinkets, but this burglary was to prove their undoing. Having stored the goods near the horse ferry at Westminster, they approached one of Wild's fences, William Field, to sell the stolen goods. Word of the crime soon reached Wild, determined to punish Sheppard because he had refused to work for Wild. After a brief interlude as highwaymen on the Hampstead Road on Sunday 19 July and Monday 20 July, Sheppard was arrested at Blueskin's mother's brandy shop in Rosemary Lane, east of the Tower of London, on 23 July by Wild's henchman, Quilt Arnold.
He was detained in Newgate Prison pending trial, accused of the Kneebone robbery. Kneebone and Field gave evidence against Sheppard, he was convicted of the burglary on 12 August. Meanwhile, Wild took against Blake, his former underling due to his recent association with Sheppard. Blake was arrested by Wild and Abraham Mendez Ceixes at his lodgings in St Giles on Friday 2 October 1724. Blueskin was tried on Thursday 15 October, with Wild again due to give evidence. Outside the courtroom, Blake tried to persuade Wild to put in a good word for him. Blake attacked Wild. Wild was attended by passing surgeons, taken away. Blake's attack caused an uproar which spread to the adjacent prison, the disturbance continued into the evening. Sheppard, having escaped from Newgate on 4 September and been recaptured five days used the distraction inside the prison to cover his fourth, most audacious, escape. Despite the altercation outside the court, Blake's trial went ahead in Wild's absence. Field's evidence was enough to ensure that Blake was convicted, although his account was not consistent with the evidence that he gave at Sheppard's trial.
Blake showed no remorse for his crimes. He tried to escape from Newgate without success. Meanwhile, Sheppard was recaptured for a final time on 1 November. On Wednesday 11 November 1724, the day after Sheppard's death sentence was confirmed, Blake was drawn to Tyburn along the traditional route, stopping at the Griffin tavern on Holborn for a stiff drink. In his drunkenness, he slurred his speech from the scaffold, his body was laid out for a few days, he was buried in the churchyard at St Andrew, Holborn. Sheppard was hanged on Monday 16 November. Blake is best remembered for his vicious attack on Wild. Wild was lucky to survive, he was incapacitated for weeks, his grip over his criminal empire started to slip while he recuperated. He lost the confidence of his "customers" and the grudging respect of the general populace, he was himself convicted and hanged in 1725. Blake was overshadowed by Sheppard's fame, his attack on Wild inspired John Gay's ballad "Newgate's Garland" called "Blueskin's Ballad", which appears in John Thurmond's play, Harlequin Sheppard.
Blake appears in many accounts of Sheppard's life, although the characterisation bears little resemblance to the reality. Andrea McKenzie, ‘Blake, Joseph ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004. Joseph Blake, alias Blueskin, theft: burglary, 14 October 1724 - The Proceedings of the Old Bailey Ref: t17241014-43 Howson, Gerald. Thief-Taker General: Jonathan Wild and the Emergence of Crime and Corruption as a Way of Life in Eighteenth-Century England. New Brunswick, NJ and Oxford, UK: 1970. ISBN 0-88738-032-8 Norton, Rictor. Early Eighteenth-Century Newspaper Reports: A Sourcebook, "Jack Sheppard, Jail-Breaker". Retrieved 2 October 2007. Joseph Blake at Find a Grave This article incorporates text from The Modern World Encyclopædia: I
Hector's dolphin is the best-known of the four dolphins in the genus Cephalorhynchus and, along with its subspecies Maui's dolphin, is the only cetacean endemic to New Zealand. At 1.4 m in length, it is one of the smallest cetaceans. Two subspecies occur: C. h. hectori, the more numerous subspecies, is found around the South Island, the critically endangered Maui's dolphin is found off the northwest coast of the North Island. Hector's dolphin is rarest dolphin. Maui's dolphin is one of the eight most endangered groups of cetaceans. A 2010/2011 survey of Maui's dolphin by the New Zealand Department of Conservation estimated only 55 adults remain. Hector's dolphin was named after Sir James Hector, the curator of the Colonial Museum in Wellington, he examined the first specimen found of the dolphin. The species was scientifically described by Belgian zoologist Pierre-Joseph van Beneden in 1881. Māori names for Hector's and Maui's dolphin include tutumairekurai and popoto. Hector's dolphin is the smallest of the dolphins.
Mature adults have a total length of 1.2 -- 1.6 weigh 40 -- 60 kg. The species is sexually dimorphic, with females being about 5-7% longer than males; the body shape is stocky, with no discernible beak. The most distinctive feature is the rounded dorsal fin, with a convex trailing edge and undercut rear margin; the overall coloration appearance is pale grey, but closer inspection reveals a complex and elegant combination of colours. The back and sides are predominantly light grey, while the dorsal fin and flukes are black; the eyes are surrounded by a black mask, which extends forward to the tip of the rostrum and back to the base of the flipper. A subtly shaded, crescent-shaped black band crosses the head just behind the blowhole; the throat and belly are creamy white, separated by dark-grey bands meeting between the flippers. A white stripe extends from the belly onto each flank below the dorsal fin. At birth, Hector's dolphin calves have a total length of 60 -- 80 weigh 8 -- 10 kg, their coloration is the same as adults, although the grey has a darker hue.
Newborn Hector's dolphins have distinct fetal fold marks on their flanks that cause a change in coloration pattern of the skin. These changes are visible for 6 months and consist of four to six vertical light grey stripes against darker grey skin. Hector's dolphins are endemic to the coastal regions of New Zealand; the species has a fragmented distribution around the entire South Island. Occasional sightings of these individuals occur in the deep waters of Fiordland; the members of the species that inhabit the North Island make up a genetically distinct allopatric population from Hector's dolphins. As of 2011, five areas are designed as marine mammal sanctuaries focusing on Hector's and Maui's dolphins around the nation; the largest populations live on the east and west coasts of the South Island, most notably on Banks Peninsula and Te Waewae Bay while smaller local groups are scattered along entire South Island coasts such as at Cook Strait, West Coast and Otago coasts. Maui's dolphin lives on the west coast of the North Island between Maunganui Whanganui.
Hector's dolphins can reach the North Island up to Bay of Plenty or Hawke's Bay. The latest estimate of South Island Hector's dolphins carried out by the Ministry for Primary Industries is around 15,000 individuals and twice the previous, published estimate. Problems with the survey methods and data analysis, identified in peer review, are to be discussed when the Hector's dolphin Threat Management Plan is reviewed in 2018; until that review, it is reasonable to conclude that the current population is on the order of 10,000 Hector's dolphins. The current population is below 30% of the population estimated in 1970, about 50,000; the latest estimate of Maui's dolphin is 55 individuals. Additional population surveys have been carried out off the east coast in 2012 and 2013; the results of these surveys have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. The species' range includes shallow waters down to 100 m deep, with few sightings in deeper waters. Hector's dolphins showcase a seasonal inshore-offshore movement.
Despite this pattern, they are seen farther than 8-10 km from shore. They have been shown to return to the same location during consecutive summers, displaying high site fidelity, i.e. returning to the same location. This hinders gene flow between populations and leads to gene isolation. Hector's dolphins have not been found to participate in alongshore migrations, which may contribute to their lack of genetic diversity; the inshore-offshore movement of the species may be attributed to the patterns of fish and squid moving to spawning grounds or an increase in fish diversity close to the shore during the spring and summer months. Hector's dolphins preferentially form groups of less than 5 individuals, with a mean of 3.8 individuals, that are segregated by sex. The majority of these small groups are single sex. Groups of greater than 5 individuals are formed much less frequently; these larger groups, >5, are mixed sex and have been shown to form only to forage or participate in sexual behavior.
Nursery groups can be observed and are all female groups of less than 7 mother and young. This species
Warrington, New Zealand
Warrington, known in Māori as Ōkāhau, is a small settlement on the coast of Otago, in the South Island of New Zealand. It is situated close to the northern shore of Blueskin Bay, an area of mudflats north of Dunedin, is administered as part of Dunedin City. Warrington is 3 km from State Highway 1 linked by Coast Road; the Main South Line railway passes through the township and a tourist train, the Seasider passes through the settlement once or twice a week between Dunedin and Palmerston. Warrington has a population of 400. Warrington School is a year 0-8 full primary school. Warrington Playcentre is an early childhood centre. Warrington beach, a popular surf beach for locals and visitors from the city, is patrolled by volunteer lifeguards of the Warrington Surf Life Saving Club which established in Dunedin in 1957 and relocated here in 1976. St Barnabas Church is one of the area's oldest buildings. Blueskin Bay community website Warrington School website
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s
A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. The art of making tattoos is tattooing. Tattoos fall into three broad categories: purely decorative. In addition, tattoos can be used for identification such as ear tattoos on livestock as a form of branding; the word tattoo, or tattow in the 18th century, is a loanword from the Samoan word tatau, meaning "to strike". The Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo. From Polynesian tatau. In Marquesan, tatu." Before the importation of the Polynesian word, the practice of tattooing had been described in the West as painting, scarring or staining. The etymology of the body modification term is not to be confused with the origins of the word for the military drumbeat or performance — see military tattoo. In this case, the English word tattoo is derived from the Dutch word taptoe. Mainstream art galleries hold exhibitions of both conventional and custom tattoo designs, such as Beyond Skin, at the Museum of Croydon.
Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as "flash", a notable instance of industrial design. Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers; the Japanese word irezumi means "insertion of ink" and can mean tattoos using tebori, the traditional Japanese hand method, a Western-style machine or any method of tattooing using insertion of ink. The most common word used for traditional Japanese tattoo designs is horimono. Japanese may use the word tattoo to mean non-Japanese styles of tattooing. British anthropologist Ling Roth in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names "tatu", "moko", "cicatrix" and "keloid"; the American Academy of Dermatology distinguishes five types of tattoos: traumatic tattoos called "natural tattoos", that result from injuries asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead. According to George Orwell, coal miners could develop characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds.
This can occur with substances like gunpowder. A traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma; these are difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several layers of skin, scarring or permanent discoloration is unavoidable depending on the location. An amalgam tattoo is when amalgam particles are implanted in to the soft tissues of the mouth the gums, during dental filling placement or removal. Another example of such accidental tattoos is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin. Many tattoos serve as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love and talismans, as punishment, like the marks of outcasts and convicts; the symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about about an unrelated person.
Today, people choose to be tattooed for artistic, sentimental/memorial and magical reasons, to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs or a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture. Popular verses include John 3:16, Philippians 4:13, Psalm 23. Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition. People have been forcibly tattooed. A well-known example is the Nazi practice of forcibly tattooing concentration camp inmates with identification numbers during the Holocaust as part of the Nazis' identification system, beginning in fall 1941; the SS introduced the practice at Auschwitz concentration camp in order to identify the bodies of registered prisoners in the concentration camps. During registration, guards would pierce the outlines of the serial-number digits onto the prisoners' arms. Of the Nazi concentration camps, only Auschwitz put tattoos on inmates.
The tattoo was the prisoner's camp number, sometimes with a special symbol added: some Jews had a triangle, Romani had the letter "Z". In May 1944, the Jewish men received the letters "A" or "B" to indicate particular series of numbers. Tattoos have been used for identification in other ways; as early as the Zhou, Chinese authorities would employ facial tattoos as a punishment for certain crimes or to mark prisoners or slaves. During the Roman Empire and slaves were tattooed: exported slaves were tattooed with the words "tax paid", it was a common practice to tattoo "Stop me, I'm a runaway" on their foreheads. Owing to the Biblical strictures against the practice, Emperor Constantine I banned tattooing the face around AD 330, the Second Council of Nicaea banned all body markings as a pagan practice in AD 787. In the period of early contact between the Māori and Europeans, the Māori people hunted and decapitated each other for their moko tattoos, which they traded for European items including axes and firearms