It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football and it is in college football where a players performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as a free agent. Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained extremely popular throughout the U. S, in many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. This allows them to more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries, colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as football, by the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges, the first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9,1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock, a football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College, a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland, modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional mob football played in England.
The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football, Princeton University students played a game called ballown as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as Bloody Monday began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes, in 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a figure called Football Fightum. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called Old division football, the rules of which were first published in 1871, all of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities
The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Bears compete in the National Football League as a club of the leagues National Football Conference North division. The Bears have won nine NFL Championships and one Super Bowl and hold the NFL record for the most enshrinees in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, the Bears have recorded more victories than any other NFL franchise. The franchise was founded in Decatur, Illinois, in 1919 and it is one of only two remaining franchises from the NFLs founding. The team played games at Wrigley Field on Chicagos North Side through the 1970 season, they now play at Soldier Field on the Near South Side. The Bears have a rivalry with the Green Bay Packers. The team headquarters, Halas Hall, is in the Chicago suburb of Lake Forest, the Bears practice at adjoining facilities there during the season. They hold their training camp from late July to mid-August at Ward Field on the campus of Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois.
Originally named the Decatur Staleys, the club was established by the A. E. Staley food starch company of Decatur and this was the typical start for several early professional football franchises. The company hired George Halas and Edward Dutch Sternaman in 1920 to run the team, the 1920 Decatur Staleys season was their inaugural regular season completed in the newly formed American Professional Football Association. Full control of the team was turned over to Halas and Sternaman in 1921, official team and league records cite Halas as the founder as he took over the team in 1920 when it became a charter member of the NFL. The team relocated to Chicago in 1921, where the club was renamed the Chicago Staleys, under an agreement reached by Halas and Sternaman with Staley, Halas purchased the rights to the club from Staley for US$100. In 1922, Halas changed the name from the Staleys to the Bears. The team moved into Wrigley Field, which was home to the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise, as with several early NFL franchises, the Bears derived their nickname from their citys baseball team.
Halas liked the bright colors of his alma mater, the University of Illinois. The Staleys/Bears dominated the league in the early years and their rivalry with the Chicago Cardinals, the oldest in the NFL, was key in four out of the first six league titles. During that span, the Bears posted 34 shutouts, the Bears rivalry with the Green Bay Packers is one of the oldest and most storied in American professional sports, dating back to 1921. The franchise was a success under Halas, capturing the NFL Championship in 1921
Robert Allen Griese is a former American football quarterback who earned All-American honors with the Purdue Boilermakers before being drafted in 1967 by the American Football Leagues Miami Dolphins. Griese led the Dolphins to three consecutive Super Bowl appearances, including two Super Bowl victories, Griese was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and the Indiana Football Hall of Fame in 1984 and the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1990. He worked as a commentator for college football on ESPN on ABC. Griese was born in Evansville, Indiana to Ida and Sylverious Slick Griese, Slick owned a plumbing company in Evansville and died in 1955 when Bob was ten years old. Bob played baseball primarily, and excelled as a pitcher and he starred in basketball and football at Evansvilles Rex Mundi High School. He earned 12 varsity letters for the Monarchs and he led the basketball team to the No.1 ranking in Indiana during the 1962–63 season and a record of 19–3. He scored 900 points in his school career and while being named All-Sectional.
The Monarchs were 15–5 during his Junior and Senior seasons, as he was named 1st Team All-City for three seasons, after being recruited by several colleges for football, Bob chose Purdue, where he majored in business management and became a three-sport star. In 1984, Bob was inducted into the Indiana Football Hall of Fame, while at Purdue, Bob became a member of Sigma Chi Fraternity. In college Griese pitched for the team, going 12-1 one season, played guard on the basketball team, and played quarterback, kicker. There were many games where Griese scored every one of Purdues points, as of the beginning of the 2016 season, he ranks #10 in all-time scoring at Purdue, #5 in scoring among non-kickers and #4 among kickers. Griese’s passing skills greatly improved under the tutelage of head coach Jack Mollenkopf, in his junior year at game against the top-ranked Notre Dame, Griese completed 19 of 22 passes as he led the Boilermakers to an upset win. Griese was a two-time All-American at Purdue, finishing at #8 in the 1965 Heisman Trophy race and was the runner-up to Steve Spurrier for the 1966 Heisman Trophy.
Purdue finished second in the Big Ten in 1966, and he led the schools first appearance in the Rose Bowl and he was inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame in 1992. He was awarded the Big Ten Medal of Honor for excellence in athletics and academics and his sterling college career earned him induction into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1984. Purdue did not have a practice of retiring numbers and instead, on December 11,2014, the Big Ten Network included Griese on The Mount Rushmore of Purdue Football, as chosen by online fan voting. Griese was joined in the honor by Drew Brees, Rod Woodson, Griese was the fourth player selected in the 1967 Common Draft. He was selected by the AFLs Miami Dolphins, Griese recorded 2,005 yards and 15 touchdowns in his rookie year in Miami
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan, frequently referred to simply as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, United States. Founded in 1817 in Detroit as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania,20 years before the Michigan Territory became a state, in 1821, the university was officially renamed the University of Michigan. It moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of what is now known as Central Campus, the University was a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States, Michigans body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Besides academic life, Michigans athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference, the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26,1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory.
Judge Augustus B. Woodward specifically invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, Monteith became its first President and held seven of the professorships, and Richard was Vice President and held the other six professorships. Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital, but when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason, the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen, eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment increased to 1,205 students, many of whom were Civil War veterans, Women were first admitted in 1870. U-M became the first American university to use the method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government.
In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed a committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives. The university became a choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s. Because of its standards, U-M gained the nickname Harvard of the West. During World War II, U-Ms research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, and radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded rapidly and by 1950, it reached 21,000, as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy
Lloyd N. Mumphord is a former defensive Back who played collegiately for Texas Southern University and ten seasons in American Pro Football. He played professionally for the Miami Dolphins of the American Football League and he played in three Super Bowls for the Dolphins, and served as their captain of the Special Teams. He currently holds NFL records for punt and kick blocks in a season and a career
Sandusky is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Erie County. Situated in northern Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie, Sandusky is midway between Toledo to the west and Cleveland to the east. According to 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,793, in 2011, Sandusky was ranked No.1 by Forbes. com as the Best Place to Live Cheaply in the United States. The city has a family income of $64,000. Sandusky is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company and its flagship amusement park, Cedar Point has one of the largest collections of roller coasters in the world. The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky a Tree City USA, the accepted etymology is that the name Sandusky is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning water or andusti, cold water. In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the phrase as Chinouski, the name L. Sandoski appears on a 1733 map. Sandusky Bay is identified as Lac Sandouské on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle, the city of Sandusky was established in 1818.
Some of the city was built on land occupied by a Native-American man named Ogontz. Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a stop on the Underground Railroad. Downtown Sandusky was designed according to a grid plan, known as the Kilbourne Plat after its designer. The original street pattern featured a grid overlaid with streets resembling the symbols of Freemasonry, hector Kilbourne was a surveyor who laid out this grid in downtown Sandusky. He was the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge known as Science Lodge #50 and it is still in operation on Wayne Street. Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad on September 17,1835, Battery Park Marina is located on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed, most of the downtown industrial area is being re-used for other purposes, including mainly marina dockage. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way, the English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, and briefly wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes.
We put up at a little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night. The town, which was sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season, the city was a center of paper-making
Earl Edwin Morrall was an American football player who was a quarterback in the National Football League for twenty-one seasons. Morrall, who occasionally punted, played 21 seasons in the National Football League as both a starter and reserve, in the latter capacity, he became known as one of the greatest backup quarterbacks in NFL history. Morrall made Pro Bowl appearances following the 1957 and 1968 seasons, Morrall led Muskegon High School in Muskegon, Michigan to a state football championship in 1951. Morrall attended Michigan State University, where he played three seasons for the Michigan State Spartans football team, leading them to a 9–1 record in the 1955 season and he capped his senior year with a victory over the UCLA Bruins in the 1956 Rose Bowl. Morrall played baseball at Michigan State and played in the College World Series as a shortstop and he was offered the opportunity to play professional baseball but chose instead to play football. In his more than two decades on the gridiron, Morrall played for six different teams, starting with his rookie year in 1956 as a first-round selection by the San Francisco 49ers.
On September 16,1957, he was traded along with guard Mike Sandusky to the Pittsburgh Steelers in exchange for linebacker Marv Matuszak and two first-round draft picks. Despite the high cost of the transaction, the Steelers traded Morrall just over a year to the Detroit Lions in order to obtain future Hall of Famer Bobby Layne. Morrall was with the Lions for the six years, having his best season in 1963 by throwing for 24 touchdowns. The following year, he suffered a shoulder injury in an October 18 contest against the Chicago Bears. After spending the off-season rehabilitating from his injury, Morrall was dealt to the New York Giants as part of a transaction on August 30,1965. Enduring his role during the Giants rebuilding phase, Morrall threw for 2,446 yards and 22 touchdowns that season, on August 25,1968, he was traded to the Baltimore Colts for an undisclosed draft choice. When regular Colts signal caller Johnny Unitas was injured in the exhibition game. Morrall proceeded to lead the Colts to a 13-1 record, added two victories en route to winning the NFLs Most Valuable Player award, leading the Colts into Super Bowl III.
However, in one of sports greatest upsets, the Colts lost 16-7 to the New York Jets, wide receiver Jimmy Orr was wide open near the end zone, but Morrall inexplicably didnt see Orr. His throw down the middle was short and picked off by Jim Hudson to blunt the Colts momentum, on April 25,1972, Morrall was claimed on waivers for $100 by the Miami Dolphins, reuniting him with his former Colt head coach, Don Shula. Shula described Morrall as an intelligent quarterback whos won a lot of games for me. Morrall replaced the injured Bob Griese for the Dolphins during the teams October 15 win over the San Diego Chargers
Glenn Edward Bo Schembechler, Jr. was an American football player and athletics administrator. He served as the football coach at Miami University from 1963 to 1968 and at the University of Michigan from 1969 to 1989. Only Joe Paterno and Tom Osborne have recorded 200 victories in games as a coach in major college football. In his 21 seasons as the coach of the Michigan Wolverines, Schembechlers teams amassed a record of 194–48–5. Though his Michigan teams never won a championship, in all but one season they finished ranked. In his first ten years at Michigan, Schembechlers teams squared off in a rivalry against Hayess Buckeyes squads. In 1988, Schembechler assumed the role of director at Michigan, succeeding Don Canham. Schembechler retired as football coach after the 1989 season. His longtime assistants, Gary Moeller and Lloyd Carr, helmed the team for the next 18 years, Schembechler left the University of Michigan in 1990 to take a job as president of Major League Baseballs Detroit Tigers, which he held until 1992.
He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1993, during his years, Schembechler remained in Southeast Michigan and hosted a sports radio show. He died in 2006 at the age of 77 on the eve of that years Michigan–Ohio State football game, Schembechler was born and raised in Barberton, Ohio, a suburb of Akron. His nickname Bo came from his sisters attempts to say brother when they were young children, Schembechlers father took the exam without having received the answers, missed one more question than the other applicant, and did not receive the promotion he coveted. Schembechler often told the story, saying the experience taught him more about integrity than any lecture ever could have, hard work and integrity were two themes of Schembechlers career. Schembechler attended Miami University in Oxford, Ohio and he played football under two legendary, and completely different, coaches. Sid Gillman, his first coach at Miami, was an offensive mind. His concepts helped to form the foundation for footballs West Coast offense, prior to Schembechlers last season, Gillman departed to become head coach at the University of Cincinnati.
He was replaced by the renowned and fiery Woody Hayes, who could not have been more unlike Gillman, Hayes embraced the run, eschewed the pass, and demanded tough, physical play from his linemen. Rather than innovation, Hayes stressed repetition—he wanted his players to run each play flawlessly, over the next forty years, Hayes impact on his young protege was clearly evident
The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football.
The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball.
An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie