Bluetooth Low Energy is a wireless personal area network technology designed and marketed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, beacons and home entertainment industries. Compared to Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy is intended to provide reduced power consumption and cost while maintaining a similar communication range. Mobile operating systems including iOS, Windows Phone and BlackBerry, as well as macOS, Windows 8 and Windows 10, natively support Bluetooth Low Energy. Bluetooth Low Energy is not backward-compatible with the previous Bluetooth Basic Rate/Enhanced Data Rate protocol; the Bluetooth 4.0 specification permits devices to implement either or both of the LE and BR/EDR systems. Bluetooth Low Energy uses the same 2.4 GHz radio frequencies as classic Bluetooth, which allows dual-mode devices to share a single radio antenna. BLE does, use a simpler modulation system. In 2011, the Bluetooth SIG announced the Bluetooth Smart logo so as to clarify compatibility between the new low energy devices and other Bluetooth devices.
Bluetooth Smart Ready indicates a dual-mode device compatible with both classic and low energy peripherals. Bluetooth Smart indicates a low energy-only device which requires either a Smart Ready or another Smart device in order to function. With the May 2016 Bluetooth SIG branding information, the Bluetooth SIG began phasing out the Bluetooth Smart and Bluetooth Smart Ready logos and word marks and has reverted to using the Bluetooth logo and word mark; the logo uses a new blue color. The Bluetooth SIG identifies a number of markets for low energy technology in the smart home, health and fitness sectors. Cited advantages include: low power requirements, operating for "months or years" on a button cell small size and low cost compatibility with a large installed base of mobile phones and computers In 2001, researchers at Nokia determined various scenarios that contemporary wireless technologies did not address; the company began developing a wireless technology adapted from the Bluetooth standard which would provide lower power usage and cost while minimizing its differences from Bluetooth technology.
The results were published in 2004 using the name Bluetooth Low End Extension. After further development with partners, in particular Logitech and within the European project MIMOSA, promoted and supported by STMicroelectronics since its early stage, the technology was released to the public in October 2006 with the brand name Wibree. After negotiations with Bluetooth SIG members, an agreement was reached in June 2007 to include Wibree in a future Bluetooth specification as a Bluetooth ultra low power technology; the technology was marketed as Bluetooth Smart and integration into version 4.0 of the Core Specification was completed in early 2010. The first smartphone to implement the 4.0 specification was the iPhone 4S, released in October 2011. A number of other manufacturers released Bluetooth Low Energy Ready devices in 2012; the Bluetooth SIG unveiled Bluetooth 5 on 16 June 2016 during a media event in London. One change on the marketing side is that they dropped the point number, so it now just called Bluetooth 5.
This decision was made to "simplifying marketing, communicating user benefits more effectively". On the technical side, Bluetooth 5 will quadruple the range by using increased transmit power or coded physical layer, double the speed by using optional half of the symbol time compared to Bluetooth 4.x, provide an eight-fold increase in data broadcasting capacity by increasing the advertising data length of low energy Bluetooth transmissions compared to Bluetooth 4.x, which could be important for IoT applications where nodes are connected throughout a whole house. The Bluetooth SIG released Mesh Profile and Mesh Model specifications on 18 July 2017. Mesh specification enables using Bluetooth Low Energy for many-to-many device communications for home automation, sensor networks and other applications. Borrowing from the original Bluetooth specification, the Bluetooth SIG defines several profiles — specifications for how a device works in a particular application — for low energy devices. Manufacturers are expected to implement the appropriate specifications for their device in order to ensure compatibility.
A device may contain implementations of multiple profiles. The majority of current low energy application profiles are based on the Generic Attribute Profile, a general specification for sending and receiving short pieces of data, known as attributes, over a low energy link; the Bluetooth mesh profile is an exception to this rule, being based on the General Access Profile. Bluetooth mesh profiles use Bluetooth Low Energy to communicate with other Bluetooth Low Energy devices in the network; each device can pass the information forward to other Bluetooth Low Energy devices creating a "mesh" effect. For example, switching off an entire building of lights from a single smartphone. MESH — for base mesh networking. MMDL — for application layer definitions. Term "model" is used in mesh specifications instead of "profile" to avoid ambiguities. There are many profiles for Bluetooth Low Energy devices in healthcare applications; the Continua Health Alliance consortium promotes these in cooperation with the Bluetooth SIG.
"A New England Nun" is a short story by Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman published in 1891. "A New England Nun" is the story of a woman who has lived alone for many years. Louisa is set in her ways, she likes to keep her house meticulously clean, wear multiple aprons, eat from her nicest china every day, she has an old dog named Caesar who she feels must be kept chained up because he bit a neighbor 14 years ago as a puppy. Louisa promised Joe Dagget 14 years ago that she would marry him when he returned from his fortune-hunting adventures in Australia, now that he has returned it is time for her to fulfill her promise; when Joe arrives, however, it becomes obvious that Louisa sees him as a disruption of the life that she has made for herself. When Joe arrives on one of his twice weekly visits, Louisa attempts to have a conversation with him, but is distracted when he tracks dirt on the floor, re-arranges her books, accidentally knocks things over; the two have a cool and awkward conversation when Louisa inquires after Joe's mother's health and Joe blushes and tells Louisa that Lily Dyer has been taking care of her.
She is only planning on marrying Joe because she promised that she would, since it would mean that Louisa would have to give up the life that she has made for herself. Three weeks a week before the wedding, as Louisa is enjoying a moonlit stroll, she happens to overhear a conversation between Joe and Lily. Through this conversation, Louisa learns that Joe and Lily have developed feelings for each other in the short time that Joe has been back, that Joe is in love with Lily but refuses to break his promise to Louisa. Lily supports Joe's decision, though Joe encourages her to find someone else, Lily says, "I'll never marry any other man as long as I live." The next day, when Joe comes to visit, Louisa releases Joe from his promise without letting him know that she is aware of his relationship with Lily. Joe and Louisa part tenderly, Louisa is left alone to maintain her present lifestyle; the last line of the story is: "Louisa sat, prayerfully numbering her days, like an uncloistered nun." Louisa Ellis, the protagonist, lives in a quiet home in the New England countryside.
Louisa is known for her cool sense and sweet temperament. Her world is her home, everything from her aprons to her china has a use and purpose in her every day rhythm, she is engaged to Joe Dagget for fourteen years. However, after listening to Joe and Lily discuss their affection, she resolves to “keep her inheritance” and disengage herself from her long-standing engagement. In the end, she is content to spend her life as a spinster. Joe Dagget is the fiancé of beau to Lily Dyer, he is a man of great wealth. He works his large farm to care for his mother and himself. Joe carries dust wherever he goes. After returning from Australia, he meets Lily and in the short months before his marriage to the protagonist, falls in love with her. After being released from his engagement, there is no real textual evidence that he and Lily marry, but his admiration for Louisa never changes. Lily Dyer is the darling of his mother's caretaker. Louisa describes her as "tall and full-figured, with a firm, fair face, her strong, yellow hair braided in a close knot".
Her reputation among the village was praiseworthy. Her honor would not allow Joe to leave Louisa: "I've got good sense an' I ain't going to break my heart nor make a fool of myself. I ain't that sort of a girl to feel this way twice." While there is not a solid ending saying whether or not Joe and Lily wed, there is enough evidence to suggest they do. She is the better match for Joe with her courage. Caesar is Louisa’s “veritable hermit of a dog.” For most of his life he resided in the small hut, which Louisa’s dead brother built for him, eating only corn-mush and cakes for food. The dog brings insight into the internal affairs of the Ellis home. Just like the dog, Louisa has not permanently left the home in over 14 years, as he is chained up after biting a neighbor. Caesar is a foreshadowing for Louisa in his example of what will come of her if she should not marry. For example, there is no fear or sadness with the dog, but a simple acceptance of life as it passes before the front gate; the dog is a warning for Joe, for the only reason he is allowed outside the limits of the land is to walk with his mistress as she leads him by a heavy chain.
"A New England Nun" falls within the genre of local color. A thorough focus on native scenery, dialog of the characters as native to the area, displays of the values of a 19th-century New England landscape, are all contributing elements to that genre; the story is told from a third person viewpoint. Another specific, structural feature includes Freeman's focus on nature; the piece begins with a brief but thorough description of the landscape surrounding the world of Ms. Louisa. "Somewhere in the distance the cows were lowing, a little bell was tinkling. Through this small scene the reader feels the presence of nature and the rhythm to which people and time march on in the New England landscape; the emphasis of the countryside and the human's small part of nature is reminiscent of literature of the time period. Dr. Jesse S. Crisler, a scholar specializing in literary realism, notes in his class lectures that
Juntas Españolas was a far-right political party in Spain created in 1983 after a call was issued through the defunct newspaper El Alcázar by the newspaper's director, Antonio Izquierdo. The group followed the failure and self-dissolution of the Fuerza Nueva of Blas Piñar; the group intended to renew and modernize the message of the far-right in Spain, abandoning some of the most reactionary positions. The group dissolved and integrated with the Alianza Democrática Nacional, which became Democracia Nacional. Rafael Ángel Nieto-Aliseda Causo. Aportes: Revista de historia contemporánea, ISSN 0213-5868, ISSN-e 2386-4850, Year nº 29, Nº 86, 2014, pages 177-206