Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea, with a population of 260,700. Hull lies east southeast of York and northeast of Sheffield; the town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of Meaux Abbey as a port from which to export their wool. Renamed Kings-town upon Hull in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub and whaling centre and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars, its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, took a prominent part in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain. After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War, Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep aquarium. Sports teams include Championship League football club Hull City and rugby league clubs Hull F. C. & Hull Kingston Rovers. The University of Hull now enrols more than 16,000 students, it is ranked among the best in the Humber region. Hull was the 2017 UK City of Culture and in the same year the city's Ferens Art Gallery hosted the prestigious Turner Prize. Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the Humber Estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull; the valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water, it was an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke.
The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning inlet or from the Saxon Wic meaning dwelling place or refuge. The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from Meaux Abbey, which owned Myton. In 1293 the town of Wyke was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a royal charter that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull or Kingston upon Hull; the charter is preserved in the archives of the Guildhall. In 1440, a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and twelve aldermen. In his Guide to Hull, J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's naming of the town, he writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke …, charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner.
He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, at the same time to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town; the port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, importing wine and timber. Hull established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League. From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France and Portugal; as sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world.
Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of New Zealand and South America. Hull was the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom. Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Jesus College and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull; the increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World. The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce. During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there.
Early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town; this siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament a
Copper sulfate known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CuSO4x, where x can range from 0 to 5. The pentahydrate is the most common form. Older names for this compound include blue vitriol, vitriol of copper, Roman vitriol; the pentahydrate, the most encountered salt, is bright blue. It exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex 2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry; the structure of the solid pentahydrate reveals a polymeric structure wherein copper is again octahedral but bound to four water ligands. The Cu4 centers are interconnected by sulfate anions to form chains. Anhydrous copper sulfate is a white powder. Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or its oxides with dilute sulfuric acid. For laboratory use, copper sulfate is purchased. Copper sulfate can be produced by leaching low grade copper ore in air. Commercial copper sulfate is about 98% pure copper sulfate, may contain traces of water.
Anhydrous Copper sulfate is 39.81 percent copper and 60.19 percent sulfate by mass, in its blue, hydrous form, it is 25.47% copper, 38.47% sulfate and 36.06% water by mass. Four types of crystal size are provided based on its usage: large crystals, small crystals, snow crystals, windswept powder. Copper sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting, it loses two water molecules upon heating at 63 °C, followed by two more at 109 °C and the final water molecule at 200 °C. Dehydration proceeds by decomposition of the tetraaquacopper moiety, two opposing aqua groups are lost to give a diaquacopper moiety; the second dehydration step occurs. Complete dehydration occurs. At 650 °C, copper sulfate decomposes into sulfur trioxide. Copper sulfate reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid to give tetrachlorocuprate: Cu2+ + 4 Cl− → CuCl2−4 Copper sulfate is included in children's chemistry sets, it is used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments, despite its toxicity. Copper sulfate is used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4.
It is used to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration. The pentahydrate form, blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form, white, while the water, present in the pentahydrate form evaporates; when water is added to the anhydrous compound, it turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color, is known as blue vitriol. Copper sulfate pentahydrate can be produced by crystallization from solution as copper sulfate is quite hygroscopic. In an illustration of a "single metal replacement reaction", iron is submerged in a solution of copper sulfate. Iron reacts producing iron copper precipitates. Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + CuIn high school and general chemistry education, copper sulfate is used as electrolyte for galvanic cells as a cathode solution. For example, in a zinc/copper cell, copper ion in copper sulfate solution absorbs electron from zinc and forms metallic copper. Cu2+ + 2e− → Cu E°cell=0.34V Copper sulfate pentahydrate is used as a fungicide. However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of copper ions.
Bordeaux mixture, a suspension of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide, is used to control fungus on grapes and other berries. It is produced by mixing a suspension of slaked lime. Cheshunt compound, a commercial mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate, is used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings; as a non-agricultural herbicide, is it used to control invasive aquatic plants and the roots of plants situated near water pipes. It is used in swimming pools as an algicide. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fishes for parasitic infections, is used to remove snails from aquariums. Copper ions are toxic to fish, however. Most species of algae can be controlled with low concentrations of copper sulfate. Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate, it is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper sulfate to insoluble red copper oxide. Copper sulfate is used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins.
Copper sulfate is used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulfate of known specific gravity – blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks due to its density, whereas blood which does not sink or sinks has insufficient amount of hemoglobin. In a flame test, its copper ions emit a deep green light, a much deeper green than the flame test for barium. Copper sulfate is employed at a limited level in organic synthesis; the anhydrous salt is used as a dehydrating agent for manipulating acetal groups. The hydrated salt can be intimately mingled with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols. Copper sulfate has attracted many niche applications over the centuries. In industry copper sulfate has multiple applications. In printing it is an additive to book binding glues to protect paper from insect bites. Copper sulfat
Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined or mixed, cancel each other out by producing a grayscale color like white or black. When placed next to each other, they create the strongest contrast for those two colors. Complementary colors may be called "opposite colors." Which pairs of colors are considered complementary depends on the color theory one uses: Modern color theory uses either the RGB additive color model or the CMY subtractive color model, in these, the complementary pairs are red–cyan, green–magenta, blue–yellow. In the traditional RYB color model, the complementary color pairs are red–green, yellow–purple, blue–orange. Opponent process theory suggests that the most contrasting color pairs are red–green, blue–yellow; the traditional color wheel model is still used by many artists today. This model designates red and blue as primary colors with the primary–secondary complementary pairs of red–green, blue-orange, yellow–purple. In this traditional scheme, a complementary color pair contains one primary color and a secondary color.
The complement of any primary color can be made by combining the two other primary colors. For example, to achieve the complement of yellow one could combine red and blue; the result would be purple. Continuing with the color wheel model, one could combine yellow and purple, which means that all three primary colors would be present at once. Since paints work by absorbing light, having all three primaries together produces a black or gray color. In more recent painting manuals, the more precise subtractive primary colors are magenta and yellow. Complementary colors can create some striking optical effects; the shadow of an object appears to contain some of the complementary color of the object. For example, the shadow of a red apple will appear to contain a little blue-green; this effect is copied by painters who want to create more luminous and realistic shadows. If you stare at a square of color for a long period of time, look at a white paper or wall, you will see an afterimage of the square in its complementary color.
Placed side-by-side as tiny dots, in partitive color mixing, complementary colors appear gray. The RGB color model, invented in the 19th century and developed in the 20th century, uses combinations of red and blue light against a black background to make the colors seen on a computer monitor or television screen. In the RGB model, the primary colors are red and blue; the complementary primary–secondary combinations are red–cyan, green–magenta, blue–yellow. In the RGB color model, the light of two complementary colors, such as red and cyan, combined at full intensity, will make white light, since two complementary colors contain light with the full range of the spectrum. If the light is not intense, the resulting light will be gray. In some other color models, such as the HSV color space, the neutral colors lie along a central axis. Complementary colors lie opposite each other on any horizontal cross-section. For example, in the CIE 1931 color space a color of a "dominant" wavelength can be mixed with an amount of the complementary wavelength to produce a neutral color.
Color printing, like painting uses subtractive colors, but the complementary colors are different from those used in painting. As a result, the same logic applies as to colors produced by light. Color printing uses the CMYK color model, making colors by overprinting cyan, magenta and black ink. In printing the most common complementary colors are magenta–green, yellow–blue, cyan–red. In terms of complementary/opposite colors, this model gives the same result as using the RGB model. Black is added; the effect that colors have upon each other had been noted since antiquity. In his essay On Colors, Aristotle observed that "when light falls upon another color as a result of this new combination, it takes on another nuance of color." Saint Thomas Aquinas had written that purple looked different next to white than it did next to black, that gold looked more striking against blue than it did against white. In 1704, in his treatise on optics, Isaac Newton devised a circle showing a spectrum of seven colors.
In this work and in an earlier work in 1672, he observed that certain colors around the circle were opposed to each other and provided the greatest contrast. In 1793, the American-born British scientist Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, coined the term complementary colors. While staying at an inn in Florence, he made an experiment with candles and shadows, discovered that colored light and the shadow cast by the light had contrasting colors, he wrote, "To
Traditional medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge and practices based on the theories and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". Traditional medicine is contrasted with scientific medicine. In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs; when adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is considered a form of alternative medicine. Practices known as traditional medicines include traditional European medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional African medicine, Siddha medicine, ancient Iranian Medicine, Islamic medicine, Ifá.
Scientific disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalism, ethnomedicine and medical anthropology. The WHO notes, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems; the World Health Organization has implemented a nine year strategy to "support Member States in developing proactive policies and implementing action plans that will strengthen the role traditional medicine plays in keeping populations healthy." In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5,000 years to the ancient Sumerians, who described well-established medicinal uses for plants. In Ancient Egyptian medicine, the Ebers papyrus from c. 1552 BC records a list of folk remedies and magical medical practices. The Old Testament mentions herb use and cultivation in regards to Kashrut. Many herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium BC.
The first Chinese herbal book was the Shennong Bencao Jing, compiled during the Han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, augmented as the Yaoxing Lun during the Tang Dynasty. Early recognised Greek compilers of existing and current herbal knowledge include Pythagoras and his followers, Aristotle, Theophrastus and Galen. Roman sources included Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Celsus's De Medicina. Pedanius Dioscorides drew on and corrected earlier authors for his De Materia Medica, adding much new material. Latin manuscripts of De Materia Medica were combined with a Latin herbal by Apuleius Platonicus and were incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon codex Cotton Vitellius C. III; these early Greek and Roman compilations became the backbone of European medical theory and were translated by the Persian Avicenna, the Persian Rhazes and the Jewish Maimonides. Some fossils have been used in traditional medicine since antiquity. Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the Bedouins and the Arabic translations of the Hellenic and Ayurvedic medical traditions.
Spanish indigenous medicine was influenced by the Arabs from 711 to 1492. Islamic physicians and Muslim botanists such as al-Dinawari and Ibn al-Baitar expanded on the earlier knowledge of materia medica; the most famous Persian medical treatise was Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, an early pharmacopoeia and introduced clinical trials. The Canon was translated into Latin in the 12th century and remained a medical authority in Europe until the 17th century; the Unani system of traditional medicine is based on the Canon. Translations of the early Roman-Greek compilations were made into German by Hieronymus Bock whose herbal, published in 1546, was called Kreuter Buch; the book was translated into Dutch as Pemptades by Rembert Dodoens, from Dutch into English by Carolus Clusius, published by Henry Lyte in 1578 as A Nievve Herball. This became John Gerard's General Hiftorie of Plantes; each new work was a compilation of existing texts with new additions. Women's folk knowledge existed in undocumented parallel with these texts.
Forty-four drugs, flavouring agents and emollients mentioned by Dioscorides are still listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Europe. The Puritans took Gerard's work to the United States where it influenced American Indigenous medicine. Francisco Hernández, physician to Philip II of Spain spent the years 1571–1577 gathering information in Mexico and wrote Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, many versions of which have been published including one by Francisco Ximénez. Both Hernandez and Ximenez fitted Aztec ethnomedicinal information into the European concepts of disease such as "warm", "cold", "moist", but it is not clear that the Aztecs used these categories. Juan de Esteyneffer's Florilegio medicinal de todas las enfermedas compiled European texts and added 35 Mexican plants. Martín de la Cruz wrote an herbal in Nahuatl, translated into Latin by Juan Badiano as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis or Codex Barberini, Latin 241 and given to King Carlos V of Spain in 1552, it was written in haste and influenced by the European occupation of the previous 30 year
Reckitt Benckiser Group plc is a British multinational consumer goods company headquartered in Slough, England. It is a producer of health and home products, it was formed in 1999 by the merger of the UK-based Reckitt & Colman plc and the Netherlands-based Benckiser NV. RB's brands include the antiseptic brand Dettol, the sore throat medicine Strepsils, the hair removal brand Veet, the immune support supplement Airborne, the indigestion remedy Gaviscon, the baby food brand Mead Johnson, the air freshener Air Wick, Clearasil, Cillit Bang, Lysol and Vanish. RB is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Johann Benckiser founded a business in Pforzheim, Germany in 1823, its core business was derived from industrial chemicals. Ludwig Reimann, a chemist, married Benckiser's daughter. Benckiser died in 1851 and the business came under Reimann's ownership. Reimann, in 1858, moved it to Ludwigshafen. Under Reimann's descendants the business grew in the latter half of the 20th century: it acquired Coty, Inc. a North American beauty products manufacturer, in 1992.
Benckiser's other products included Cillit Bang. It went public in 1997. Reckitt and Sons started in 1840 when Isaac Reckitt rented a starch mill in England, he diversified into other household products and after his death in 1862, the business passed to his three sons. In 1886, Reckitt opened its first overseas business in Australia; the firm was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1888. Harpic Lavatory Cleaners was acquired in 1932, that same year, Dettol was launched. In 1938 Reckitt & Sons merged with J. & J. Colman, founded in 1814 when Jeremiah Colman began milling flour and mustard in Norwich, England, to become Reckitt & Colman Ltd; the company made several acquisitions, including the Airwick and Carpet Fresh brands, the Boyle-Midway division of American Home Products, the Lehn & Fink division of Sterling Drug. It acquired several brands from DowBrands in 1998. Reckitt & Colman sold the Colman's food business in 1995; the company was formed by a merger between Britain's Reckitt & Colman plc and the Dutch company Benckiser NV in December 1999.
Bart Becht became CEO of the new company and has been credited for its transformation, focusing on core brands and improving efficiency in the supply chain. The new management team's strategy of "innovation marketing". – a combination of increased marketing spend and product innovation, focusing on consumer needs – has been linked to the company's ongoing success. For example, in 2008, the company's "rapid succession of well publicised new product variants" were credited for helping them "to capture shoppers' imagination". Business Week has noted that "40% of Reckitt Benckiser's $10.5 billion in 2007 revenues came from products launched within the previous three years."In October 2005, RB agreed to purchase the over-the-counter drugs manufacturing business of Boots Group, Boots Healthcare International, for £1.9 billion. The three main brands acquired were Nurofen's analgesics, Strepsils sore throat lozenges, Clearasil anti-acne treatments. In January 2008, RB acquired Adams Respiratory Therapeutics, Inc. a pharmaceutical company, for $2.3 billion.
In July 2010, RB agreed to buy SSL International, the makers of Durex condoms and Scholl's footcare products, in a £2.5 billion deal. On 27 August 2011, RB recalled all remaining stock of its major analgesic product, Nurofen Plus, after packs were found to contain an antipsychotic drug, it turned out that this was the work of a codeine addict, stealing the pills and replacing them with his anti psychotic medication. In April 2011, Bart Becht announced he was to retire as CEO of Reckitt Benckiser and would be replaced from September 2011 by executive vice-president of Category Development, Rakesh Kapoor, who had played a key role in recent acquisitions. In November 2012, RB agreed to acquire Schiff Nutrition, a Salt Lake City-based manufacturer of vitamins and nutritional supplements including Digestive Advantage, MegaRed and Move Free, for US$1.4 billion. In December 2014, RB spun off its speciality pharmaceuticals business, which produces Suboxone, into a separate company named Indivior. In 2014, Reckitt Benckiser announced it was dropping its full name in favour of RB.
According to the chief executive, Rakesh Kapoor, the old name was "a bit of a mouthful" and the name change would make life easier.'In February 2017, the company bid $16.7 billion for the American infant formula maker Mead Johnson. On 10 February 2017, Reckitt Benckiser Group announced it had agreed to buy Mead Johnson for $16.6 billion. On 27 April 2017, the Philippines' anti-trust agency, Philippine Competition Commission, gave its regulatory approval on the planned acquisition of Mead Johnson Nutrition by Reckitt Benckiser Group. To effect the transaction, Reckitt Benckiser incorporated a subsidiary in Delaware into which Mead Johnson Nutrition would be transferred, with Mead Johnson Nutrition being the sole surviving entity at completion. Following the acquisition of Mead Johnson, Reckitt Benckiser announced that it would split its business into two - consumer healthcare, home and hygiene. While some expert analysts viewed this move as a precursor to a possible sale of the home division, Rakesh Kapoor, CEO of Reckitt Benckiser, said that it was only to improve the performance of each of the divisions.
In July 2017, it was announced that McCormick would acquire Reckitt's food brands, including Fr
Backbarrow is a village in the Lake District National Park in England. It lies on the River Leven about 5 miles northeast of Ulverston in Furness in the county of Cumbria. Backbarrow grew during the Elizabethan period, due to the corn mills that were built along the river. Earlier mills at the site had been owned by Furness Abbey. Development increased due to the iron furnace, built in Backbarrow in 1711; the furnace has been described as the first efficient blast furnace. The cotton mills continued to grow in size during the Victorian period. In 1868 an extension of the Furness Railway was built through the village to transport iron and products from the mills. Though the line was closed in the 1960s with the demise of the ironworks, the section from Haverthwaite to Lakeside, which passes through Backbarrow, remains open as a heritage railway. Backbarrow was associated with the production of the blue pigment ultramarine, or "dolly blue"; the ultramarine factory was established in an old mill building by the Lancashire Ultramarine Company purchased by Reckitt & Sons in 1928.
The'blue mill' was well-known locally, as dust from its production gave a blue tint to most of the village. Production of this continued until 1981; the factory, known locally as "the bluemills", is now a popular hotel. A display of machinery used in the old factory is maintained by the hotel's proprietors. Backbarrow was hit by the nationwide floods of November 2009, as the River Leven overflowed causing severe damage to the bridge's walls and both parts of the Whitewater Hotel, as well as the Swan Hotel in Newby Bridge, 1.3 miles further up the river. In 2010 the Lakeland Motor Museum relocated from Holker Hall to the former site of the Reckitt's Blue Dye Works carton packaging sheds in Backbarrow; the growth of the National Park led to an increase in tourism in the region. In particular, Backbarrow has great views of the turbulent nature of the River Leven, just south of Windermere; the river has been used to develop a small hydro-electric plant, installed in 2000, generating electricity for the National Grid.
Listed buildings in Haverthwaite BBC page about the Dolly Blue factory
Ultramarine is a deep blue color pigment, made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder. The name comes from the Latin ultramarinus "beyond the sea", because the pigment was imported into Europe from mines in Afghanistan by Italian traders during the 14th and 15th centuries. Ultramarine was the most expensive blue used by Renaissance painters, it was used for the robes of the Virgin Mary, symbolized holiness and humility. It remained an expensive pigment until a synthetic ultramarine was invented in 1826; the pigment consists of a zeolite-based mineral containing small amounts of polysulfides. It occurs in nature as a proximate component of lapis lazuli containing a blue cubic mineral called lazurite. In the Colour Index International, the pigment of ultramarine is identified as P. Blue 29 77007; the major component of lazurite is a complex sulfur-containing sodium-silicate, which makes ultramarine the most complex of all mineral pigments. Some chloride is present in the crystal lattice as well; the blue color of the pigment is due to the S − 3 radical anion.
The raw materials used in the manufacture of synthetic ultramarine are the following: iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of SiO2:Al2O3 demanded by the formula assigned to a specfic ideal kaolin, anhydrous sodium sulfate, anhydrous sodium carbonate, powdered sulfur, powdered charcoal or ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps. The preparation is made in steps: The first part of the process takes place at 700 to 750 °C in a closed furnace, so that sulfur and organic substances give reducing conditions; this yields a yellow-green product sometimes used as a pigment. In the second step, air or sulfur dioxide at 350 to 450 °C is used to oxidise sulfide in the intermediate product to S2 and Sn chromophore molecules, resulting in the blue pigment; the mixture is heated in a kiln, sometimes in brick-sized amounts. The resultant solids are ground and washed, as is the case in any other insoluble pigment's manufacturing process.
The product is at first white, but soon turns green "green ultramarine" when it is mixed with sulfur and heated. The sulfur burns, a fine blue pigment is obtained. "Ultramarine rich in silica" is obtained by heating a mixture of pure clay fine white sand and charcoal in a muffle furnace. A blue product is obtained at once, but a red tinge results; the different ultramarines—green, blue and violet—are finely ground and washed with water. Synthetic ultramarine is a more vivid blue than natural ultramarine, since the particles in synthetic ultramarine are smaller and more uniform than the particles in natural ultramarine and therefore diffuse light more evenly, its color is unaffected by light nor by contact with oil or lime as used in painting. Hydrochloric acid bleaches it with liberation of hydrogen sulfide. A small addition of zinc oxide to the reddish varieties causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the color. Ultramarine is the aluminosilicate zeolite with a sodalite structure.
Sodalite consists of interconnected aluminosilicate cages. Some of these cages contain polysulfide groups; the negative charge on these ions is balanced by Na+ ions that occupy these cages. The chromophore is proposed to be S−4 or S4. Synthetic ultramarine, being cheap, is used for wall painting, the printing of paper hangings and calico, etc. and as a corrective for the yellowish tinge present in things meant to be white, such as linen, etc. Bluing or "Laundry blue" is a suspension of synthetic ultramarine, used for this purpose when washing white clothes. Found in make up such as mascaras or eye shadows. Large quantities are used in the manufacture of paper, for producing a kind of pale blue writing paper, popular in Britain. During World War I, the RAF painted the outer roundels with a color made from Ultramarine Blue; this became BS 108 Aircraft Blue. It was replaced in the 1960s by a new color made on BS110 Roundel Blue; the name derives from Middle Latin ultramarinus "beyond the sea" because it was imported from Asia by sea.
In the past, it has been known as azzurrum ultramarine, azzurrum transmarinum, azzuro oltramarino, azur d'Acre, pierre d'azur, Lazurstein. Current terminology for ultramarine includes natural ultramarine, outremer lapis, Ultramarin echt, oltremare genuino, ultramarino verdadero; the first recorded use of ultramarine as a color name in English was in 1598. The first noted use of lapis lazuli as a pigment can be seen in the 6th and 7th-century AD cave paintings in Afghanistani Zoroastrian and Buddhist temples, near the most famous source of the mineral. Lapis lazuli has been identified in Chinese paintings from the 10th and 11th centuries, in Indian mural paintings from the 11th, 12th, 17th centuries, on Anglo-Saxon and Norman illuminated manuscripts from c.1100. During the Renaissance, ultramarine was the finest and most expensive blue that could