Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It adjoins Cheshire to the north west, Derbyshire and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the south east, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west. The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority, Lichfield also has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Cannock, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Leek, smaller towns include Stone, Uttoxeter, and Rugeley, and large villages Eccleshall, Wombourne, Kinver, Penkridge, Tutbury and Stretton. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest, Wolverhampton, Walsall, West Bromwich, and Smethwick were historic Staffordshire towns until local government reorganisation created the West Midlands county in 1974. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Offlow, Pirehill, Seisdon, the historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands. The Act also saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united entirely in Staffordshire, in 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, a major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a part of Worcestershire, expanded. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a district in Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, in July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield. The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively dated to the 7th or 8th centuries. Some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek, JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and bet365 based in Stoke-on-Trent. The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18, there are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford, Lichfield and Shrewsbury. The modern county of Staffordshire currently has three football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent. They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, in 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years
FirstGroup is a British transport group, registered and operating in the United Kingdom. The company also operates services in Ireland, Canada and the United States. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE250 Index, FirstGroup originated from the deregulation of bus services in the United Kingdom in 1986, whereby private companies purchased nationalised and municipal bus operators. In September 1986 the Somerset based services of the Bristol Omnibus Company that were rebranded in 1985 as Badgerline were purchased in a management buyout, as Badgerline Group, it expanded through acquisition purchasing other formerly nationalised bus companies in England and Wales. In January 1989 Grampian Regional Transport, the bus operator in Aberdeen owned by Grampian Regional Council, was privatised in a management buyout led by its general manager Moir Lockhead. As GRT Bus Group, it expanded through acquisition purchasing six former nationalised bus companies in England and Scotland, in April 1995 FirstBus was formed through the merger of the Badgerline and GRT Bus Groups, with fleets in England, Wales and Scotland. Aberdeen was selected as the headquarters, at the time of the merger, FirstBus had 5,600 buses,4,000 of which came from Badgerline. Badgerlines Trevor Smallwood became chairman of FirstBus, while GRT head Moir Lockhead became deputy chairman, FirstBus continued the policy of growth by acquisition acquiring former council owned operations and companies formerly owned by English, Welsh and Scottish nationalised operators. FirstBus went on to larger urban metropolitan operators by taking advantage of the privatisation of the PTE bus operations. FirstBus acquired GM Buses North in Manchester and Strathclyde Buses in Glasgow in 1996, Mainline in South Yorkshire and CentreWest in London in 1997, and Capital Citybus in London in 1998. The company was renamed FirstGroup in December 1997 after the company moved into railways in February 1996 with the privatisation of British Rail, through a 24. In March 1998 FirstGroup purchased the 75. 5% shares in Great Western Holdings it did not already own and rebranded the franchises First Great Western and First North Western. In September 1998 FirstGroup made its first overseas foray when New World First Bus commenced operating bus services in Hong Kong formerly operated by China Motor Bus, FirstGroup had a 26% shareholding in the joint venture. In May 2000 FirstGroup sold its shares to joint venture partner New World Development, in September 1999 FirstGroup purchased Ryder Public Transport Services, a provider of school bus transportation in the United States. In May 2000 FirstGroup began operating the London Tramlink concession under contract to Transport for London, in August 2003 FirstGroup purchased GB Railways which owned Anglia Railways and GB Railfreight and held 80% of the shares in Hull Trains. Having not been shortlisted for the Greater Anglia franchise, this gave FirstGroup another chance to bid, however it was unsuccessful and the franchise was awarded to National Express from April 2004 including the services operated by First Great Eastern. In November 2003 FirstGroup purchased a 90% shareholding in Irish coach operator Aircoach, in February 2004 FirstGroups joint venture with Keolis commenced operating the First TransPennine Express rail franchise, FirstGroup having a 55% shareholding. In April 2004 FirstGroup commenced operating the First Great Western Link franchise, in December 2004 the remainder of First North Western passed to Northern Rail, some services having already been transferred to Arriva Trains Wales and FirstTranspennine Express
Stoke-on-Trent is a city and unitary authority area in Staffordshire, England, with an area of 36 square miles. Together with the boroughs of Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire Moorlands, it is part of North Staffordshire. Stoke is polycentric, having formed by a federation of six towns in the early 20th century. It took its name from Stoke-upon-Trent, where the town hall, Hanley is the primary commercial centre. The four other towns are Burslem, Tunstall, Longton and Fenton, Stoke-on-Trent is the home of the pottery industry in England and is commonly known as the Potteries. Formerly a primarily industrial conurbation, it is now a centre for service industries, the name Stoke is taken from the town of Stoke-upon-Trent, the original ancient parish, with other settlements being chapelries. Stoke derives from the Old English stoc, a word that at first meant little more than place and these variant meanings included dairy farm, secondary or dependent place or farm, summer pasture, crossing place, meeting place and place of worship. It is not known which of these was intended here, because Stoke was such a common name for a settlement, some kind of distinguishing affix was usually added later, in this case the name of the river. The motto of Stoke-on-Trent is Vis Unita Fortior which can be translated as, United Strength is Stronger, or Strength United is the More Powerful and it was not until 1 April 1910 that the Six Towns were brought together. The county borough of Hanley, the boroughs of Burslem, Longton. The combined borough took the town of Stoke. In 1919, the borough proposed to further and annex the neighbouring borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme. This never took place, due to objections from Newcastle Corporation. A further attempt was made in 1930, with the promotion of the Stoke-on-Trent Extension Bill, ultimately, Wolstanton was instead added to Newcastle-under-Lyme in 1932. The borough was granted city status in 1925, with a Lord Mayor from 1928. The decision was overturned, however, when an approach was made to King George V. The public announcement of the elevation to city status was made by the King during a visit to Stoke on 4 June 1925, the county borough was abolished in 1974, and Stoke became a non-metropolitan district of Staffordshire. Its status as a unitary authority was restored on 1 April 1997, for Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS3 region
Burslem is one of the six towns that amalgamated to form the city of Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England. Burslem is sited on the ridge of the Fowlea Valley. Burslem embraces the areas of Middleport, Dalehall, Longport, Westport, Trubshaw Cross, the Trent & Mersey Canal cuts through, to the west and south of the town centre. A little further west, the West Coast Main Line railway, to the south is Grange Park and Festival Park, reclaimed by the Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival. As far back as the late 12th century a thriving pottery industry existed, based on the fine & abundant local clays, after the Black Death, Burslem emerges in the records as a medieval town - the 1536 stone church is still standing and in use. Until the mid-1760s Burslem was relatively cut off from the rest of England, it had no navigable river nearby, by 1777 the Trent and Mersey Canal was nearing completion, and the roads had markedly improved. The town boomed on the back of fine pottery production & canals, in 1910 the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent, and the borough was granted city status in 1925. Many of the novels of Arnold Bennett evoke Victorian Burslem, with its many potteries, mines, the Burslem of the 1930s to the 1980s is evoked by the paintings and plays of Arthur Berry. Burslem contains Britains last real working industrial district, and thus much of the industrial heritage. A recent report suggested the concentration of pottery-based heritage makes the area the richest stretch of canal for industrial heritage in England,1893 journal At the 1991 census count, the population of Burslem was 21,400. Traditional Victorian architecture and Edwardian period terraced houses dominate the town, new housing developments are underway on the Sadlers Factory site and around Woodbank Street. Burslem is an area of Stoke-on-Trent with a significant Asian population. Industrial scale pottery production has declined since the 1970s, but specialist makers. Burslem is emerging as a centre for small, freelance creative businesses working in such as fine art, animation. The number of shops in the centre have markedly declined. However, the economy is still active with a wide range of bars and restaurants mainly serving English. The Leopard Inn dates from the early 1700s, initially a coaching house and Inn, there has been a working pub on this site for 300 years or more. In 1878 a three storey extension including 57 rooms were built, the ambition was to create in Burslem The Savoy of the North
Hanley, in Staffordshire, England, is one of the six major towns that joined together to form the city of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910. Hanley was the one of the six towns to be a county borough before the merger. Hanley was incorporated as a borough in 1857 and became a county borough with the passage of the Local Government Act 1888. It is now the main shopping centre, the Potteries Shopping Centre containing many high street chain stores. The name Hanley comes from haer lea, meaning high meadow”, at one time, there were many coal mines in North Staffordshire. Hanley Deep Pit was opened in 1854 and it was the deepest pit in the North Staffordshire coalfield, reaching a depth of 1500 feet. At its peak in the 1930s it employed some 2000 men, the pit was closed in 1962 but much of the headgear and spoilheaps were left in situ. Then, in the 1980s, the site was cleared, landscaped and converted into Hanley Forest Park. Coal miners in the Hanley and Longton area ignited the 1842 General Strike, the 1986 Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival led to the reclamation of large areas of land west of the city centre area – including the former Shelton steelworks, which had been derelict since 1978. Ironically, when the Garden Festival closed, the land remained derelict for some time, before being re-developed partly into public parkland and partly for retail, in 2013, a brand new and modern bus station opened in Hanley. This replaced the bus station, on Lichfield Street. The new bus station is the first stage in the project which will see the previous bus station demolished, and replaced with a new centre consisting of shops, restaurants. The new bus station is smaller than its predecessor, and has various routes in. Access to the station is controlled by doors, at both the pedestrian entrance and coach bays. The new bus station links Hanley with towns in North Staffordshire, as well as Buxton, Crewe, most services are run by First Potteries, though there are a number of smaller independent operators, such as Wardle Transport, BakerBus, and Arriva Midlands. In addition, National Express Coaches connect Hanley with destinations including London, Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester, the station survived for 100 years – it was closed in 1964, as part of the Beeching Axe, and the land is now a car park. Hanley is also connected to the network, it meets the Trent and Mersey Canal at Festival Park. On 1 April 1910, the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent, by 1925 the area was granted city status
Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, commonly known as Wedgwood, is a fine china, porcelain, and luxury accessories company founded on 1 May 1759 by Josiah Wedgwood. In 1987, Wedgwood merged with Waterford Crystal to create Waterford Wedgwood, on 2 July 2015, Fiskars Corporation acquired WWRD. His marriage to Sarah Wedgwood, a distant cousin with a sizable dowry, in 1765, Wedgwood created a new form of earthenware, which impressed the then British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz who gave official permission to call it Queens Ware. This new form sold extremely well across Europe, in 1766, Wedgwood bought Etruria, a large Staffordshire estate, as both a home and factory site. Wedgwood developed a number of industrial innovations for his company, notably a way of measuring kiln temperatures accurately. Wedgwoods best known product is created to look like ancient cameo glass. It was inspired by the Portland Vase, a Roman vessel which is now a museum piece, the first jasperware color was Portland Blue, an innovation that required experiments with more than 3,000 samples. In recognition of the importance of his beads, Josiah Wedgwood was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1783. The Wedgwood Prestige collection sold replicas of the designs as well as modern neo-classical style jasperware. Many motifs were taken from ancient mythologies, Roman, Greek, meanwhile, archaeological fever caught the imagination of many artists. Nothing could have been more suitable to satisfy this huge business demand than to produce replicas of ancient artefacts, many representations of royalty, nobles and statesmen in silhouette were created, as well as political symbols. These were often set in jewellery, as well as in architectural features like fireplace mantels, mouldings, Wedgwood has honoured American individuals and corporations as well, both historically and recently. In 1774 he employed the then 19-year-old John Flaxman as an artist, the Dancing Hours may be his most well known design. Other artists known to have worked for Wedgwood include among others Lady Elizabeth Templetown, George Stubbs, Emma Crewe, Wedgwood had increasing success with hard paste porcelain which attempted to imitate the whiteness of tea-ware imported from China, an extremely popular product amongst high society. High transport costs and the journey from the Far East meant that the supply of chinaware could not keep up with increasingly high demand. Towards the end of the 18th century other Staffordshire manufacturers introduced bone china as an alternative to translucent, in 1812 Wedgwood produced their own bone china which, though not a commercial success at first eventually became an important part of an extremely profitable business. Josiah Wedgwood was also a patriarch of the Darwin–Wedgwood family, Josiah Wedgwood II, second son of Josiah I, succeeded his father as proprietor in 1795 and introduced the production by the Wedgwood company of bone china. In 1815, during Josiah IIs time as proprietor, the great English Romantic poet William Blake spent time engraving for Wedgwoods china catalogues, Josiah Wedgwood III, son of Josiah II, was a partner in the firm from 1825 until he retired in 1842
History of Port Vale F.C.
The history of Port Vale F. C. an English association football club based in Stoke-on-Trent, began with the formation of the club, which was probably in 1879. In 1884, the moved to the town of Burslem. The club joined the Football League Second Division upon its formation in 1892, in 1907, the clubs name was reverted to Port Vale Football Club when the club moved to The Old Recreation Ground in Hanley. The club then moved in 1950 to Vale Park, a stadium located in Burslem with a capacity of over 20,000. The club have twice come close to the highest tier of English football, in 1930–31 they finished fifth, the precise details of the clubs founding are not known. A Port Vale cricket club were in existence in 1874, which may or may not have had any relation to the football club. The most-widely accepted story is that Port Vale were formed during an 1876 meeting at Port Vale House, evidence in support of this came from Vale chairman Robert Audley writing that the club was an organisation of twenty-eight years standing in 1907. Also John Hood and an E. Hood were recorded as having scored goals for Porthill Victoria on 4 January 1879, which seems to have disbanded at the end of that season. The 1879 theory suggests that Porthill Victoria players broke away to found Port Vale in 1879, before 1926, the occasional mentions in print of the clubs founding had given the year of formation as 1879, and most of the original founders would not have reached adulthood by 1876. To add to the confusion, local newspaper The Sentinel also printed 1879 as the founding date on 10 March 1928 and 24 August 1931. Another theory on the origins is that Port Vale was formed from a merger of Wolstanton, Middleport and Burslem St. Pauls. A further theory is that Port Vale were originally a team, mainly based on the existence of bricks with Burslem Port Vale. However, these appear to be indicative of their place of manufacture and often have a company name upon them. The unique name of Port Vale has attracted interest and debate, the players lived near such places as, Port Vale Wharf, Port Vale Street, Port Vale Corn Mills and Port Vale House. Also, with nearby Porthill Victoria having played upon a hill, another theory was that the name came from a shortening of Longport Vale. The club played their football at Limekiln Lane, Longport and from 1880 at Westport, the 1851 Ordnance Survey Map of Longport clearly shows the Port Vale Wharf and the adjacent Longport Lime Kilns, including the eponymous lane. Under its founder Enoch Hood, the club rose rapidly above the dozen or so other local Burslem clubs to become the strongest club in the town within a few years. Already in 1880 the club had a Reserve side and managed to attract the best players from their local rivals and they began to charge admission to their games and joined the Staffordshire Football Association on 6 September 1882
History of Stoke City F.C.
Stoke City Football Club was formed in 1863 as Stoke Ramblers Football Club by former pupils of the Charterhouse School whilst they were apprentices at the North Staffordshire Railway. The club dropped the Ramblers from their name in 1878, in 1925, the clubs name was changed for the final time to Stoke City Football Club when Stoke-on-Trent was granted city status. The club moved in 1997 to the Britannia Stadium, a 28,383 all-seater stadium, Stokes only major trophy was the 1972 Football League Cup, won when they beat Chelsea 2–1 in the final at Wembley Stadium before a crowd of 97,852. The club have won the Football League Trophy twice, in 1992 and 2000. In terms of league achievement the closest Stoke have come to winning the title was in the 1946–47 season where a final day defeat cost Stoke top spot. It is claimed that Stoke Ramblers was formed in 1863 when former pupils of Charterhouse School formed a club while apprentices at the North Staffordshire Railway works in Stoke-on-Trent. In the game, the clubs first goal was scored by Henry Almond, Stokes founder, Stoke played four further fixtures in 1868, recording their first victory with a 2–0 win against Newcastle-under-Lyme. In 1875, to cope with rising attendances, the club switched to a ground at Sweetings Field, in an earlier round, Stoke had recorded what is still the clubs record victory, a 26–0 triumph over Mow Cop. Stoke retained the County Cup in the season with a 2–1 win over Cobridge. In 1878, the merged with Stoke Victoria Athletic Club. They moved from Sweetings Field to the Athletic Club ground, which became known as the Victoria Ground. It was around this time that the club adopted their red, Stoke entered the newly formed Birmingham Association Cup in 1881, although they were beaten 8–0 by Aston Villa in the first round. In the 1882–1883 season, Stoke reached the final of the Staffordshire Senior Cup but were beaten 3–2 by West Bromwich Albion, the club decided to enter the FA Cup for the first time in the 1883–84 season, the competition itself had been founded 12 years earlier. The threat of a football association, the British FA, forced the Football Association to legalise professionalism in 1885. The club were defeated again in the FA Cup in 1885–86 after a defeat to Crewe Alexandra. The clubs first victory in the competition came in the 1886–87 season with a 10–0 win over Caernarfon Wanderers at the Victoria Ground, Stoke became one of the twelve founding members of the Football League in 1888. Stokes manager, Harry Lockett, represented the club at a meeting in London, Stoke struggled in their first two seasons in the league, 1888–89 and 1889–90, finishing in last place on both occasions. The club failed to secure re-election to the league at the end of its second season, as a consequence, Stoke started 1890–91 in the Football Alliance, they finished the season as champions
Longton is a southern district of Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England, one of the six towns of the Potteries which formed the City of Stoke-on-Trent in 1910. Longton was a town in the parish of Stoke in the county of Staffordshire. The town still has a market housed in an attractively renovated market hall, coal miners in the Hanley and Longton area ignited the 1842 General Strike and associated Pottery Riots. In March 1865, Longton and Lane End were incorporated as the Borough of Longton, on 1 April 1910, the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent. In 1925 the area was granted city status, one legacy of Longtons administrative independence from 1865 to 1910 is Longton Town Hall, a prominent landmark in the town centre. In 1986 Longton Town Hall faced demolition by Stoke-on-Trent City Council amid considerable local protest, work on stripping the interior had already begun before an injunction was brought and the building saved. Together with Rochdale, then in Lancashire, Longton was host to the first Workers Educational Association tutorial classes, R. H. Tawney, known as the patron saint of adult education, taught the classes for three years from January 1908. For a time, until he moved to Manchester in 1909, to fulfil his teaching commitments to the WEA, he travelled first to Longton for the evening class every Friday, before travelling north to Rochdale for the Saturday afternoon class. Arnold Bennett referred to Longton as Longshaw in his novels centred on the Potteries towns, the district has a long history as a base for the pottery industry, such as Paragon China and Aynsley, and several major manufacturers still have a presence, along with Gladstone Pottery Museum. Roslyn Works, which adjoins the latter, is now home to several manufacturers of ceramics. In 1997 the one-way system was finally bypassed when a new section of the A50 was opened, the one way system remains, but is no longer the main route into the main town centre of Hanley. Longton is served by a station which was opened by the North Staffordshire Railway on 7 August 1848. A new bus interchange was opened adjacent to it in 2003 on the site of a former Co-op supermarket, secondary schools in the area include St Thomas More Catholic Academy and Stoke Studio College. A new shopping precinct, the Bennett Precinct, opened in 1962 and it is now named Longton Exchange. In 2003 a large Tesco Extra superstore was built and has helped to rejuvenate the town, since then, other major retailers such as Argos, Next, Pizza Hut, Matalan, Wilkinson and B & M have opened new premises. Then, building firm St. Modwens, opened an £8 million retail complex in April 2012, the stores there include McDonalds, Pets at Home, Smyths and Currys. Other local business like Hylands Ltd and Bevans have also thrived in the area, Jollees Cabaret Club was a very popular nightspot in the 1970s, attracting some of the biggest names in entertainment. In the early 1990s, Shelleys Laserdome became widely known throughout the Midlands as a rave venue, but it was forced to close in 1992
Fenton is one of the six towns in the city of Stoke-on-Trent which federated in 1910. In the south-east of the city, Fenton has been dubbed the town Arnold Bennett forgot as he called his version of Stoke-on-Trent the Five Towns. The name Fenton means fen farm, Fenton started to become populated as a group of farms and private small-holdings were built there, alongside a lane running from the southern reaches of Hanley. Around the 1750s, the land was known as Fenton Vivian. By the 1850s, the area around Duke Street and China Street had become populated during the development of the Potteries. Potters settled in Fenton in large houses alongside their pot-banks, such houses include Great Fenton Hall, Fenton House, Heron Cottage and Grove House. The two principal districts, Fenton Vivian and Fenton Culvert – each with their communities, were brought together to make an urban district with its own board of guardians in 1894. On 1 April 1910, the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent, by 1925 the area was granted city status. Fenton has been the home of a number of such as Coalport and Baker & Co. During the First World War Fenton was bombed by Zeppelin L21 and it is within easy reach of the A500, A34 and the A50, a short distance away from Longton, Hanley and Newcastle. Although Fenton has large industrial plants, particularly from the Potteries trade, Fenton includes Heron Cross, Mount Pleasant, Saxonfields, Pool Dole and Fenpark. Fenton Manor has a pool, gym and fitness centre. Fenton Park has football pitches, pavilions and playground, the town’s library on Baker Street, a Carnegie library, is now closed. Fenton differs from the other Potteries towns in that it not have a town centre. Instead, amenities and shops are spread over a sizeable area, Town profile at The Sentinel Use interactive maps to find historic artefacts and photographs of old Fenton at exploringthepotteries. org. uk Town profile at The Sentinel
Tunstall is an area in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England. It was one of the six towns that federated to form the city. Tunstall is the most northern, and fourth largest town of the Potteries and it is situated in the very northwest of the city borough, with its north and west boundaries being the city limit. It stands on a ridge of land between Fowlea Brook to the west and Scotia Brook to the east, surrounded by old tile making and brick making sites, some of which date back to the Middle Ages. There is no independent record of Tunstall in the Domesday Book, it is believed to have formed part of the lands of Richard the forester, however, Tunstall Manor quickly became powerful. Records mention that iron and coal was being mined and processed in the town as far back as 1282, the appointment of a market-reeve by the manor court in 1525 is the earliest indication of a market in Tunstall manor. In 1816, a square of nearly an acre was laid out on land called Stony Croft which was leased from the lord of the manor. Today, Tunstall Market is the smallest of the four markets in Stoke-on-Trent, Tunstall remained a linear village until the industrial revolution. Tunstalls main make-up is now of rows of Victorian terraced houses, There are a number of new estates that have been built in the area. Park Terrace consists of elegant Victorian and Edwardian town houses and is a conservation area. The town was granted Urban District Council status in 1894 and quickly set about expanding itself, on 1 April 1910, the UDC dissolved itself and the town was federated into the county borough of Stoke-on-Trent. By 1925 the borough was granted city status, Tunstall has however, remained distinct and retained its own shopping and business district, adding to Stoke-on-Trents polycentric nature. On 27 November 1916, German Zeppelin LZ61 bombed Tunstall during its return leg to Germany, however, it was shot down the following day before it could reach the coast at Lowestoft. The village of Tunstall was described in 1795 as the pleasantest village in the pottery, Tunstall, including its environs, is the pleasantest village in the pottery. It stands on ground and commands pleasing prospects. The manufactories in it are respectable and do considerable business, There are a number of brick and tile works here, the clay being of a superior kind for such articles, so that with good management the tiles made from it look as well as moderate slate. The Methodists have a large neat Chapel in this place and they have lately established a Sunday School, supported by voluntary contributions, and the teachers give their labours gratis. In this township abounds coal, ironstone, marl and fine cannel coal,1828 journal Tunstall. -- town with ry. sta